AASW6: Improving the Livelihoods of Rural Communities in the Nile Valley and Sub-Saharan Africa Region

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  • Since water is available for irrigation over the year, these areas produce most of the food in the region. However, water productivity is generally low and soil and water quality are continuously declining. Water use efficiencies in the areas were reported to be as low as 40%. Water for irrigation is generally managed by public sector where local institutions are very weak. Policies of water allocation and use do not provide incentive for water savings. Expanding irrigated areas without additional water resources pause another source of pressure for more efficient use of water.
  • Since water is available for irrigation over the year, these areas produce most of the food in the region. However, water productivity is generally low and soil and water quality are continuously declining. Water use efficiencies in the areas were reported to be as low as 40%. Water for irrigation is generally managed by public sector where local institutions are very weak. Policies of water allocation and use do not provide incentive for water savings. Expanding irrigated areas without additional water resources pause another source of pressure for more efficient use of water.
  • M.B. Solh, DG of ICARDA Tuesday, July 16, 2013 CA Presentation in New Delhi
  • M.B. Solh, DG of ICARDA Tuesday, July 16, 2013 CA Presentation in New Delhi
  • M.B. Solh, DG of ICARDA Tuesday, July 16, 2013 CA Presentation in New Delhi
  • M.B. Solh, DG of ICARDA Tuesday, July 16, 2013 CA Presentation in New Delhi
  • M.B. Solh, DG of ICARDA Tuesday, July 16, 2013 CA Presentation in New Delhi
  • M.B. Solh, DG of ICARDA Tuesday, July 16, 2013 CA Presentation in New Delhi
  • M.B. Solh, DG of ICARDA Tuesday, July 16, 2013 CA Presentation in New Delhi
  • M.B. Solh, DG of ICARDA Tuesday, July 16, 2013 CA Presentation in New Delhi
  • M.B. Solh, DG of ICARDA Tuesday, July 16, 2013 CA Presentation in New Delhi
  • M.B. Solh, DG of ICARDA Tuesday, July 16, 2013 CA Presentation in New Delhi
  • M.B. Solh, DG of ICARDA Tuesday, July 16, 2013 CA Presentation in New Delhi
  • AASW6: Improving the Livelihoods of Rural Communities in the Nile Valley and Sub-Saharan Africa Region

    1. 1. Improving the Livelihoods of Rural Communities in the Nile Valley and Sub- Saharan Africa Region: Sustainable crop and livestock management Fawzi Karajeh International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Cairo- Egypt 6th Africa Agriculture Science Week and FARA General Assembly 15–20 July 2013 Accra, Ghana
    2. 2. Major Challenge Facing Agriculture in NVSSAR • climate change, • lack of adequate natural resources, • lack of enabling agricultural policies, • insufficient investment in agricultural research and development, • shortage of experienced scientists, • poor seed production and distribution programs, and • Lack of inter-regional and sometimes inter- institutional collaborations.
    3. 3. Irrigated agroecosystems • Low water productivity • Weak institutions • Inappropriate policies • Salinity • Poor-resource farmers
    4. 4. Rainfed agroecosystems • Low water productivity • Weak institutions • Low and nonuniform rainwater • Dry spells • Low yields • GW depletion • Poor-resource farmers
    5. 5. Measures for increased WP 1. Reduce Evapotranspiration • Efficient water use germplasm • Best management practices- Agronomy • Proper and adequate land use – Integrated crop-livestock production systems • Improving management 2. Water and mist harvesting 3. Supplemental irrigation 4. Deficit irrigation 5. Improved full irrigation 6. Incentive/disincentive (economic approach) 7. Regulation 8. Change water use
    6. 6. Improving the Livelihoods of Rural Communities in the Nile Valley and Sub-Saharan Africa Region: Sustainable crop and livestock management Regional Project Goal Enhanced food security, livelihoods and adaptive capacity of resource poor farmers to cope with climate variability and change in the dry areas of the world Objectives identify, test, evaluate, and disseminate productivity enhancing technological, institutional and policy packages for integrated crop and livestock production in a context of climate change variability. Project Location Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan and Yemen
    7. 7. Project Focus Sustainable increased productivity of both rainfed and irrigated agriculture – producing 'more crop per drop.‘ Integrated crop-livestock management – more added value 'more income for better livelihood.‘ Rural communities existence 'more resilience to climate variability and change.‘
    8. 8. Originality of the Project -1- Strong multidisciplinary multi-institutional research and development country teams coordinated by a senior scientist have been established drawing on expertise from NARSs and linking on-going IFAD financed development projects.
