A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
FORUM FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IN AFRIC...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The development of t...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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31 countries in SSA which were survey...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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subsistence farming. Several organiz...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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CGIAR IARCs are also quite active in ...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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debate it taking short (5-10 years), m...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.....
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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3.2.2 Urbanization.....................
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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FOR AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA.............
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1: Public Agri...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: Full-time ...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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LIST OF BOXES
Box 1.1 IAC’s Five Key ...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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AAS Agricultural Advisory Services
A...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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EMBRAPA Empresa Brasileira de Pesqu...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NP...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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CHAPTER ONE
SCOPE FOR A NEW SCIENCE AG...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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remunerative, high-valued products.
It...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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resources and impinge on their livelih...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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Process - an initiative of three group...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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ready for guiding an enhanced applicat...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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physical and social relationships that...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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Thus, alongside embracing research and...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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CAADP will not achieve its aims and FA...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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potential to shape its work programme ...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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As noted above, agricultural research...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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Box 1.1 IAC’s Five Key Strategies
IAC...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft).
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Box 1.2 Key Messages of IAASTD
Key Me...
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)
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A discussion paper on the development of a Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (SAAA): a long term strategic framework. This Discussion Paper raises substantive questions as they relate to the essential ingredients of a long-term strategic framework for a SAAA, and invites a discourse around these issues and questions.

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A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft)

  1. 1. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). FORUM FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IN AFRICA (FARA) A Discussion Paper on the Development of a SCIENCE AGENDA FOR AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA: A LONG TERM STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK
  2. 2. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). i EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The development of the SAAA stems from the strong recognition of the importance of S&T in improving agricultural productivity, as evidenced by the commitments under CAADP Pillar IV. In January and March 2013 two meetings involving groups of experts, largely from within Africa produced a detailed work plan and methodology for the formulation of the Science Agenda. - The outcome of these meetings is known as the Accra Consensus on the development of the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa(SAAA or S3A]. The management of the process for the formulation of the SAAA, which is Africa-owned and Africa led, is overseen by an Oversight Group (OG) which operates under the overall superintendence of the FARA Board. Under the OG, an Expert Panel (EP) has been entrusted with broad stakeholder consultation as well as the drafting of the Science Agenda. A smaller group within the EP known as the Synthesis Team of the EP (STEP) has been assigned the task of developing a series of documents that would provide the framework for soliciting technical inputs from different stakeholders. The preparation of this Discussion Paper(DP)and the ensuing deliberations on it is the first step in the process of formulating the SAAA with the active engagement of all relevant stakeholders and in accordance with the principles set out in the FAAP. It is expected that the process, will culminate with the presentation of the SAAA at the African Union Summit in July 2014. The DP is expected to inform and start a dialogue among key stakeholders of the agricultural sector, a discussion that will conclude with the development of a long-term strategic framework that puts a premium on science, technology and innovations in agricultural development within Africa. The major point of departure for this DP is the realization that a productive and efficient food and agricultural sector in Africa is essential for sustainable economic growth, food and nutritional security, as well as for political stability. It is also recognized that Science can help deliver on these long-term national and regional goals of growth and stability. The purpose of the science strategy is, therefore, to advocate the importance of science as part of the transformation process of agriculture in Africa. In this respect it seeks to influence African leaders, policymakers, research and science administrators, producer organizations and agribusiness entrepreneurs to take decisive and informed measures that would enable Science play its part accordingly. This DP raises substantive questions as they relate to the essential ingredients of a long-term strategic framework for a SAAA, and invites a discourse around these issues and questions. The Paper only synthesizes some of the salient issues that have a bearing on a SAAA; it doesn’t claim to be an original piece of work. Neither does it claim to be an exhaustive document ready for guiding an enhanced application of Science to agriculture in Africa. Its primary purpose thus framed is rather to provoke responses and comments as well as invite contributions and fresh insights. In short, the Discussion Paper is tailored in such a way as to allow absorption and reflection as well as reactions by a wide array of stakeholders involved in the development of agriculture in Africa. Specifically, the DP and the ensuing process for its discussion amongst key stakeholders aim at generating interest in, and encourage thoughts and insights on key questions such as: (a) how can science be pursued to address the needs of farmers and other operators along the value chain at different scales of operation? (b) What type of science and associated priority thematic areas are needed to support the transformation of agriculture in Africa? (c) What would be a more effective organizational architecture and the human capacity development needs and environment within which science could be pursued and delivered? (d) What are the key policy considerations that need to be taken into account in terms of facilitating innovation, technology generation and transfer to end users and its utilization by them? (e) How can the levels and sources of investment in science be determined that could best make a difference in the long-term? “Science Agenda” refers to the science, technology, extension, innovations; policy and social learning that Africa needs to apply in order to meet its evolving agricultural development goals. “Agriculture” in this context is understood as comprising the thematic focus areas within CAADP. The Science Agenda’s perspective will encompass the breadth of science, the meaningful engagements between disciplines (inter- disciplinary and multi-disciplinary) and the effective transfer of the outcomes of science to end users that are necessary to unlock the potential of agriculture in Africa. It will be presented in such a way as to guide not only the funding levels and priority areas for investments in Science, but also the strengthening and management of the people, institutions and institutional infrastructure that are necessary to transform Africa’s agriculture .Streamlining the agricultural research scene through reducing duplication and strengthening synergies and complementarities between agricultural research systems at all levels - national, sub- regional, continental, and global - is a critical long- term outcome expected of the Agenda. It should, in particular, aim at engendering effective partnerships between NARIs and educational institutions within AU Member States and between NARIs, SROs and international agricultural research systems, including the CGIAR centres and programs, non-CGIAR international centres and Advanced Research Institutes(ARIs], as well as research institutes in the global South The current agricultural research and innovation landscape in African countries is characterized by a myriad of institutions with responsibility for the planning, financing and implementation of agricultural research and transfer of technology programs. At the national level the publicly-funded national agricultural research institutions(NARIs)and universities dominate the scene employing over 90% of the 12,120 full-time-equivalent(FTE)scientists employed in
  3. 3. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). ii 31 countries in SSA which were surveyed in 2008. Of these 44% were employed in four countries - Nigeria, Ethiopia; Sudan and Kenya - with each having over 1000 FTE scientists. The rest were employed in 27 other countries with three countries(South Africa, Tanzania and Ghana)having between 500-1000 FTE scientists]; 15 countries having between 100 to 500 and 10 countries having less than 100 FTE scientists thus demonstrating the small size of the research systems in most countries of SSA. These national systems are required to work on a wide range of commodities and factors in different agro-ecological zones and for a variety of farming communities. Further only 30% of the researchers employed in the 31 countries had PhD qualifications while 43% had MSc qualifications and the remaining 27% had only BSc level training. Also linkages at the national level between research institutes, faculties/colleges of agricultural sciences and the agricultural advisory services(AAS)are quite weak in most SSA countries. The allocation of resources among various areas of research shows, in a 30-country sample, that in 2008, 45% of the FTE researchers were undertaking research on crops whereas 20% were involved in livestock research. Natural resources research accounted for 8%, while fisheries and forestry accounted for 7% each with the remaining 15% focused on other areas, including socio-economics and areas related to on-farm postharvest practices. These figures reveal that resources are thinly spread on many commodities and factors, especially in the small national systems, leading to lack of a critical mass of scientists as well as of economies of scale and scope in many of the national R & D programs. This in turn leads to not only the national systems being unable to efficiently and effectively conduct their own R & D programs which have impact but also being unable to exploit and/or adapt spill-ins of science and technology from neighbouring countries and/or from the sub-regional, continental and international systems. The key question here is how to organize these small national R & D and innovation systems to be able to optimally exploit and package the outputs of their own research efforts in combination with the in-flows of science and technology from outside their own boundaries for maximum impact to their agricultural sector. While the IARCs(both the CGIAR and non-CGIAR ones]; ARIs(from OECD and from other developing countries)and ‘centres of excellence’ in neighbouring countries may develop a lot of excellent scientific and technological outputs, these will have little impact if the national systems are not organized to adapt and utilize them for the benefit of their farmers. In 2008, the SSA region spent $1.7 billion on agricultural R&D (in 2005 purchasing power parity dollars)—or $0.8 billion (in 2005 constant US dollars) which was almost 20% higher than the levels recorded in 2001 and marks a considerable shift away from the slow 1.0% annual growth in agricultural R&D investments recorded in the 1990s1 . Most of this growth, however, occurred in only a few countries and, in the main, was due to increased government commitments to increase very low salary levels and to repair and restore poorly maintained infrastructure, often following years of underinvestment. In 2008, SSA invested $0.61 for every $100 of agricultural output on average, which was below NEPAD’s national R&D investment target of at least 1 percent of GDP. Of the 31 countries surveyed for which data were available only 8(or 25%)met this 1 percent target which had been agreed at the 2004 AU Summit held in Khartoum, Sudan. The Government funds most of the agricultural R & D activities in some countries while other countries are highly dependent on external funding and other sources such as selling of goods and services, subventions from producer organizations and the private sector which is active in the seed sector in a number of countries. Financing of agricultural R & D will remain a key issue which will influence the direction and content of the Science Agenda at the national level in most African countries for the foreseeable future. Agricultural extension, a key component of the innovation system, plays a pivotal role in promoting productivity, increasing food security, strengthening rural communities, and underpinning agriculture as the engine of pro-poor economic growth. Globally, extension has proven itself to be a cost-effective means of achieving higher economic returns for farmers with significant and positive effects on knowledge adoption and productivity. However, a significant gap in the innovation system in many countries in Africa is the lack of coordination between research (the production of technology) and extension (the transmission of knowledge and information to the farmers). The structure of the agricultural advisory services (AAS) sector in Africa is highly diverse, and encompasses a wide range of individuals and organizations, including both the public and the private sectors, and a significant number of civil society organizations. Nonetheless, over the past four decades the AAS sector in Africa has undergone some important changes including: (i) Dramatic reforms of public AAS suppliers after the 1980s, often as a result of structural adjustment programs ii) A rapid increase of advisory services provided by NGOs and the private sector providing services to producers and agriculturally linked entrepreneurs. (iii) The establishment and development of producer organizations which are increasingly providing extension services. The AAS sector faces several challenges including, among others: (a) low levels of investment in the sector especially in the public-sector and NGO–provided services, resulting in low coverage and possibly insufficient reach to remote areas; and (b) insufficient differentiation of types of services which should be offered to actual and potential clients and a related weak balance between services provided to farmers capable of and willing to engage in commercial farming, and farmers barely able to survive on 1 Ibid.
