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Two-wheel tractor, conservation agriculture and private sector involvement

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Two-wheel tractor, conservation agriculture and private sector involvement

  1. 1. Frédéric Baudron, Raymond Nazare, Betina Edziwa, David Kahan Harare, 17th March 2015 Two-wheel tractors, conservation agriculture, and private sector involvement
  2. 2.  Goal: (1) to improve access to mechanization, (2) reduce labour drudgery, and (3) minimize biomass trade-offs in ESA, through accelerated delivery and adoption of 2WT-based technologies by smallholders  Target countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Zimbabwe  Duration: March 2013 to February 2017  Budget: 3.9 M Aus$ from ACIAR/AIFSRC, 0.9 M Aus$ from CIMMYT, 1.1 M Aus$ from partners FACASI (Farm Mechanization & Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification)
  3. 3. (www.ndzl.org) Solar energy fixed biologically in plant biomass Plant biomass converted into animal biomass
  4. 4.  Increasing labour shortages (rural- urban migration, HIV/AIDS, ageing population)  Declining number of draught animals (biomass shortage, drought, diseases)  High labour drudgery  Gender implications  Unattractive to the youth  Farm power: a major limiting factor to productivity in SSA? Farm power: the forgotten resource in SSA?
  5. 5.  CA (No-Till) mainly adopted in South America, North America, Australia, & New Zealand (Derpsch and Friedrich, 2009)  One of the major incentive: reduction in fuel and machinery costs (Kassam et al., 2009)  Major incentive in the less mechanized systems in developing countries: early planting (arising from the reduced number of operations required to prepare the land) (Haggblade and Tembo, 2003)  Primary purpose of CA: establishing a crop with as little energy (= power × time) as possible CA: first and foremost an energy-saving technology
  6. 6. CA & Small Mech: Synergies Soil inversion is the most power intensive operation. Its suppression makes the use of lower powered, more affordable and easier to maintain tractors possible.
  7. 7. CA with a Two-Wheel Tractor: options commercially available Strip tillage Direct-seeding: 2 rows Direct-seeding: 1 row
  8. 8. Dramatic reduction in the time needed to establish a crop… 0 20 40 60 80 100 Conv land prep + planting Conv planting Danyang 2BFG VMP National ZT Fitarelli 2R Fitarelli 1R Morrisson seeder Time(hourha-1) (Data from Hawassa, Ethiopia)
  9. 9. Low fuel consumption 5 to 10 L ha-1
  10. 10. Yield advantage for small grain
  11. 11. Myth 1: Small mech is not appropriate for rainfed agriculture Not powerful enough for ploughing… … but perfect for direct seeding
  12. 12. Myth 2: animal traction is cheaper than small mech for SSF in SSA Time needed to establish a crop divided by 7 22 4 3 0 5 10 15 20 25 Anim trac conv ag Anim trac CA 2WT CA Time(hoursperha) 7.33 1.33 0.25 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Anim trac conv ag Anim trac CA 2WT CA Labourdemand (manday/ha) Labour productivity 5 to 30 times higher Same entry point cost 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Anim trac conv ag Anim trac CA 2WT CA Cost(US$) 2WT no till pllanter Anim trac no till planter Anim tract conv planter Anim trac plough 2WT 12HP 4 oxen 2530 2600 2800 2 1 6 hours per day 12 hours per day
  13. 13. (Baudron et al., submitted) The same energy is needed for 8 hours work of a pair of oxen weighing 300 kg each, ...and for the production of 10 L of milk (60 MJ) 69 28 3 No retention Less than 1 tone per ha 1 tone per ha or more 18 57 25 (Baudron et al., 2013)
  14. 14. Myth 3: Large mech is more efficient than small mech 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 4WT (80 HP) conv ag 4WT (80 HP) CA 2WT CA Fuelconsumption(Lper ha) Planting Discing Ploughing 63 15 6 Fuel consumption 2.5 to 10 times lower 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 4WT conv ag 4WT CA 2WT CA Cost(US$) 2WT no till pllanter 4WT 3 row no till planter 4WT 3 row planter 4WT disc harrow 4WT 2 disc plough 2WT 12HP 4WT (60 HP) 35590 21900 2800 Entry point cost 8 to 13 times lower 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 4WT conv ag 4WT CA 2WT CA Time(hoursperha) 5.65 0.85 2 Time needed to establish a crop divided by (0.4 to) 3