    9. 9. Site Selection The selected intervention sites, except fro Eritrea, have been within the target areas of an IFAD on going or completed project. Operational linkages have been developed with these projects in the form of in kind contributions and involvement of their extension staff. Originality of the Project -2-
    10. 10. Crop Production •The generation of improved technologies focused on existing staple cereal and food legume crops (wheat, maize, barley, tef, faba bean, chick pea and lentil) forage crops (clover, sorghum), •a wide range of newly introduced crops for improving crop rotations and income diversification (sugar beet, soya bean, peanut, cowpea, onion, tomatoes, cucumber, cabbage), and •The technology packages combined the use of high yielding and drought and heat tolerant varieties, optimum seed rates and planting time, fertilizer, weed and pest control, and irrigation regimes and seed production and distribution systems. Originality of the Project -3-
    11. 11. Originality of the Project Livestock Production •The focus has been on sheep and goats and to less extent on local dairy cows and apiculture, and •The technology packages combined herd management, animal nutrition with focus on supplementation feeding for lactating animals, fattening for value addition, forage production and conservation and genetic improvement). Originality of the Project -4-
    12. 12. Originality of the Project For water use efficiency The focus has been on optimum water requirements and the development and promotion of water saving irrigation practices such as raised bed row planting of irrigated wheat and maize, replacing existing earth canal water conveyance by PVC water conveyance, on-farm sprinkle and drip irrigation. Originality of the Project -5-
    13. 13. Project Target Indicators- Irrigated Agriculture   WaterProductivity Yield 20%
    14. 14. Project Target Indicators- Irrigated Agriculture   Farmers income
    15. 15. Project Target Indicators- Rainfed Agriculture   Increase Yield by 100% Soil Erosion Reduced by 50% Increase Animal Feed by 20% Increase Farmers Income by 10%
    16. 16. Sudan -1- The intervention site: Four of twelve villages in Lower Atbara River region of the River Nile State covered by the on-going IFAD loan funded Butana Integrated Rural Development Project (BIRDP). Combined rainfed winter season crops with supplementary irrigation and summer crops with full irrigation.
    17. 17. Sudan -2- Farmers are exposed: Climate change- season variability of surface water from Atbara river limited groundwater resources, poor irrigation efficiency, low agriculture productivity, wind erosion, and depleting pastoral resources.
    18. 18. Sudan -3- Field Interventions: Improved production packages for winter cereals and grain legumes, and introduction of chickpea and common bean as new cash crops. Livestock production improvement (forage legumes, forage cereals) and supplementary feeding Small-scale irrigation schemes: modernized irrigation system (water savings systems)
    19. 19. Sudan -4- Crop production technology packages tested Crop Improved crop production technology packages   Wheat Use of high yielding heat tolerant early and late maturity varieties; early planting; 140 kg of seed per ha, 43 kg/ha of phosphate (P2O5) at land preparation, 130 kg N/ha; chemical and hand weeding control; 8 irrigations at on-farm trials (OFT) and 11 to 13 irrigations at on-station trials (OST)   Faba bean High yielding varieties; early planting; 120 kg/ha of seed, chemical and hand weeding control; application of 7 irrigations at OFT and 10 at OST.   Chickpea High yielding variety; early planting; application of 70 kg/ha of seed; 86 kg N/ha; application of 8.5 irrigations at OFT and 12 at OST; hand weeding at OFT; chemical weed control at OST   Common bean and Maize Improved common bean variety and a self-pollinated maize variety; common bean sole cropping at OFT; inter-cropped common bean and maize at OFT; bean sole cropping at OST; early planting; 80 kg/ha seed; 86 Kg N /ha; hand weeding at OFT and a combination of hand and chemical weed control at OST; 8 irrigations at OFT and 11 irrigations at OST
    20. 20. Sudan -5- Livestock production Mineral and concentrate supplementation feeding for lactating animals, strategic supplementary feeding of breeding ewes, sheep fattening, introduction of forage crops and dual purpose legumes, improving the nutritive value of crop residues and skill training for women on dairy processing.