  4. 4. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). iii subsistence farming. Several organizations have taken up the challenge to promote a stronger AAS sector, like the Global Forum on Rural Advisory Services (GFRAS) at the global level; and the African Forum on AAS (AFAAS) at continental level, however more action is required at the national and sub–regional levels. Above the national level, Africa has a long history of organizing agricultural research on a regional basis with some of the regional structures having started under colonial rulers on a commodity basis and continued to operate following independence in the 1960s and have evolved since then. However, since the mid - 1980s there has been a renewed emphasis on sub-regional organizations designed to strengthen agricultural research coordination between the national agricultural research systems, share information, build capacity and achieve economies in the use of research resources. These efforts were spearheaded by the Special Program for African Agricultural Research(SPAAR)which developed, in early 1990s, the Framework for Action(FFA)for agricultural research in Africa which had as one of its main objectives as fostering of ‘.Co-operation in agricultural research on a regional level in order to achieve greater efficiency through economies of scale and scope..’. This objective followed on the experience of cooperation in the SADC region where the Southern African Centre for Cooperation in Agricultural Research (SACCAR) had been established in 1984 and in the West and Central African Council for Agricultural Research and Development (WECARD/CORAF) which was created in 1987. The Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Central and Eastern Africa (ASARECA) and CARDESA were formed in 1995 and 2012, respectively. The need for regional cooperation is because many countries in the region have small economies and limited capacities and resources to undertake their own basic and applied research. For this and other reasons, greater regional cooperation in R&D offers important economies of scale and scope and hence the need to establish these Sub Regional Organizations (SROs) to provide the institutional infrastructure for cooperation. The SROs have grappled with the problem of country buy-in and funding, but have gradually secured regional cooperation around CAADP and the Framework for African Agricultural Productivity (FAAP]. Donors have supported the SROs through sub-regionally based programs such as World Bank funded and coordinated the East African and West African Agricultural Productivity Programs (EAAPP and WAAPP) which have been operating over the past five years, and a similar program is being proposed for Southern Africa. Sub-regional cooperation in research will help promote regional integration and increase productivity, but at this early stage, some questions still remain. These include, among others, the high transaction costs based on the numerous institutional and administrative barriers that need to be managed and coordinated. FARA which was established in 1997 by the three SROs(i.e. ASARECA; CORAF & SACCAR)has as its value proposition ‘… to provide a strategic platform that will foster continental and global networking that reinforces the capacities of Africa’s national agricultural research systems and sub-regional organizations.’ Its specific objective is to contribute to sustainable improvements of broad-based agricultural productivity, competitiveness and markets in Africa. FARA has a mandate from the African Union Commission (AUC) to serve as the technical arm of the Department of Rural Economy and Agriculture (DREA), in addressing agricultural research and development issues in Africa FARA, through its Secretariat, has accepted responsibility to ensure the delivery of new knowledge and evidence of investing in agricultural research and development. This is what underpins FARA’s support to the implementation of Pillar IV at country and sub-regional levels. Also at the regional level are other players such AU/IBAR(which played a big role in the eradication of Rinderpest in Africa)as well as other Pan-Africa research and education initiatives such AFAS; AATF; ANAFE; RUFORUM, the former SAFGRAD etc. However, despite the existence of FARA, and the SROs there is still a lot which needs to be done in the coordination of agricultural research in the Africa.2 The region needs a broader approach to address many of the challenges that require coordinated actions by different actors in order to spur productivity and income growth. Experience to-date suggests that neither the top-down approach nor a decentralized approach has been that effective – there is still some way to go in the task of creating an institutional architecture which facilitates efficient and effective synergies and complementarities of the efforts by the different players at the national, sub-regional, continental and global levels in AR4D in Africa. At the international level there are two groups of institutions – (a) The International Agricultural Research Centers (IARCs) (falling under the CGIAR system and the non CGIAR centres) and (b) The Advanced Research Institutes (ARIs) from the OECD countries and increasingly of late those from other developing countries in Asia and Latin America. By far the IARCs under the CGIAR system are the biggest players under this category devoting almost 50% of its annual budget of about $700 million in 2012 to Africa. The IARCS with four of them having global headquarters in Africa (AfricaRice; ICRAF; IITA; and ILRI) have been active in this region since 1970 and do implement their own research programs as well as other programs in partnership with the NARS/SROs and FARA. Their relationship with the region has evolved over the years to what are now called the CGIAR Research Programs (CRPs) which is the current main organizational mechanism for planning and conducting research. The CRPs are now in the process of establishing linkages and programming modalities with the SROs(in 2013 they held programming workshops with ASARECA and CCARDESA]. The impact of these changes is yet to be felt at the NARS and below levels. The non
  5. 5. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). iv CGIAR IARCs are also quite active in Africa and these include among others, ICIPE (which has its headquarters in Africa), AVRDC (responsible for research on vegetables) as well as CABI & CTA (both quite active in scientific information and documentation). These non CGIAR international organizations do cover areas of scientific endeavour which are not covered by the CGIAR and/or the ARIs and which are important for food security and agricultural development in Africa. Finally at the international level are the ARIs some of them (or their predecessors) having been involved in Africa for over a hundred years especially those from Europe such as CIRAD; NRD; WUR; JIRCAS etc.; Universities from North America and Nordic Countries which became active from the 1960s and increasingly of late institutions from other developing countries such as EMBRAPA (Brazil); ICAR (India); CAAS (China) etc. Some of the ARIs are quite active in basic research on cash crops an area where CGIAR is not strong and bring in experience from other developing countries (for the south/south cooperation]. Many have been quite active in capacity building (e.g. cooperation with USA universities contributed significantly to the building of the scientific capacity of Africa NARS]. Most are funded through bilateral donor funds which are often dedicated to specific scientific thrusts. There are also the UN specialized bodies such as FAO; UNIDO; UNEP UNESCO and WHO which are involved in providing scientific knowledge and are quite active in policy research and advisory services as well as in some regulatory services like food safety and nutrition All the above (SROs; Continental organizations; IARCs (CGIAR and Non-CGIAR ones); ARIs (from OECD and from the South)]; do contribute to the scientific and technological effort for development of agriculture in Africa. They are important partners and /or stakeholders of the national research systems in all the African countries. On their part the national agricultural research systems have to not only manage the plethora of partnerships offered by all these organizations but even more important they have to adapt the science and technology offered by them to suit their own local conditions, in addition to doing their own research and factoring other technological spill-ins from centres of excellence within the region. There may be a need to facilitate the creation of an institutional architecture which helps the research manager at the national level to manage all these issues. Merely developing a Science Agenda without dealing with the institutional issues involved is unlikely to lead to impact. The key drivers to agricultural transformation in Africa over the next three to four decades are likely to be (a) Trends in population growth: which include rapid growth of total population growing at 2.5% per annum being the highest in the World with most being young people(e.g. 43% under 15 years]; (b) Rapid urbanization with most countries in Africa expected to become more than 50% urban by 2030;.