  15. 15. Myth 4: Small engines are totally new to SSF in SSA countries Supporting infrastructure (e.g. access to finance, repair services, replacement parts, fuel and lubricants) exists 1 grinding mills for 200 HH in Dombshawa 1 water pumps for 20 HH in Dombshawa Large number of two- and three-wheelers
  16. 16. Gender aspects  It is more about impact of mechanization on gender relations and dynamics than it is about the machines being used by women  Do we really need ‘women friendly’ machines?  Gender dynamics  Access to services (and extension, credit, etc)  Control over resources  Intra-household decision making  Gender division of labour  Values and assumptions (e.g. women expected to work hard and long hours)
  17. 17. The paradox: high labour intensity, but low demand articulation  Women supply most of the labour (e.g. in Western Kenya)  Women’s labour burden does not translate into articulation of demand for mechanization  Women have little control over financial resources (especially in female- headed households)  Women have little decision-making power (especially in male-headed households)  Women’s labour is not valued, and women’s high labour intensity is not recognized 19% 32% 23% 27% Men Women Children Hired
  18. 18. What tasks to mechanize in order to reduce women’s labour burden?  Direct positive effects  Mechanization of transport and post- harvest operations  Indirect positive effects  Men’s tasks that affect women’s tasks (e.g. timeliness of planting affecting weeding intensity)  Men’s tasks that require women to prepare and transport food to men working in the field  Substitution of mechanization to animal draught power, reducing the labour need for livestock feeding and manure collection
  19. 19. Small mech = Appropriate mech in most of SSA  Minimum negative social impact  Pro-poor (low entry point cost)  Equitable access (cheap service)  No need for land consolidation (2/3 of African farms smaller than 2 ha; Alteri, 2009)  No displacement of labour (mechanization of the most power-intensive operations only)  Minimimum negative environmental impacts  Climate smart (high fuel efficiency)  Minimum soil degradation (lower footprint, minimum tillage as a must in rainfed conditions)  Biodiversity (maintenance of heterogeneity at plot – e.g. trees – and landscape levels)
  20. 20. Small mech = Appropriate mech in most of SSA
  21. 21. Commercializing small mech to resource-constrained farmers  Private rural service providers  Only few farmers will be able to purchase machines individually  Not profitable for farmers to own machines unless they provide services  Multi-purpose uses (to maximize mechanization use rates)  Linking input BM to output BM (cash flow)  Bundling of services and products (to reduce the cost of mechanization services)  Possible need of a broker (weak markets, vulnerable farmers)
  22. 22. Multipurpose use of 2WTs  High demand for mechanization, even at low labour wage for:  Transport  Power-intensive operations that require little human control (e.g. shelling)  Power-intensive operations that are unprofitable when unmechanized (e.g. water pumping)  Entry points?
  23. 23. Several models… 1. Group owner/ operator model (KEN, TAN) 2. Group owner/ individual operator model (TAN) 3. Individual owner/ operator model – local market, part time SP (farmer to farmer) (ETH, KEN) 4. Individual owner/ operator model – wider market, full time SP (ETH) 5. Contract farming – corporate owner/ operator model (ZIM) 6. Dealer-led vertically integrated model (KEN, ZIM) 7. Dealer-led collaborative model (ETH) 8. Manufacturer-led vertically integrated model (TAN) 9. Manufacturer-led collaborative model (TAN)
  24. 24. Steps 1. Identifying tasks to be mechanized (low labor productivity and/or high labor drudgery, likely demand) 2. Identifying/manufacturing suitable machines 3. Creating demand (incentives for commercial actors) 4. Building capacity and skills for mechanization and business (machines owned by farmers at an early stage, entrepreneurs specialized in hiring services later) 5. Linking to finance
  25. 25. Thank you!

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