Evictions - a Hidden Social Problem.Comparative Evidence fromModern Welfare States.Sten-Åke StenbergSwedish Institute for ...
An eviction is the ultimate  consequence of a conflict  between a landlord and a tenant.The relationship is regulated by a...
The eviction process1. A notice to quit from the landlord to the tenant2. The landlord takes the case to court3. Summary P...
The eviction processThis formalized process is not the only way atenant can become homeless.Long before the bailiff stands...
Evictions in the literature  Computerized bibliography searches of  appropriate electronic databases  Biased towards studi...
Table 1. Data sourcesSource                       CoverageCinahl                       1981-Criminal Justice Abstracts   1...
Table 2. Search termsTopic       Policy area   Legal areaEviction*   Housing*      Tenant*            Apartment*    Landlo...
Flow chart of the search/inclusionprocess         Electronic database              searches                n=10           ...
Magnitude of evictionsStatistics published in local languages.Statistics are mostly collected for administrative  reasons....
Possible explanations forinternational variation1. Composition of housing market2. Number of households with leases(homele...
Possible explanations forinternational variation4. Social policy- Social security- Housing benefits- Social housing- Care ...
Table 3. Number of proceedings to court,court orders and executed evictions.                                              ...
Table 4. Number of proceedings to court, court orders andexecuted evictions by population size and housing stockLegal     ...
The NetherlandsRent arrears1. Immediately a letter reminding the   tenant2. After 6-8 weeks households are   informed of t...
The Netherlands3. The bailiff is contacted by the landlord after 10   to 12 weeks.4. If households do not cooperate, and t...
The NetherlandsSocial rent sector 2.4 million dwellings2007: 237,000 households had rent arrears and22,605 received an evi...
The NetherlandsReasons for evictions (n=8,550)  rent arrears                      78 %  illegal subletting                ...
SwedenRent arrears1. Notice to quit 7 days after the rent is due, at thesame time the landlord must inform the local socia...
Sweden  Applications to bailiffs   Executed evictions2000:         13,955         5,055 (36%)2008:         9,458          ...
SwedenJanuary-June      Evictions   Households with children2008: 1,530       381   (25%)2009: 1,525       343   (22%)
Evictions in Sweden                                                                         Figure 2. Evictions in Sweden ...
Conclusions• Evictions are a hidden social problem• Evictions are neglected by scholars   – 10 data bases: 275 articles: 4...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Evictions a Hidden Social Problem: Comparative evidence from Modern Welfare States

577 views

Published on

Presentation given by Sten-Åke Stenberg, Swedish institute for Social Research, Sweden and Igor van Laere, GGD Municipal Public Health Service, Amsterdam, Netherlands at a FEANTSA Research Conference on "Homelessness and Poverty", Paris, France, 2009

Published in: Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
577
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
11
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Evictions a Hidden Social Problem: Comparative evidence from Modern Welfare States