(c) Climate change and natural resources degradation Therefore, given the rapidly-changing global environment, and the strong environmental and socio-economic pressures that are exerting themselves across the African landscape, there is a strong need for taking a forward-looking perspective in order to plan and prepare for future challenges as well as to prioritize critical investments. There are some pressures that will come from outside Africa and that will be felt through markets or the changing global environment(e.g. increasing volume of trade and demand for agricultural and non-agricultural goods], or through a changing climate that comes as a result of cumulative and collective global carbon emissions. Some pressures for Africa’s resources will come in ways that are difficult to control (e.g. the incursion of fishing fleets into coastal waters), while others will be through concessions that are directly negotiated with African governments (such as mineral exploitation and land leases). Other pressures, on the other hand, will result from Africa’s own internal socio- economic growth and evolution, and will be felt through overall population growth, as well as through urbanization and the gradual evolution of consumption patterns in response to rising incomes and changing lifestyles. Given the uncertainty over how fast and strong some of these changes might take place, and the dependence of their evolution upon local, national and regional governance and policy action within Africa, there is a clear need to adopt a forward-looking perspective. Such a perspective should systematically and comprehensively account for these driving forces and their critical interactions with policy, so that it can describe (qualitatively or quantitatively) their ultimate effect upon the physical and socio-economic landscape of Africa. Foresight provides this kind of an approach, and also creates a means for various analysts and stakeholders to interact closely and constructively, so that their collective expertise, knowledge and intuition can be harnessed in an effective way. Foresight is an approach for collectively exploring, anticipating and shaping the future. Therefore, strengthening the capacity for foresight studies by the different scientific groups has to be part of SAAA. In considering the strategic issues that will drive the development of the demand-led science agenda for agriculture in Africa, a key consideration is how the agricultural sector is likely to evolve within different countries and different ecosystems. The two parameters that are currently shaping development thinking by policy makers on the African continent are: (a) Issue of farm size: The issue of small scale versus large scale farms as a primary driver of development is a matter of debate in Africa amongst policy makers, development experts, agricultural scientists and business leaders, all of whom, at times, take diametrically opposite views. African countries, however, have varying endowments of land and human resources – two factors which inordinately influence the issues in this debate. Even within a country, different regions may take different approaches on this issue. The issue is at times conveniently hidden away as it is not considered ‘politically correct’ to analyze and debate it. It is however imperative for African countries to confront this issue(due to among other factors, changing demographics and globalization)and objectively
  6. 6. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). v debate it taking short (5-10 years), medium(10-20years)and long- term (20-40years) perspectives. (b) Issues of intensification: In this respect, there are two competing paradigms: (i) those who believe that intensification opportunities will come mainly through intensive use of inputs such as fertilizers and higher yielding varieties (HYVs) of crops and genetically improved livestock breeds; and (ii) those who believe that ‘sustainable intensification’ mostly involves management and stewardship of resources. The two sets of paradigms converge into two main agricultural strategies that are currently dominant on the continent: a) smallholders using limited amounts of external inputs; and b) a newly- growing sector of large-scale producers making intensive use of external inputs. However, it is likely that more permutations will emerge and this will include: : a) Science serving a smallholder farm strategy through sustainable intensification (b) Science serving extensive agro-pastoral systems (c) Science serving a large-scale farm strategy through ‘sustainable’ intensification (d) Science serving the growing middle ground of ‘medium’- sized farms with sustainable intensification approaches. It is imperative therefore for research systems in Africa to be open- minded and should not be locked into one strategy as some would want. Science is a long- term endeavour and it is dynamic especially in the coming five decades and strategies should not be cast in a stone. Thematic areas identified to be considered as priority areas for the SAAA which should be underpinned by fundamental sciences include, among others: Increasing production and improving productivity of crops(both food and cash crops), livestock, forestry and fisheries; Animal and plant breeding using conventional and new techniques; Research in agricultural engineering (including mechanization), ICT, and social sciences in support of sustainable food production; Policy-based research to improve the evidence base for policymakers; Food systems, nutrition, food safety and food security – including post–harvest handling, processing and storage; Climate change, adaptation and mitigation; Management of natural resources, especially land and water resources; Conservation and enhancement of agricultural biodiversity for improved production; Reducing rural poverty through agricultural diversification and emerging opportunities for higher value commodities and products; Keeping pace with evolving threats such as the emergence of new and more virulent pests and diseases; Addressing new challenges, such as the development of new varieties of crops that are resistant to increased drought, flooding and salinity arising from climate change; Meeting the particular needs of the world’s poorest communities; Markets, regional integration and international trade and price volatility; Reducing waste at all stages of the cycle. The thematic areas indicated above are just some of those which the Expert Panel has identified but this is not an exhaustive list. Obviously as this paper is discussed by the different stakeholders other areas will emerge. Like all priority setting initiatives this is not a static process but a dynamic one as countries develop and circumstances change. An important issue, in this respect, is what should be the priorities for scientific research at the national, sub regional, continental and global levels and what are the mechanisms established for linking these levels of scientific endeavour. Given the small size of many NARS in Africa national level research managers have to decide on what they can do nationally and what can be tackled through creating mechanisms to allow maximum spill-ins of technology and science from the neighbouring countries and from global sources. The capacity to decide on this is quite important to a NARS and/or SRO manager. There is need therefore to strengthen Africa’s capacity for intelligent borrowing of scientific advances developed elsewhere as well as scaling up domestic scientific research and linking this up with the agricultural industry be it at the small, medium or large farm/business scale as well as with input supply and output marketing systems. The main objective of this draft DP is to catalyse a dialogue among key stake holders of agricultural development in Africa on what should be the key issues which should inform the process of developing a Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa. From the ensuing consultation with stakeholders an Issues Paper will be prepared which will be subjected to stakeholder consultation including an e-consultation before a paper on the framework for SAAA is prepared for consideration by the FARA Governing Bodies and ultimately the AUC. During the stakeholder consultation of this DP it is hoped that key issues which may have been missed by the EP will be raised as well as identification of areas which require further elaboration and/or analysis. The EP is therefore presenting this draft Discussion Paper to FARA for Stakeholder Consultation. 24th June 2013.
