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Who are the French Homeless Families?

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Presentation given by Emmanuelle Guyavarch and Erwan Le Méner, France, at a FEANTSA Research Conference on "Migration, Homelessness and Demographic Change in Europe", Pisa, Italy, 2011

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Who are the French Homeless Families?

  1. 1. Who are the French Homeless Families ?Erwan Le Mé ner, Samusocial de Paris / ENS CachanEmmanuelle Guyavarch, Samusocial de Paris Interdisciplinary Center Sciences EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE for peace’ Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe Pisa, 16th September 2011
  2. 2. Contents Foreword: the ENFAMS action research project A growing but undocumented population A socio-demographic analysis of 115 homeless families Policy analysis Conclusion - A forthcoming public problem ? EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  3. 3. Foreword: the ENFAMS action research project Enfants et FAMilles Sans logement (homeless families and children) 2011-2013 research program including:  A policy analysis  An ethnographic fieldwork  An epidemiological and sociological survey Sponsors: Fondation Macif, Unicef France, Caisse Nationale des Allocations familiales EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  4. 4. Part 1 – A growing but undocumented population Survey figures 115 figures in Paris Scientific invisibility EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  5. 5. Survey figures (1)Tab. 1. Homeless Families in French surveys Survey Geographical Percentage of Reconstructed (main scale adults living estimation of reference) Tableau des diffé rentes enquêtes with children people living in families in Ile- de-FranceSD 1995 (Marpsat Paris urban area 8% ?and Firdion, 2000) SD 2001 France 22% > 6,600 (Brousse, 2006) Samenta 2009 Ile-de-France 24% >10,000 (Laporte and Chauvin 2010 EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  6. 6. Survey figures (2) Limitations:  Children don’t appear in the final census  Foreign langage speaking people are not interviewed  Hotel sampling data basis is partial Underestimation = source of invisibility EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  7. 7. 115 figures in Paris (1) 115 = emergency call center for homeless people (> hotels providing for homeless families) A unique source of data for longitudinal analysis Limitations: provider data (vs. surveys); geographical scale; representativeness EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  8. 8. 115 figures in Paris (2) Graph. 1. Evolution of the number of nights attributed and number of users, 115 in Paris, 1999-2010 1600000 14000 1400000 12000 1200000 10000 Number of nights Number of users 1000000 8000 800000 6000 600000 4000 400000 2000 200000 0 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 years Singles persons nights Famililes nights Single persons Persons counting as families 2010: Paris’s 115 has sheltered more parents and children than single adults EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  9. 9. Scientific invisibility A few instances Almost never a matter of interest A realistic and a constructivist account for this neglect EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  10. 10. Part 2 – A sociodemographicanalysis of 115 homeless families Sex and age ratios Family structure National origins EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  11. 11. Sex and age ratios (1)Graph. 2. 1999 sex and age ratios – single persons vs. parents and children(Source: 115 in Paris) 1999 80+ 75 Men 70 Women 65 60 55 50 45 Living in families 40 Single persons 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 700 500 300 100 100 300 500 700 EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  12. 12. Sex and age ratios (2)Graph. 3. 2010 sex and age ratios – single persons vs. parents and children(Source: 115 in Paris) 2010 80+ 75 Me 70 Women n 65 60 55 50 45 Living in families 40 35 Single persons 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 700 500 300 100 100 300 500 700 EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  13. 13. Family structureGraph. 4. The structure of 115 homeless families in 2010 (Source: 115 in Paris) Femme enceinte Autre Couple avec seule 1% femme enceinte 6% 3% Père seul avec enfant(s) 2% Couple avec enfant(s) 42% Mère seule avec enfant(s) 46% EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  14. 14. National originsGraph. 5. 2010 – The national origins of 115 homeless families (Source: 115 inParis) Amérique du Asie 11% Sud 1% Autre UE27 23% Europe 42% dont : France 12% Autre Europe 7% Afrique 47% EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  15. 15. Part 3 - Policy analysis Objectives and methodology The institutionalization of family administration The hotel system: just a substitute shelter? Social emergency: a public policies consequence ? EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  16. 16. Objectives and methodology Sundry publics, one emergency shelter system? Who do you what? For what? With what? For what results and consequences? 50/150 semi-structured interviews with public administrations and associations EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  17. 17. The institutionalization of family administration A system made for single males A few associations for a growing population; an early specialization State and local administrations’ bargainings Hotels = both a solution and a source of problems EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  18. 18. The hotel system: Just a substitute shelter? Map 1. Geographical distribution of 115 families Territorial inequalities nights, Ile-de-France, 2010 (Source : 115 de Paris) (see map 1) A multiscale revolving doors phenomenon Coordination at stake? EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  19. 19. Social emergency: a public policies consequence ? Who is accountable for these families ? Confusion of migration and homelessness policies Social emergency as a policy abeyance EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
  20. 20. Conclusion: A forthcoming public problem? Credit restrictions affecting homeless families (April-May, 2011) Politization of the debate: end of a decade of consensus ? Social movement “Homeless Families” on the public stage: “de- socialization” of public problems ? EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe

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