  1. 1. Evictions - a Hidden Social Problem.Comparative Evidence fromModern Welfare States.Sten-Åke StenbergSwedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI)Igor van LaereDr Valckenier outreach practice for homeless peopleGGD Municipal Public Health Service Amsterdam
  2. 2. An eviction is the ultimate consequence of a conflict between a landlord and a tenant.The relationship is regulated by a lease.If the tenant violates the lease the landlord can terminate the tenancy for cause.An eviction is the removal of a tenant from the premises of a landlord.In most cases the grounds are nonpayment of rent (70-90 %), anti-social behavior accounts for 5 %.A substantial share of these households ends up in homelessness
  3. 3. The eviction process1. A notice to quit from the landlord to the tenant2. The landlord takes the case to court3. Summary Proceeding, Unlawful Detainer, Accelerated Possession Procedure4. If eviction is granted, it is handed over to an executive authority/a law enforcement officer (bailiff, sheriff, marshall etc.).5. Eviction executed (Other aspects like interventions from social authorities.)
  4. 4. The eviction processThis formalized process is not the only way atenant can become homeless.Long before the bailiff stands on the doorstep inorder to execute an eviction, tenants may simplygive up and move.If statistics about formal evictions is rudiment inmost countries, we know next to nothing aboutthese “informal” evictions.
  5. 5. Evictions in the literature Computerized bibliography searches of appropriate electronic databases Biased towards studies written in English and published literature indexed by the electronic database systems
  6. 6. Table 1. Data sourcesSource CoverageCinahl 1981-Criminal Justice Abstracts 1968-EconLit 1969ERIC 1966-IBSI 1951-Political Science Complete -PsycINFO 1840-Social Services Abstracts 1980-Sociological Abstracts 1952- 6
  7. 7. Table 2. Search termsTopic Policy area Legal areaEviction* Housing* Tenant* Apartment* Landlord* Dwelling* Lease* Notice to quit Possession* Proceeding* Bailiff* Marshall* Sheriff* Self help Distraint* Foreclosure* Arear 7
  8. 8. Flow chart of the search/inclusionprocess Electronic database searches n=10 Eviction subordinate Potentially relevant studies n=76 n=274 News articles n=13 Eviction in focus n=40 8
  9. 9. Magnitude of evictionsStatistics published in local languages.Statistics are mostly collected for administrative reasons.Numbers only given for some of the stages in the process
  10. 10. Possible explanations forinternational variation1. Composition of housing market2. Number of households with leases(homelessness)3. Legal system - The regulated time period between the rentarrear and when the landlord can file the case incourt- Duration of the process: Civil law countrieshave longer duration compared to common lawcountries
  11. 11. Possible explanations forinternational variation4. Social policy- Social security- Housing benefits- Social housing- Care for mentally deranged- Quality signaling and referral systems to support problem households
  12. 12. Table 3. Number of proceedings to court,court orders and executed evictions. Housing stock Pop. 15 years and Proceedings Orders Executed older Total Rental  ScandinavianDenmark 20,622 3,762 4,378 2600 900Finland 7,328 1,448 4,301 2600 900Sweden 35,174 3,004 7,378 4400 2000GermanAustria 43,192 30,171 13,411 6,851 3300 1400FrenchNetherlands 22,605 8,550 13,250 6800 3100Portugal 17,186 3,651 5300 1100Spain 3,637 14,428 21000 2300SocialistPoland 6,563 5,040 2,527 13,337 12700 2900EnglishUK 161,422 117,357 24,200 25600 7800 12
  13. 13. Table 4. Number of proceedings to court, court orders andexecuted evictions by population size and housing stockLegal Duration Proceedings to court Orders Executedorigin/Country from filing of complaint to eviction Pop. 15 Total Rental Pop. 15 Total Rental Pop. 15 Total Rental year and housing year and housing year and housing older stock older stock older stockScandinavianDenmark 225 - - 4.71 7.83 17.02 0.13 1.43 3.10Finland 120 1.70 2.85 8.37 - - - 0.34 0.56 1.66Sweden 187 4.77 8.08 18.80 - - - 0.41 0.69 1.61GermanAustria 547 6.31 13.17 32.92 4.40 9.20 23.0 1.96 4.09 10.22FrenchNetherlands 52 - - - 1.71 3.32 7.29 0.65 1.26 2.73Portugal 330 - - - 1.95 3.23 15.39 - - -Spain 183 0.10 0.17 1.58 - - - - - -SocialistPoland 1080 0.21 0.52 2.07 0.16 0.40 1.59 0.08 0.21 0.80EnglishUK 115 3.31 6.31 20.33 2.40 4.58 14.78 - - - 13
  14. 14. The NetherlandsRent arrears1. Immediately a letter reminding the tenant2. After 6-8 weeks households are informed of the possibility of seeking assistance from a debt control agency. It is the tenant’s responsibility to contact the agency!
  15. 15. The Netherlands3. The bailiff is contacted by the landlord after 10 to 12 weeks.4. If households do not cooperate, and the financial situation is not solved within the next 2 to 4 weeks, the household will be presented to the judge for a court order for evictionTotally ~ 6 months from rent arrear to eviction
  16. 16. The NetherlandsSocial rent sector 2.4 million dwellings2007: 237,000 households had rent arrears and22,605 received an eviction court order (0.9%).Evictions:1995: 6,020 (0.25 %)2005: 8,134 (0.34 %)2007: 8,550 (0.36 %)
  17. 17. The NetherlandsReasons for evictions (n=8,550) rent arrears 78 % illegal subletting 10 % nuisance / anti-social behavior 5% illegal cannabis production 4% non specified reasons 2%
  18. 18. SwedenRent arrears1. Notice to quit 7 days after the rent is due, at thesame time the landlord must inform the local socialauthorities.2. If the rent is paid within 3 weeks after the notice toquit the tenant regains the lease.3.Two business days after the three week period thebailiff can make a decision of eviction.Totally 1-2 months from rent arrear to eviction
  19. 19. Sweden Applications to bailiffs Executed evictions2000: 13,955 5,055 (36%)2008: 9,458 4,713 (50%)Households with children2008: 2,365 718 (30%)
  20. 20. SwedenJanuary-June Evictions Households with children2008: 1,530 381 (25%)2009: 1,525 343 (22%)
  21. 21. Evictions in Sweden Figure 2. Evictions in Sweden 1970-2008 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 Proceedings to courtsNumber Applications to bailiffs 20000 Executed evictions 15000 10000 5000 0 1972 1978 1994 2000 2006 1970 1974 1976 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1996 1998 2002 2004 Year 2008 21
  22. 22. Conclusions• Evictions are a hidden social problem• Evictions are neglected by scholars – 10 data bases: 275 articles: 40 evictions in focus• No international comparisons possible• Internal eviction geography is needed• Call for comparable monitor systems• Call for integral scientific approach

×