  7. 7. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). vi TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY......................................................................................................................i TABLE OF CONTENTS.......................................................................................................................vi LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................................................ix LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................................x LIST OF BOXES...................................................................................................................................xi LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS................................................................................xi CHAPTER ONE:SCOPE FOR A NEW SCIENCE AGENDAAND LESSONS FROM PAST VISIONS AND STRATEGIES ............................................................................................................1 1.1 Agriculture and food: the potential for economic transformation in Africa......................................1 1.3 Purpose of the Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda .................................................................4 1.4 Organisation of the Discussion Paper ...............................................................................................5 1.5 Scope of the Science Agenda............................................................................................................5 1.6 Why a Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa now?....................................................................7 1.7 Expected outcomes of the Science Agenda.......................................................................................9 1.8 Review of past visions and strategies .............................................................................................10 1.9 Key continental science and technology frameworks with a bearing on African agriculture.........12 1.10 Possible success factors for adopting and implementing a Science Agenda.................................15 CHAPTER TWO:THE STATE OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION AND EXTENSION INSTITUTIONS IN AFRICA ...................................................................................18 2.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................18 2.2 The current institutional landscape .................................................................................................18 2.2.1 National........................................................................................................................................................ 18 2.3 National Agricultural Research Organisations................................................................................19 2.4 The Higher Education Sector..........................................................................................................20 2.5 Investment and Funding Trends......................................................................................................23 2.6 Role of the private sector ................................................................................................................25 2.6.2 Supranational............................................................................................................................................. 27 2.6.3 Continental.................................................................................................................................................. 28 2.7 The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)....................................29 2.8 Advanced Research Institutes(ARIs] ..............................................................................................31 2.9 Extension.........................................................................................................................................31 2.10 An integrated system.....................................................................................................................33 2.11Conclusion .....................................................................................................................................34 2.12 Emerging key issues/questions .....................................................................................................35 CHAPTER THREE: FORESIGHT AND MEGATRENDS ...........................................................36 3.1 The need for foresight in Africa......................................................................................................36 3.2 Key drivers and impact on agriculture in Africa.............................................................................37 3.2.1 Population trends and implications for agricultural development...........................................38
  8. 8. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). vii 3.2.2 Urbanization.................................................................................................................................................... 39 3.2.3 Changes in consumption patterns.......................................................................................................... 41 3.2.4 Climate change ............................................................................................................................................... 41 3.2.5 Land, Water and the Environment.......................................................................................................... 42 3.2.6 Science and Technology .............................................................................................................................. 43 3.3 Agriculture: Africa is still the continent of agricultural promise ...................................................44 3.4 Conclusions.....................................................................................................................................46 CHAPTER FOUR: A STRATEGIC REVIEW OF HOW SCIENCE CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA ........................................48 4.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................48 4.2 Desired outcomes, interventions and assumptions..........................................................................48 4.3 The principle of co-creation of scientific knowledge......................................................................48 4.4 The need to break down the ‘thinker’ and ‘doer’ barriers...............................................................49 4.5 Entry points, principles, and strategic imperatives .........................................................................50 4.5.1 CAADP and how science can make a difference ....................................................................50 4.5.2 Embodied versus Disembodied Science and Technology in Agriculture................................. 50 4.5.3 Exploring options for modernising smallholder agriculture......................................................... 50 4.6 Bringing science to the people so they experience it as a way of life.............................................51 4.7 Strategic Issues for Analysis and Discussion..................................................................................52 4.7.1 How can science be applied in more innovative ways?............................................................ 52 4.7.2 The challenge of science creating salient, credible and legitimate information. ............. 52 4.7.3 Is the separation of research and education artificial? ............................................................. 53 4.7.4 The enabling policy environment to allow Science to flourish .............................................. 53 4.7.5 Pursuing partnerships to improve the quality of research and its eventual impact ..... 54 4.7.6 How best can the CAADP Framework shape the science agenda?....................................54 4.7.7 What are issues to shape foresight into the long-term future for strategic positioning of Science?.............................................................................................................................................................. 54 4.8 Issues for discussion .......................................................................................................................54 4.8.1 Discussion questions .............................................................................................................................. 54 4.8.2 Scientific approaches relevant to African situation.................................................................... 54 4.8.3 Improving Existing Scientific Systems............................................................................................. 55 CHAPTER FIVE:TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SCIENCE AGENDA STRATEGIC ISSUES: PROPOSED THEMATIC AREAS...................................................................................56 5.1 Competing Paradigms for the Transformation of Agriculture in African Countries.......................56 5.2 Priority Research Themes ...............................................................................................................57 5.3 Increasing production and improving productivity.........................................................................57 5.4 Potential of new scientific advances to improve crop and livestock productivity ..........................60 5.4.1 New Information and Communication technologies (ICTs).................................................... 60 5.4.2 Biosciences.........................................................................................................................61 5.4.3 Food systems, nutrition, safety and security.................................................................................. 61 5.4.4 Agricultural Mechanization.................................................................................................................. 61 5.4.5 Post - Harvest Processing, Handling and Storage ....................................................................... 62 5.4.6 Climate change adaptation...................................................................................................62 5.4.7 Other thematic areas for research ........................................................................................62 5.5 Conclusions.....................................................................................................................................63 CHAPTER SIX: CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFULADOPTION OF A SCIENCE AGENDA
  9. 9. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). viii FOR AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA..................................................................................................64 6.0 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................64 6.1 Lessons from successes to date.......................................................................................................64 6.2 Issues moving forward....................................................................................................................66 6.3 Institutional architecture for regional and international collaboration, including ‘centres of Excellence’............................................................................................................................................67 6.4 Under-investment in Science: lessons from agricultural R&D experience.....................................68 6.5 Issues for further dialogue ..............................................................................................................69 6.5.1 Africa’s capacity for intelligent borrowing of scientific advances..........................................69 6.5.2 Broadening Participation............................................................................................................................ 69 6.5.3 Policy Alignment............................................................................................................................................ 70 6.5.4 More on institutional issues...................................................................................................................... 70 6.6 Conclusions on conditions for investment and successful implementation of the Science Agenda71 CHAPTER SEVEN: PROPOSED PROCESS OF ENGAGEMENT AND TIMELINE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SCIENCE AGENDA FOR AFRICAN AGRICULTURE.............................72 7.1 An Overview of methodology for the development of the Science Agenda...................................72 7.2 Key Deliverables:............................................................................................................................72 REFERENCES .....................................................................................................................................74 LIST OF EXPERT PANEL MEMBERS.............................................................................................. 78 ANNEXES............................................................................................................................................79 Annex 1.1: SAAA Value Proposition....................................................................................................79 Annex 1.2. Past visions and strategies – Additional notes....................................................................81 Annex 1.3: What other Scientists have to say about Agriculture-Related Issues: ICSU at Rio+20 ....84 Annex 3.1: Foresight in Africa.............................................................................................................87 Annex 5.1A: Sustainable Intensification ..............................................................................................89 Annex 5.1B: Benefits of Sustainable Intensification...........................................................................91 Annex 5.2: Six Criteria for Assessing Prospective Regional Research Initiatives for Their Contributions to Regional and National Innovation .............................................................................92 Annex 7.1: Detailed Timeline of Activities, Deliverables and Responsibilities ..................................95
  10. 10. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). ix LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1: Public Agricultural R&D Staffing levels and yearly growth rates, 1991-2008....................20 Table 2.2: Evolution of Policies, Institutions and Mechanisms............................................................27 Table 2.3: CGIAR and Development Partners......................................................................................30 Table 3.1: Researchable Themes...........................................................................................................45 Table 5.1: Cumulative Investments over 44 year period to 2050 in billion US$..................................62
