Joint Centre for Scottish               Housing Research           Homelessness      A European Perspective              B...
Overview of Presentation   Understanding Homelessness   Country Perspectives and State   Responses   European Social Model
Nature of Homelessness   SCALE   –   3 million sleeping rough   –   15 million inadequately housed   PERSISTENCE   –   Gro...
Understanding HomelessnessHomelessness =Socio-demographic change           : composition+   Economic restructuring   : hou...
Weakly Regulated HousingMarkets (1)   Promotion of home ownership   De-regulation of rented sector   –   rent control   – ...
Weakly Regulated HousingMarkets (2)   Subsidy shift   –   supply to consumption subsidies   –   regressive impacts   Reduc...
Changing Welfare State in Europe1945                                           2005WELFARE PROCTECTION         WELFARE ASS...
Understanding HomelessnessPOLICYCONTEXT             Welfare               Socio-          retrenchment           demograph...
Factors leading to Homelessness    CAUSES             FACTORS               TRIGGERS          SUPPORT FOCUS  STRUCTURAL   ...
more       Central       EuropeH                Southern EuropeO                                                   Atlanti...
Country Perspectives   Nordic   –   Homelessness is ‘Social Problem’ not housing   Continental   –   Germany - relaxed hou...
Policy Context and Gray Areas   Welfare Policy Gaps   –   Homeless hostels services of last resort ?   –   Policy pathways...
Housing Integration                                              Community cohesion,                                      ...
Accommodation and Support                                                          Support Dimension                      ...
ETHOS DefinitionRoofless           Rough Sleeping                   Night shelterHouseless          Hostel / temporary acc...
European Social Model   Economic Model   –   Poverty   –   Labour market integration   –   Infrastructure (including housi...
NAPs/Inclusion   Improved Measurement / Indicators   Establish Targets   Range of Policies reflecting nature of   housing ...
INTERPLAY OF TRHEESPHERES                          MARKET                   Polarisation, winners and                     ...
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Homelessness: A European Perspective

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Presentation given by Bill Edgar at a FEANTSA Seminar on "What Action is Europe taking to Tackle Homelessness?", hosted by the European Parliament, May 2005

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Homelessness: A European Perspective

  1. 1. Joint Centre for Scottish Housing Research Homelessness A European Perspective Bill EdgarEuropean Observatory on Homelessness FEANTSA
  2. 2. Overview of Presentation Understanding Homelessness Country Perspectives and State Responses European Social Model
  3. 3. Nature of Homelessness SCALE – 3 million sleeping rough – 15 million inadequately housed PERSISTENCE – Growing problem – Endemic not transitory experience PROFILE – Changing composition – Young, Old, Women, Immigrants / Ethnic
  4. 4. Understanding HomelessnessHomelessness =Socio-demographic change : composition+ Economic restructuring : housing vulnerability+ Housing restructuring : deregulation+ Welfare retrenchment : support
  5. 5. Weakly Regulated HousingMarkets (1) Promotion of home ownership De-regulation of rented sector – rent control – risk reduction in social housing Rising costs and affordability of housing
  6. 6. Weakly Regulated HousingMarkets (2) Subsidy shift – supply to consumption subsidies – regressive impacts Reduction in state provision State withdrawal – expenditure reduction – decentralisation – privatisation of social housing companies
  7. 7. Changing Welfare State in Europe1945 2005WELFARE PROCTECTION WELFARE ASSISTANCE universal provision means tests, targeted WELFARE AS CONTROL ‘PARTICIPATORY’ WELFARE ‘normalisation’ user involvement etc
  8. 8. Understanding HomelessnessPOLICYCONTEXT Welfare Socio- retrenchment demographic Economic restructuring HISTORIC CONTEXT
  9. 9. Factors leading to Homelessness CAUSES FACTORS TRIGGERS SUPPORT FOCUS STRUCTURAL Poverty Debts Unemployment Financial Crisis PREVENTION Housing Eviction (arrears) Eviction (behaviour) INSTITUTIONAL Institutional Living Leaving care HOUSING FOCUS Foster / State Care Leaving Care Prison Experience Leaving prison Armed Forces Forces discharge RELATIONSHIP Abusive relationship Leaving family (childhood) home Abusive relationship (with a partner) Fleeing violent Family Breakdown relationship (death or Coping with living separation) alone CARE FOCUS PERSONAL Mental Illness Deterioration / illness episode Learning Difficulty Support breakdown Drug Dependency Substance Misuse REINTEGRATION Alcohol Dependency Substance Misuse
  10. 10. more Central EuropeH Southern EuropeO AtlanticUS ContinentalING moreP lessROBLE Cyprus &M Malta Nordic &S ?? Netherlands less SUPPORT PROBLEMS
  11. 11. Country Perspectives Nordic – Homelessness is ‘Social Problem’ not housing Continental – Germany - relaxed housing market – France - SRU legislation / housing rights Mediterranean – State Role and Family Role changing EU-10 – Structural and Housing issues Atlantic – Housing + Support
  12. 12. Policy Context and Gray Areas Welfare Policy Gaps – Homeless hostels services of last resort ? – Policy pathways? Co-ordination / Inter-agency Working – Health, Social Work, Justice system, Housing? – Institutional pre-release procedures? Service Delivery Failures – Support provision / funding? – Inappropriate accommodation (communal)? – Staffing culture and training?
  13. 13. Housing Integration Community cohesion, neighbourhood facilities,Supports support network Extended family/friendsTenancies Race support Equality/ Non Violence Self-esteem, perception of control Structural Institutional Interpersonal Individual Limited education, skills, history of persecution Segregatio Low socio-economic status, Lack of family support n, weak unemployment , and legal status segregation Undermines Adapted from WHO Fact Sheet No 239, June 2001). Tenancies
  14. 14. Accommodation and Support Support Dimension Need is for Need is for Permanent Support Transitional Support 1 2 High Risk learning disability of older people ex-offenders Institutional Living mentally ill (*)Accommodation Dimension 3 4 Low Risk physically disabled young people of HIV/AIDS vulnerable single parents Institutional women fleeing domestic Living alcohol / drug abusers (*) violence immigrants / ethnic minorities * Note : need for support which will fluctuate over time
  15. 15. ETHOS DefinitionRoofless Rough Sleeping Night shelterHouseless Hostel / temporary accommodation Women’s shelter Asylum / immigrants shelters Institutional release Supported housingInsecure Housing No tenancy Eviction orders Violence / threat Inadequately Temporary / illegal structures Housed Overcrowding Unfit for habitation
  16. 16. European Social Model Economic Model – Poverty – Labour market integration – Infrastructure (including housing) Social Model – Access to housing and support – Vulnerable groups – Mobilising all actors
  17. 17. NAPs/Inclusion Improved Measurement / Indicators Establish Targets Range of Policies reflecting nature of housing exclusion Integration Policies supported by local assessments of need Disseminate Good Practice Respond to changing needs
  18. 18. INTERPLAY OF TRHEESPHERES MARKET Polarisation, winners and losers Dependency and Responsibillity stigmatisation mismatch STATE HOUSEHOLDS/COMMUNITY

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