Issues and Challenges of Open Access


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Presentation at the Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU) Centenary Conference, held at Nanyang Executive Centre, Singapore, 14-15 Mar 2013

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Issues and Challenges of Open Access

  1. 1. ISSUES & CHALLENGES OF OPEN ACCESSChoy Fatt CheongUniversity LibrarianPresentation at the Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU) CentenaryConference, “Pushing the Research Frontier : Long Term Vision of ResearchPolicy” held at Nanyang Executive Centre , Singapore, 14-15 Mar 2013
  2. 2. To make all scholarly articlesfreely available onlineGOAL OF OPEN ACCESS
  3. 3. LibrariesUniversities & InstitutionsScholarsFreeProvide accessOPEN ACCESSARCHIVESGREEN ROUTEArticles freelyavailable in > 2,200repositories –discoverable onthe InternetInelastic supplyIncrease disciplines & therefore titles –small baseProfiteering?DUE TO :NTU LIBRARY – 2 Jun 2008 Rev 12 Apr 2013SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION CRISIS OPEN ACCESSArticles freelyavailable in 8,622peer reviewjournalsOPEN ACCESSJOURNALSGOLD ROUTEPublishersSign over copyrightPeer review
  4. 4. GOLD GREENRemove ACCESS / PRICE barrierDelivered by journals Delivered by repositorieshosted by institutionsFree access to articles injournalsFree access to articles inrepositories – discoverablethrough InternetCost of publishingcovered by authors,subsidies, etc.Availability of articlesdepends on self-archivingpolicies of publishers
  5. 5. GRATIS LIBRERemove PERMISSION barrierFREE TO ACCESS & FREE OF SOME ORALL COPYRIGHT & LICENSINGRESTRICTIONSCC-0CC-BYCC-BY-NCCC-BY-SAetc.FREE BUT ONLY PERMITOnline access, Reading,Linking, Downloading,Printing, Storing, Harvesting,IndexingCredit source!
  6. 6. GOLD ROUTEAdvantagesFree access to articles published in journals that are funded byauthor fees, subsidies and other meansExamples:BioMed Central (commercial), Public Library of SciencePLOS (not-for-profit), IOP (mix of pure & hybrid, CC-BY)Free access by readers immediately upon publication – noembargoNo additional effort needed by authors in archivingAllow for libre OA
  7. 7. GOLD ROUTEChallengesCost to institutionsCost to researcher- APC (Article processing charges) Range $8 – $3,900 USDAverage $904 USD(Solomon & Bjork, 2010)Paid out of research fundsPaid out of university allocated funds Introduce new layerof decision makingDiscounts and waivers 10% in PLOS(Patterson, 2011)Funds cannot be diverted from library budgets –subscriptions still need to fulfill most info needsIn the long run, publishers will also seek to maintainprofitability- Extra funding required (longer than short term)
  8. 8. GOLD ROUTEGrowth of predatory OA publishersLimit publishing for some authorsChallengesResearchers in less well-off institutions notable to publish at their optimal ability levelSimilarly for researchers in some disciplinesthat are not traditionally well fundedFuture publications dominated by well-fundedresearchers & certain disciplines?Most prestigious journals are subscription baseOA journals of dubious quality set up with the soleintention to collect APC (225 in Jeffrey Beall’s list – Dec 2012)
  9. 9. GREEN ROUTEPermission for archiving in repositoriesPeer reviewed postprints deposited in open repositories foraccess there or via InternetTypes of repositoriesInstitution based – usually university libraries – may containother materials e.g. theses, data files, audio & video files, etcDiscipline based – e.g. DRYAD (Bioscience). PUBMEDPublishers’ self-archiving policiesAuthor specify to publisher the retention of their rights onself-archiving (e.g. through author addenda)Funder’s mandate requirements
  10. 10. GREEN ROUTEAdvantagesChallengesRepositories relatively inexpensive to build and maintain,therefore sustainableRepositories using OAI protocol make their content easilydiscoverable via InternetContent include those from prestigious journalsArticles in repository is not the actual published version –content same, format different (accepted version)Embargoes imposed by publisher – prevent immediate use
  11. 11. GREEN ROUTEDifficult to implement Libre OAChallengesLow deposit ratesLittle incentive for researchers to submitInconvenience – finding accepted version and submittingConcern that mandate may adversely impact onresearchers’ ability to published in preferred journalsLow awarenessDependent on current subscription model of journalprovision (to feed the repositories)
  12. 12. OA MANDATESA policy by institutions and funding agencies that requiresresearchers to make available their publications for openaccessNTU Open Access Mandate (2011)Institutional mandates – 204Thesis mandates – 98Funder mandates – 80ROARMAP – 2013 Mar 13
  13. 13. OA MANDATESADVANTAGESSome interesting milestonesProvide strong incentive for researchers to make theirpublications open accessNational Institute of Health (2007) mandateFirst mandate from major US funding agency - Deposit to PUBMEDCentral - 12 months embargo - 75% compliance (2012, Poynder)Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences (2008) mandateResearch grant the university non-exclusive copyright license &distribute – led to 8 fold increase in number of mandatesFinch Report (2012)Favours gold routeResearch Council UK (RCUK)(2012)Accept both Gold and Green routes – 6 months embargo
  14. 14. Recent developmentsFASTR (Fair Access to Science and Technology Research) billintroduced in both houses of Congress (Feb 2013)OA MANDATESDirective from OSTP (White House) to develop OA mandateswithin 6 months (Feb 2013)FASTR OSTPGreen route, silent on Gold Green route, silent on GoldRequire libre OA Require libre OAEmbargo period – 6 months Embargo period – 12 monthsSilent on OA for data Require OA for data & metadataLegislation long term Directive immediate
  15. 15. MOVING OPEN ACCESS FORWARDNot-for-profit publishers needs funding to developand sustain Gold OA journalsMandates from funding agencies necessary forstrong impact in OA – both green and gold routesNeed to create greater awareness amongresearchers on Open Access movementRetain rights on self-archiving when transferringcopyright to publishersIncrease rate of submission to repositories – to increaseits collective value
  16. 16. THANK