  11. 11. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). x LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1: Full-time equivalent researchers per million farmers, 2008 compared with 1981 .............19 Figure 2.2: Institutional composition across countries, 2008 ...............................................................21 Figure 2.3: Share of female researchers by country and degree level, 2008.........................................22 Figure 2.4: Distribution of agricultural researchers by country and degree qualification, 200823 Figure 2.5: Researchers by major sub-sector, 2008 ..............................................................................24 Figure 2.6: Agricultural research spending as a percentage of Ag GDP, 2008.....................................24 Figure 2.7: Relative shares of funding sources for the main agricultural R&D agencies, 2008...........26 Figure 3.1: Key drivers and implications for agriculture......................................................................37 Figure 3.2: Workforce re-configuration with youth in mind.................................................................38 Figure 3.3: Maize yield growth.............................................................................................................43 Figure 5.1 Impact of livestock breeding on productivity......................................................................59 Figure 5.2 Potential for livestock productivity increases through better health and genetics...............60
  12. 12. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). xi LIST OF BOXES Box 1.1 IAC’s Five Key Strategies....................................................................................................... 11 Box 1.2 Key Messages of IAASTD......................................................................................................12 Box 2.1: Development of a Framework for Regional Co-operation in Africa......................................26 Box 2.2: Box 2.2 Evolution of IARC/NARS collaboration in Research in Africa...............................30 Box 4.1: Science and Policy Interface.................................................................................................. 55 Box 5.1: The New Rice for Africa (NeRiCa) Case...............................................................................58 BOX 6.1: Partnerships in the Eradication of Rinderpest ......................................................................65 Box 6.2 Under-investment in Science: lessons from agricultural R&D experience.............................68 LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AARINENA Association of Agricultural Research Institutes in the Near East and North Africa
  13. 13. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). xii AAS Agricultural Advisory Services AATF African Agricultural Technology Foundation AET Agriculture Education and Training AFAAS African Forum for Agricultural Advisory Services AgGDP Agricultural Gross Domestic Product AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIS Association for Information Systems AKST Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology AKSTD Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development ANAFE African Network for Agriculture, Agro forestry & Natural Resources Education AR4D Agricultural Research for Development ASARECA Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa ASTI Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators ASTI Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators AU African Union AUC African Union Commission AU-IBAR African Union InterAfrican Bureau for Animal Resources AVRDC Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre BecA Biosciences eastern and central Africa CAADP Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme CAAS Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences CABI Centre for Advanced Biomedical Imaging CCARDESA Centre for Agricultural Research, Development and Extension in Southern Africa CGIAR Consultative Group of International Agriculture Research CIAT International Centre for Tropical Agriculture CILSS Comité Permanent Interétats de Lutte contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel, CORAF Conseil ouest et centre africain pour la recherche et le développement agricoles CPA Consolidated Plan of Action CRPs CGIAR Research Programmes CSO Chief Science Officer CTA Technical Centre for Agriculture DANIDA Danish International Development Agency DP Discussion Paper DREA Department of Rural Economy and Agriculture EAAPP East African Agriculture Productivity Programmes
  14. 14. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). xiii EMBRAPA Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural EP Expert Panel FAAP Framework for African Agricultural Productivity FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FARA Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa FAS Faculty of Agricultural Sciences FFA Framework for Action FTE Full Time Equivalent GCARD Global Conference on Agricultural Research for Development GDP Gross Domestic Product GFAR Global Forum on Agricultural Research GFRAS Global Forum on Rural Advisory Services GM Genetically Modified HE Higher Education HYVs High Yielding Varieties IAASTD International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development IAC InterAcademy Council IAR4D Integrated Agricultural Research for Development IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ICAR Indian Council of Agricultural Research ICIPE International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology ICSU International Council for Science Union ICT Information Communication Technology IDA International Development Association IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute IGAD Inter-Governmental Agency for Development ILRI International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) ISRA Institut sénégalais de recherches agricoles KIS Knowledge Information System MAS Marker Assisted Selection MoU Memorandum of Understanding NABNet Northern Africa Biosciences Network NARO National Agricultural Research Organisation NEPAD New Partnership for Africa’s Development NERICA New Rice for AfriCa
  15. 15. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). xiv NGO Non-Governmental Organization NPCA NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency PANAAC Pan African Agribusiness and Agro Industry Consortium PEPFAR President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief PIDA Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa PKQ Participatory Knowledge Triangle R&D Research and Development RAPs Regional Agriculture Policies RBA Regional Bereau for Africa ReSAKSS Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support Systems RRPs Regional Research Programmes RUFORUM Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture SAAA Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa SACCAR Southern African Centre for Cooperation in Agricultural Research SADC Southern African Development Community SANBio Southern Africa network for Biosciences SCM Sustaining the CAADP Momentum SPAAR Special Programme for African Agricultural Research SROs Sub-Regional Organizations SSA Sub-Saharan Africa STEP Synthesis Team of the Expert Panel SWAC Secure Worker Access Consortium TAEIs Tertiary Agricultural Educational Institutions TAG Technical Advisory Group TEAM -Africa Tertiary Education for Agriculture Mechanism TFP Total Factor Productivity UN United Nations UNECA United Nations Economic Commission for Africa UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organisation WAAPP West African Agriculture Productivity Programme WABNet West Africa Biosciences Network WECARD West and Central African Council for Agricultural Research and Development. WHO World Health Organization
  16. 16. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). 1 CHAPTER ONE SCOPE FOR A NEW SCIENCE AGENDA AND LESSONS FROM PAST VISIONS AND STRATEGIES INTRODUCTION 1.1 Agriculture and food: the potential for economic transformation in Africa Agriculture is the mainstay of Africa’s economies. It employs up to 90 per cent of the rural workforce, 60 per cent of the total (urban and rural) labour force, accounts for up to 40 per cent of export earnings and supports over 50 per cent of household needs and income3 . Moreover, Africa has land, water and human resources to feed herself and proceed to become the breadbasket for the world, contributing to the growing global demand for both food staples and higher value added food, as well as energy. Recent estimates suggest that Africa has the potential to increase the value of its annual agricultural output from $280 billion today to around $800 billion by 20304 . Yet, despite agriculture’s importance, it has performed below its enormous potential for generations. In much of Africa, overlooked by government policies and held back by low farm productivity. Africa is the world’s most food insecure continent, with the lowest yields of any global region, low rural incomes and high rates of malnutrition, and the continent continues to be a net importer of food, spending more than $ 20.billion each year on food imports Despite the current efforts being made by many African governments to address the challenge of agricultural and rural growth through the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), the food, nutrition and income prospects for many poor Africans are likely to worsen in the light of rapid demographic changes, climate change and natural resource scarcities unless further policy changes and more investments are made. Moreover, without such additional significant interventions, Africa will fail to realise the enormous opportunity that exists to use its potential as a food producer to unleash the continent’s development potential and to ease the concerns for future global food security. In the light of current global dynamics and internal changes in Africa, now is the opportune time for African governments collectively to commit themselves to the bold step of building on the successes of CAADP to date by deciding on the additional policy interventions to spur new investments. With the necessary policy and financial interventions, it can be envisaged that an African agricultural sector will emerge where increased productivity, enhanced food security and greater sustainability of food systems will be the reality and where agriculture will be the driving force of a dynamic rural economy at home and a source of high quality and safe food for a growing world population. African politicians and policymakers are aware of the successful experience of Asia and Latin America in transforming agriculture and they increasingly acknowledge, along with their development partners, that transforming agriculture is a precondition for unleashing the continent’s development potential. No country has moved up the technological ladder without first developing agriculture. It is therefore imperative that African governments invest more in agricultural research and farm technology to increase productivity and enable farmers to move into producing more 3 UNECA, 2007a 4 MGI, 2020
  17. 17. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). 2 remunerative, high-valued products. It is important to stress that while the focus of this report is on the role of S&T, the application of science and technology alone will not bring about the necessary improvement in productivity or reduce the numbers of food insecure. Other complementary investments and policies will also be required to achieve sustainable productivity growth and reduce food and nutrition insecurity. These include “fair, competitive and efficient markets, revitalization of the private sector, improved governance, investments in sanitation, drinking water and health services, and broad policy and institutional innovation to create the enabling conditions for science and technology to express their potential at local, national, regional and global levels”5 . Agriculture is the main sector which will enable the continent to consolidate its recent gains on the macro-economic front and to free countless numbers of its people trapped in poverty and hunger. Since agriculture is the predominant source of livelihood for the poor, smallholder agriculture-drive growth offers these people the most straightforward means of escaping poverty. According to the World Bank’s Development Report for 2008, growth based on agriculture is at least twice as effective in reducing poverty compared to growth generated by other sectors. African leaders recognise that for agriculture to serve as the engine for growth the sector must be transformed. To this end, they spearheaded the development of the CAADP and launched it in 2003. Under this programme, members of the African Union are committed to increase resources for agriculture and rural development to at least 10% of national budgets. For example, in SSA, average annual growth in GDP has been over 5% for the period 2000-2008, and in agriculture it has been over 3%. This combination is creating opportunities in domestic, regional and international agricultural markets, especially where there are supportive, stable governments. To date, CAADP has helped countries to refocus their attention on agriculture. It has encouraged and facilitated a refreshing or complete overhaul of national agricultural sector strategies, investment plans and programmes. The CAADP-inspired plans and programmes are differentiated from their predecessors by the inclusiveness of their development, their strong evidence base and their emphasis on partnerships. According to a widely quoted publication6 , the macroeconomic environment in many African countries is today broadly favourable to agriculture. For instance, net taxation of agriculture has fallen across Africa, and lower inflation and real interest rates favour expanded agricultural investment. Also, this has created a favourable business climate. Investments in basic infrastructure such as roads, electricity, water, and communications are being given priority, and institutional reforms are being implemented to reduce administrative burden on business. Decentralization initiatives and the development of civil society have improved the ability of rural populations to participate in their own development and defend their interests. This, in turn, has created space for independent organizations of producers and business to flourish. The net result of these reforms is to make agriculture an attractive sector to invest in, although at times local and foreign direct investment in agriculture may undermine rights of local communities to natural 5 InterAcademy Council (IAC), 2004 6 World Bank, 2009. Awakening Africa’s Sleeping Giant: Prospects for Commercial Agriculture in the Guinea Savannah Zone and beyond.
  18. 18. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). 3 resources and impinge on their livelihoods without meaningful alternatives. It should, however, be appreciated that, the recent strong growth has merely allowed countries to catch up to productivity levels of the 1960s7 , illustrating the depth of the decline in the preceding decades. Moreover, the growth has mainly been achieved through bringing more land into production - often at the expense of sustainable natural resource management - and less by technical change. Sustaining the current recovery and broadening growth will require countries to vigorously pursue favourable policies and to increase investments in agricultural research and development (R&D) to further promote technical change in the sector. However, agricultural investments and R&D infrastructure and capacities in Africa have in fact been eroded through years of neglect, and have only recently picked up8 . It is true that “African countries can utilize the large aggregation of knowledge and know-how that has been amassed globally in their efforts to improve their access to and use of the most cutting edge technology”.9 This is not, however, a straight forward matter, for research and regulatory capacity has to be built to exploit the potentials provided by advances in science and technology and to adapt technologies developed in other regions to African conditions. An AU Heads of State and Government Summit in Khartoum, Sudan in 2004 established a national agricultural R&D investment target of at least 1 percent of agricultural GDP, but most countries have spent far less than this target. Accordingly, it is now the opportune time to build on the growing momentum of CAADP and the commitment of international partners to redress the long-standing under-investment in African agriculture. In particular, there is need to redress the under-resourcing and fragmentation of public research, technology generation, education and extension services and weak linkages with broader development processes that have up to now limited the value and impact of agricultural innovation in Africa. It is in this positive context, and in line with recommendations of CAADP Pillar IV and the Framework for African Agricultural Productivity (FAAP), that FARA sets out in this document the detailed rationale for the development of a Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (SAAA), which is aimed at aligning all agricultural research for development actors(NARS; SROs, ARIs etc)as well as key stakeholders in the field of agricultural education and allied sciences around a common framework / reference; promoting food and nutrition security; wealth creation; strengthening the competitiveness of African agriculture; and enhancing the sustainability of the natural resource base. 1.2 SAAA: Origin and development The development of the SAAA stems from the strong recognition of the importance of S&T in improving agricultural productivity, as evidenced by the commitments under CAADP Pillar IV, and the need to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness in deploying increased levels of S&T towards achieving development targets. In particular, the SAAA is one of the five work streams10 of the Dublin 7 Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support Systems (ReSAKSS), 2012. Africa-wide 2011 Annual Trends and Outlook Report. 8 Beintema and Stads, 2010. Public Agricultural R&D Investments and Capacities in Developing Countries Recent Evidence for 2000 and Beyond. AST I Background Note (March) 9 Juma, Calestous, 2011. The New Harvest. Agricultural Innovation in Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 23 – 24. 10 The other four work streams include: Stocktaking and Mapping of planned and on-going agricultural research and development activities; Organisation of regional agricultural productivity workshops on how the CGIAR’s capacity can be better harnessed to advance the development of
  19. 19. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). 4 Process - an initiative of three groups of actors, namely: (i) African stakeholders in agricultural research and development, (ii) the CGIAR consortium and (iii) development partners; aimed at, among other things, improving the alignment of the CGIAR to the CAADP agenda. This initiative was concretised at a meeting of the three groups of actors held in Dublin in June/July 2011. Since then several meetings have been held both within and outside Africa with a view to deepening buy-in among key stakeholders and reviewing methodology for developing the Science Agenda11 . In January and March 2013 two meetings involving group of experts, largely from within Africa, produced a detailed work plan and methodology for the formulation of the Science Agenda. The outcomes of these meetings, which were also endorsed by subsequent meetings in Rome (IFAD) and Dublin (CGIAR), came to be known as the Accra Consensus on the Development of the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa. The management of the process for the formulation of the Science Agenda, which is Africa-owned and Africa-led, is detailed in Chapter Seven. Suffice here to note that the process is led by an Oversight Group (OG) which is superintended by the FARA Board, and an Expert Panel (EP) has been entrusted with broad stakeholder consultation as well drafting the Science Agenda. A smaller group within the EP is assigned as the Synthesis Team of the EP (STEP), entrusted with putting together series of documents that would provide the basis for soliciting technical inputs into the formulation of the Science Agenda document and helping facilitate its buy-in among key stakeholders. The development of this Discussion Paper is the first step in the process of formulating a SAAA with the active engagement of all relevant stakeholders and in accordance with the principles set out in the FAAP. The remaining steps in the process, leading up to the launch of the SAAA at the AU meeting of Heads of State in July 2014, are detailed in Chapter Seven. 1.3 Purpose of the Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda This document is expected to inform and start a dialogue among key stakeholders of Africa’s agricultural sector, a discussion that will conclude with the development of a long-term strategic framework that puts a premium on science, technology and innovations in agricultural development within Africa. The major point of departure for this Discussion Paper is the realisation that a productive and efficient food and agricultural sector in Africa remains essential for sustainable growth, food and nutritional security, as well as for economic and political stability. It is also recognised that Science can help deliver on these long-term national goals of growth and stability. The purpose of the science strategy that this Discussion paper is expected to inform is, therefore, to advocate the importance of science as part of the transformation process of agriculture in Africa. It seeks to influence African leaders, policymakers, research and science administrators, producer organisations and agribusiness entrepreneurs to take decisive and informed measures that would enable Science play its part in the transformation of agriculture in Africa. This Discussion Paper raises substantive questions as they relate to the essential ingredients of a long-term strategic framework for a SAAA, and invites a discourse around these issues and questions. The Paper only synthesises some of the salient issues that have a bearing on a SAAA; it doesn’t claim to be an original piece of work. Neither does it claim to be an exhaustive document CAADP country investment programmes; Establishing a Memorandum of Understanding between the AUC and the CGIAR Consortium, which was signed in January, 2013; and Development of agricultural technology innovation platforms proposed by the G8 New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition. 11 For details, see FARA, 2013, The Accra Consensus on the development of the ‘Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa’ Expert Panel Orientation and Planning Workshop (Draft Workshop Report).
  20. 20. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). 5 ready for guiding an enhanced application of Science to agriculture in Africa. Its primary purpose thus framed is rather to provoke responses and comments as well as invite contributions and fresh insights. In short, the Discussion Paper is tailored in such a way as to allow absorption and reflection as well as reaction by a wide array of stakeholders. Specifically, the Discussion Paper and the ensuing process for its discussion amongst key stakeholders aim at generating interest in, and encourage thoughts and insights on key questions such as:  How can science be pursued to address the needs of farmers and other operators along the value chain at different scales of operation?  What type of science and associated priority thematic areas are needed to support the transformation of African agriculture?  What would be a more effective organisational environment and the human capacity development architecture within which science could be pursued and delivered?  What are the key policy considerations that need to be taken into account in terms of facilitating innovation, technology generation and transfer to end users and its use by them?  How best can the levels and sources of investment in science be determined that could make a difference in the long-term? 1.4 Organisation of the Discussion Paper This Discussion Paper is organised as follows. The remainder of this chapter presents options for discussion on what should be the salient features of a framework for a Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa. It also provides a case for, and the outcomes expected of, developing and adopting a framework for a long-term Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa. Given that such an initiative needs to build on past visions and strategies, the chapter also reviews some previous attempts at crafting a Science Agenda globally and the different continental strategic thrusts that have a bearing on science in agriculture in Africa. The chapter concludes by outlining the necessary success factors for the adoption and implementation of a Science Agenda. As a prelude to identifying pertinent issues for the Science Agenda, Chapter Two reviews the current state of science, technology, and innovation in agriculture as well as examining the current institutional arrangements and human resource capacities in agricultural S&T in Africa. Chapter Three discusses the global and emerging ‘science-focused’ trends within which a framework for a Science Agenda should be pursued. Chapter Four then discusses the vision of the long-term goal of the Science Agenda, how it will be reached, and what will be used to measure progress along the way. The chapter also identifies the critical strategic issues that need to be considered in developing a framework for a Science Agenda. In the same vein, Chapter Five describes the suggested thematic focal areas for a Science Agenda for agriculture in Africa. These two chapters provide the reader with opportunities to comment on the relevance, comprehensiveness and operational realism of the identified strategic and science-specific issues. Chapter Six provides an overview of the critical considerations as well as some ideas on the investment prerequisites that are necessary for the adoption of a Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa. Chapter Seven outlines the proposed process of engagement of key stakeholders in Africa and globally and the time line for the development of the Science Agenda. 1.5 Scope of the Science Agenda The case for the scope for a SAAA is predicated on a broader realisation of the following propositions: (i) science is a systematic attempt to understand the fundamental biological, chemical,
  21. 21. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). 6 physical and social relationships that explain observed or experimental outcomes; (ii) science leads to an accumulation of knowledge that can be applied in a way that leads to hoped-for outcomes and innovation; (iii) accumulated knowledge is subject to depreciation and obsolescence; therefore a continuous investment is needed to maintain and grow the stock of knowledge; and (iv) a capacity for science also includes tapping into the regional and global stock of knowledge12 through organized “spill-ins”, and this requires capacity to borrow ‘intelligently’ by adapting externally generated scientific findings to local circumstances. “Science Agenda” here refers to the science, technology, extension, innovations, policy and social learning Africa needs to apply in order to meet its evolving agricultural development goals . The Agenda will identify a suite of issues and options for increasing and deepening the contributions of science to the development of agriculture in Africa, at the local, national, regional and Pan African levels. “Agriculture” in this context is understood as comprising the thematic focus areas within CAADP. These include cropping; livestock, fisheries and forestry, as well as the requisite national agricultural and food security policies, strategies and systems, market access and private sector engagement processes, land and water management practices and conservation of bio-diversity research, extension, monitoring and learning considerations that are essential to bring about inclusive development. The Agenda will address both the knowledge and technology needs of the millions of smallholders who dominate African agricultural structures as well as the medium and larger commercial farms. It should be noted that for the long-term the context for the Science Agenda is broader than CAADP and encompasses other broader global and foresight issues. The Science Agenda’s perspective will encompass the breadth of science, the meaningful engagements between disciplines (inter- disciplinary and multi-disciplinary) and the effective transfer of the outcomes of science to end users that are necessary to unlock the potential of agriculture in Africa. The Science Agenda is, therefore, fundamentally about the strategic investments in science, technology and innovation that are needed to contribute effectively to productivity, equitable development and sustainable productive environments. The principal investments will continue to be in the research and development efforts focused on target populations, themes and production environments. Moreover, there is a growing recognition that agricultural development prospects improve by taking a multi-sector approach to development. This implies that a SAAA also has to be informed by relevant developments in other sectors beyond agriculture, so as to leverage agriculture S&T even more effectively. However, there are four strategic investments that must be made for this to happen: (i) investment in basic (or “fundamental”) research into the understanding of physical, biological and social processes that do not have an immediate purpose but will build the scientific base and skilled scientists who may eventually apply that knowledge; (ii) a balanced growth of the educational sector so that the potential for productivity gains can be realized at both the field and laboratory levels and the provision of education/training to farmers to enable them adopt and use new knowledge and technology; (iii) a systematic effort to create a policy and institutional environment in which innovations in the non- agricultural sectors are encouraged not only to spread into the agricultural sector but to develop new applications that lift the productivity and security of investment in the agricultural sector13 ; and (iv ) the revival of agricultural extension services that link timely agricultural research directly to farmers. 12 Pardey and Beddow, 2013 estimate that for every dollar of accumulated knowledge, even in a challenged country, there is $1,000 of available knowledge outside the country to exploit. 13 Mobile banking and index-based crop insurance are two such examples.
  22. 22. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). 7 Thus, alongside embracing research and knowledge transfer on policies and institutions within the agricultural sector, the Science Agenda also needs to encompass other research and transfer of innovation processes that cross disciplinary and ministerial boundaries but have a direct bearing on the performance of the agricultural sector. 1.6 Why a Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa now? During the last five years a number of factors have made it possible for agriculture to return to the core development agenda of Africa. Since 2009, and after a rather slow start, CAADP has gained considerable momentum at the country level. There is a shared recognition among African leaders, development partners and actors in the private, NGO and CSOs that investment in agriculture brings high returns both economically and socially. The growth linkages in agriculture - upstream to suppliers of inputs, equipment and services, and downstream in assembling, processing, warehousing, marketing and consumption - are greater than in other sectors. Judicious investment in smallholder agriculture is generally considered to be an important lever for combating food insecurity and mass poverty and commencing the cycle of wider rural development. There is an appreciation that Africa should take full advantage of the power of science and technology in agricultural transformation. For instance, the Sirte Declaration on ‘Investing in Agriculture for Economic Growth and Food Security’, adopted by the Thirteenth Ordinary Session of the AU Assembly in Sirte, Libya of July 2009, underlined the need for facilitating increased investment in agricultural research and development and support to strengthening Africa’s wider scientific and technical information and knowledge base. On the supply side, given the enormous advances registered in science and technology over the past 50 years, Africa can potentially access a much larger pool of scientific and technical knowledge than was available during the launch of the Green Revolution in the 1960s14 . . In the context of the scale and diversity of the challenges and opportunities confronting African agriculture, the national agricultural science and technology systems are limited in terms of their capacity to effectively deliver on their missions. Along with striving to build the requisite capacity at the national level in a cost-effective manner and taking value-for-money into consideration, the present context makes a strong case for collective actions at organizations operating at the sub- regional and regional levels. These organisations are complemented by international research organisations, notably the CGIAR, which has traditionally devoted about 50 per cent of its portfolio to Africa, and several advanced research institutions from developed countries and the fast-growing developing countries. Evidently, Africa’s agricultural science and technology landscape is characterised by a diversity of organisations functioning in a largely non-aligned manner. This degree of fragmentation undermines efficiency, value for money and ultimately the potential impact of the institutions on improving productivity. While in recent years some effort has been made at increasing alignment, there is an urgent need for an organizing framework that will enhance the coherence of the contributions of the various institutions in Africa’s agricultural science and technology system and at all levels of geographical scale so that they function as a unified system. 14 It is well-known that the Green Revolution – which was largely a result of the creation of new institutional arrangements aimed at using existing technology to improve agricultural productivity – played a decisive role in helping overcome chronic food shortages in Latin America and Asia. See Juma, Calestous, 2011. The New Harvest. Agricultural Innovation in Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, P. 23
  23. 23. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). 8 CAADP will not achieve its aims and FAAP will not be fully meaningful unless a strong pipeline of contextually relevant new knowledge is made available and applied to accelerate agricultural growth and to produce the human and institutional capacity for wide-scale agricultural development. Africa requires a third instrument to guide the broad areas of science to be developed and problems which will be addressed in accordance with the FAAP principles. This third instrument is the Science Agenda for Agriculture. This agenda is not a menu for specific areas of science, but rather an agenda for setting priorities and maintaining them up-to-date and forward looking. The application of foresight is therefore essential in enabling this agenda to evolve in concert with emerging trends in the agricultural sector and agricultural and allied sciences. The agenda will also serve as a guide in achieving coherence among the institutions engaged in the generation, transfer and utilisation of agricultural science. The agenda will facilitate the refreshing of a common vision for all actors engaged in agricultural science and technology as well as those in other endeavours that have direct application to advancing agriculture in Africa As the principal reference of the demand for agricultural S&T on the continent it will serve as the primary guide for S&T planning at all levels. It will also facilitate partnership around the vision and the evolution of a platform for collaboration among the main actors within the continent and with their external counterparts. It is, therefore, an opportune time to discuss a Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa. Such an overarching strategic framework will help build commitment to investment in agriculture, align priorities with African needs, and strengthen African leadership of the science agenda. In particular, the case for formulating a Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa rests on the following key considerations:  To encourage countries to place science firmly in their long-term agricultural development agenda. It is generally acknowledged that science makes slow magic through the accretion of knowledge through research…the scientific process15 . Thus, maintenance of knowledge, like any other capital stock, is essential.  To increase attention to the role of tertiary agricultural educational institutions (TAEIs) in supporting CAADP-based Investment Plans, including advancing and sustaining the CAADP Momentum. The Science Agenda would be incomplete without taking cognisance of the role TAEIs could play in agricultural transformation, as well as in making these institutions more productive learning and research institutions. In Africa, the TAEIs sector is experiencing enormous stresses arising in part out of rapid expansion of the institutions themselves, falling quality of education, ageing faculty, attrition and lack of mentors for young faculty, and lack of incentives to keep staff focused on undertaking research and upgrading their teaching skills.  To inform strategic planning development and/or review processes amongst key continental and regional stakeholders. Research and research management and coordinating organisations in Africa, including the NARIs, SROs, and FARA, have continually been updating their respective strategic plans and corresponding overarching results framework so as to respond to emerging challenges and position themselves to lead the agricultural research agenda in a proactive manner. For instance, and as noted earlier, FARA has embarked upon the process of developing its long-term strategy and medium-term operational plan. FARA considers the SAAA as an important strategic framework that has the 15 Pardey et al. 2013
  24. 24. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). 9 potential to shape its work programme in the years to come. Similarly, SROs such as the Coordinating Centre for Agricultural Research, Development and Extension in Southern Africa (CCARDESA), are in the process of developing their respective medium-term strategies, and it is expected that an overarching Science Agenda will provide important pointers to the development of the Centre’s priorities. On the other hand, the promising start that FARA’s integrated agricultural research for development (IAR4D) approach has shown in organising innovation platforms around value chains16 is expected to benefit from the strong policy foundation associated with a continental framework such as the SAAA.  To provide an umbrella framework to the CGIAR, Advanced Research Institutes and non- CGIAR centres as well as research institutes in the developing and emerging economies for establishing effective partnerships with pertinent African research and education institutions in pursuit of the advancement of the Science Agenda. In particular, over the last few years a number of global and regional centres of excellence for research and technology generation have entered into partnership agreements with pan-African organisations. The signing of a memorandum of understanding (MoU) between the AU Commission and the CGIAR consortium and between FARA and EMBRAPA are cases in point. The clarity of purpose and priorities which a long-term strategic framework for the Science Agenda provides is expected to enhance, not only the results orientation of existing partnership arrangements, but also to give further impetus to the broadening of networks of international collaboration, including the strengthening of South-South partnerships.  To provide guidance for donors and the international private sector, respectively, in the formulation of their assistance strategies and in their quest for agricultural investment in Africa. Currently, for the first time in a generation, donors are beginning to listen and respond to African-defined agricultural priorities under the CAADP banner after close on two decades of cuts which halved global aid for agriculture in Africa. A further dimension to the changed environment for agriculture in Africa is the fact that there is now a global appreciation of the scarcity of agricultural land and water. The perception that Africa has significant land and water resources has made it a target for foreign investors who see significant long term potential17 . It is, therefore, essential that this global goodwill to listen to Africa and the growing private sector interest in her land and water resources be backed by a thorough scientific assessment of needs and priorities that can only be undertaken through science-based strategic research and analysis. 1.7 Expected outcomes of the Science Agenda The analysis that would inform the development of a long-term strategic framework for the Science Agenda will provide African decision-makers with the necessary evidence for increased investments in scientific assessment, technology generation and use, and innovation processes so as to strengthen the contribution of Science to Africa’s agricultural development. Indeed, the Science Agenda will be presented in such a way as to guide not only the funding levels and priority areas of investments in Science, but also the strengthening and management of the people, institutions and institutional infrastructure that are necessary to transform Africa’s agriculture into a dynamic economic sector capable of shouldering the historic roles expected of it in the development process. 16 Adewale Adekunle et al. ,2012 17 See NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency, 2012. CAADP - Sustaining the momentum into the next decade. P. 7
  25. 25. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). 10 As noted above, agricultural research for development is bound to be an important area on which the Science Agenda should focus. In this respect, streamlining the agricultural research scene through reducing duplication and strengthening synergies and complementarities between agricultural research systems at all levels - national, sub-regional, continental, and global - is a critical long- term outcome expected of the Agenda. It should, in particular, aim at engendering effective partnerships between NARIs and educational institutions within AU Member States and between NARIs, SROs and international agricultural research systems, including the CGIAR centres and programmes, non-CGIAR international centre and Advanced Research Institutes, as well as research institutes in the global South. Also, particularly in the short- to the medium-term, the Science Agenda has to be geared towards enhancing the efficacy of ‘Science’ in CAADP-aligned investment plans. Specifically, the Science Agenda is expected to provide pointers for effective engagement of Africa’s tertiary agricultural educational institutions (TAEIs) with CAADP. In a similar vein, the Agenda will provide instruments and mechanisms to ensure that global scientific knowledge at the disposal of the CGIAR and other international agricultural research organisations helps implement CAADP-based plans and priorities. Overall, the Science Agenda is expected to be of significant utility to a range of stakeholders, including high- level decision makers at national level, science and agriculture techno-structures within AUC and the NEPAD Agency, NARIs, SROs, national universities, farmers and their organisations, agribusiness and value chain actors, CGIAR and other Advanced Agricultural Research Institutes, as well as development partners. The specific merits associated with the adoption of a Science Agenda vary by actors and its intended users. In Annex 1.1 an attempt is made to identify the intended users (Column 1), outline their respective perceived expectations from a Science Agenda (Column 2), and describe what the SAAA proposes to deliver to each of the actors (Column 3). 1.8 Review of past visions and strategies18 There are several extant studies that have attempted to describe an agenda or even priorities for science and research in Africa. Each of them has highlighted factors that were of pressing concern at the time and their conclusions were valid in their context. The Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa need to evaluate and build on these previous efforts, but must frame the agenda in terms of the pressing issues of today and the global trends that are likely to have a bearing on the performance of the sector in the decades to come. In this and the following section, a brief summary of the findings of the major studies undertaken and the continental visions charted is presented in order to make sure they are properly considered. A. InterAcademy Council (IAC): Realizing the promise and potential of African agriculture19 : The study informing the IAC report was requested by the UN Secretary- General and involved several consultations, commissioned studies, and a core IAC Panel on Agricultural Productivity in Africa. The IAC Panel identified five key strategies for guiding agricultural research and development in Africa (Box 1.1) 18 This section contains only the key findings and/or issues that are highlighted by some of the past visions and strategies reviewed in the Discussion Paper. Details are provided in Annex 1.2. 19 IAC, 2004
  26. 26. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). 11 Box 1.1 IAC’s Five Key Strategies IAC’s Five key strategies  Identify science and technology options that can make difference. The full complement of available technology options should be explored, from conventionally bred to genetically modified plants, from chemical to organic fertilizers, and from irrigation to integrated pest, soil and nutrient management  Build impact-oriented research, knowledge and development institutions that reflect the true needs of local smallholder farmers.  Create and retain a new generation of agricultural scientists to perform future research, not only by reversing the brain drain, but also by broadening and deepening the political and financial support for agricultural science. Special emphasis should also be given to improving the accessibility of science training to young women.  Focus on developing markets and policies that make the poor income- and food- secure. Investments in rural infrastructure need to be increased, while the barriers to increased trade with OECD countries need to be reduced. Appropriate intellectual property regimes should be instituted in Africa to encourage the private sector.  Initiate experiments in creating effective solutions to the problems of African agriculture, especially those that empower smallholder farmers of Africa. In each of the four priority farming systems identified by the IAC Study Panel, special innovative science and technology pilot programs should be launched as soon as possible that engage all the relevant sectors in finding opportunities for success. The IAC report adopts a unique and holistic perspective: African agriculture is considered realistically as a set of interrelated and interacting farming systems. African agriculture will thus require numerous ‘rainbow evolutions’ that differ in nature and extent among the many different types of farming systems and institutions throughout Africa - rather than a single Green Revolution. T he IAC effectively argues that Africa should not foreclose technological options and should be willing to take risk and experiment. This is a bold way forward that the SAAA should critically look into. B. IAASTD: International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development20 : The IAASTD grew out of a consultative process (in 2002) to determine whether an international assessment of agricultural knowledge, science and technology (AKST) was needed. It was stimulated by discussions at the World Bank with the private sector and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) on the state of scientific understanding of biotechnology and more specifically transgenics. It became a wider assessment21 of the role of AKST in reducing hunger and poverty, improving rural livelihoods and facilitating environmentally, socially and economically sustainable development22 . With respect to the generation, access, adaptation, adoption and effectiveness of AKST in the Sub-Saharan Africa Report, which is a stand-alone document, the following constituted the key messages: 20 IAASTD, 2009. Agriculture at a Crossroads: Sub-Saharan Africa (Volume 5) international Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development. 21 An “assessment” has a special meaning in the community of practice. (See IAASTD. 2009. Global Report. Vol. 1). 22 The IAASTD was endorsed as a multi-thematic, multi-spatial, multi-temporal intergovernmental process with a multi-stakeholder Bureau co-sponsored by the FAO, the Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the World Bank, and the World Health Organization. Its governance structure was a unique multi-stakeholder body composed of 30 government and 30 civil society representatives (defined to include NGO, producer and consumer groups, private sector entities and international organizations.)
  27. 27. A Discussion Paper on the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (Final Draft). 12 Box 1.2 Key Messages of IAASTD Key Messages of IAASTD: 1. External funding for agricultural research and development continues to eclipse national funding. 2. Current investments in agricultural education are inadequate to provide for well-trained researchers, agricultural engineers, extension agents and other specialists. 3. Effectiveness of AKST is compromised by a lack of institutional coordination. 4. Appropriate laws, institutions and market mechanisms are required for advances in agricultural technologies such as irrigation, improved seeds, genetically modified (GM) crops and fertiliser. 5. Locally generated and holistic approaches to agriculture that concurrently address production, profitability, economic development; natural resource conservation and human well-being are more effective than strategies that address these issues in isolation. 6. Inadequate local trade, sporadic regional integration and inefficient market conditions adversely affect agricultural profits, investments and effective application of agricultural innovation. 7. Inadequate infrastructure for transportation and food processing, irrigation, and information and communications technology (ICT) impede the effectiveness of formal AKST. 8. The development and use of ICT has the potential to increase access to formal and informal AKST, but the realization of this potential has been uneven. The diagnostics and key messages of the IAASTD report are compatible with other studies and reports of a similar nature. However, similar to the IAC Report, no formal mechanisms were put in place to ensure that the findings of the reports were acted upon and the experiences in this respect are documented and widely shared. Notwithstanding the technical credibility of both the IAC and the IAASTD reports, no substantial effort had been invested in obtaining a political consensus around the reports’ findings and in cultivating an African ownership of their agendas. This is one important lesson which should be noted as we proceed with the development s of the SAAA. 1.9 Key continental science and technology frameworks with a bearing on African agriculture A. SPAAR23 /FARA (1999): Vision of African Agricultural Research and Development: In 1999, a joint SPAAR/FARA Task Panel set out a 20 years vision of African agricultural research and development. This vision was predicated on the realisation that “increased agricultural productivity in Africa cannot be achieved without the benefits of cutting- edge science and without advances in technology development, capacity building, technology transfer, and policy research to bear through the development, adaptation and dissemination of new technologies and without improving the policy environment in which farmers operate.”24 The SPAAR/FARA Panel identified three ‘pillars’ around which the new strategy for agricultural research and development in Africa should centre. These included science and technology; policy and institutional building. It also highlighted the importance of capacity building, where the latter is understood to encompass both traditional approaches to strengthening capacity as well as the reward systems and incentives that need to be put in place in order to attract, retain, and motivate professionals in an accountable and transparent working environment. 23 SPAAR - Special Program for African Agricultural Research. 24 SPAAR/FARA (2000), Vision of African Agricultural Research and Development. SPAAR/FARA Plenary Session, Conakry, Guinea, April 9 - 14, 2000 Document No. B1, p. 1.

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