    21. 21. Sudan -6- Results-Wheat and faba bean technology packages Result indicator neighboring farmer practice On-farm trial (OFT) on station trial (OST) Winter Wheat 2011-2012 crop season Average yield (Ton/ha) 1.16 2.70 2.97 5.79 6.03 Yield increase over NFP - 132% 156% 400% 420% Yield increase over OFD - - - 114% 103% Net benefit over NFP - 1290% 1567% 4580% 4772% Marginal rate of return - 197% 226% 416% 399% Faba bean 2011-2012 crop season Average yield (Ton/ha) 0.71 2.17 2.93 Yield increase over NFP - 205% 312% Yield increase over OFD - - 35% Net benefit increase over NFP - 551% 810% Marginal rate of return - 3190% 1518%
    22. 22. Sudan -7- Results- Small-scale irrigation water saving trials 2012 summer growing season Irrigation practice   Cost reduction from Input saving Water Fuel Pumping time Labor Pipe conveyance (PC) over OPC* 13-20% 24-28 % 19-23% 61-66% Drip irrigation (DI) over Traditional IS (TIS) 37% 45% 37% 50% Sprinkler irrigation (SI) over TIS 45% 31% 33% 56% Yield achieved (ton per feddan) Irrigation practice Tomato Clover* Clitoria ** Okra Open channel conveyance (OPC) 4.17 14 16 0.45 PCV pipe water conveyance Increase 7.0 66% 20 43% 20 25% 0.51 13% **Based on 3 month cut period
    23. 23. Sudan -8- Livestock production  Water savings with the highest on-farm sprinkler irrigation (45%), followed by on- farm drip irrigation (37%) and pipe water conveyance (13 to 20%)  Fuel saving with the highest produced by drip irrigation (45%), followed by sprinkler irrigation (31%) and PVC pipe conveyance (24-28%)  Pumping time saving, with the highest achieved by drip irrigation (37%), followed by sprinkler irrigation (33%) and pipe conveyance (19-20 %);
    24. 24. Ethiopia -1- The intervention site: Site 1: Gedemso irrigation/rainfed site located in the Central Rift in Oromia region (arid to semi arid with 860 mm annual rainfall) Site 2: Gumara-Maksegnit watershed rainfed site located in North Gondar in Amhara region (a dry land area with 1050 mm annual precipitation highly unpredictable and poorly distributed)
    25. 25. Ethiopia -2- Farmers are exposed: Climate change- season variability: aannual precipitation highly unpredictable and poorly distributed, Limited access to irrigation water, Small-scale irrigation schemes under the on-going project- need for enhancing the farmers capacity, poor irrigation efficiency, low agriculture productivity, Water erosion, Lack of feed during dry spills
    26. 26. Ethiopia -3- Field Interventions: Gedemso irrigation/rainfed site New crops, develop test and evaluate associated improved technologies. Gumara-Maksegnit watershed rainfed site Introduction of forage species for grazing, animal nutrition, animal health, genetic improvement, market linkages, value addition and capacity building.
    27. 27. Ethiopia -4- Results: Improved agriculture production technologies Gedemso irrigation/rainfed site Over 100 repeat on-farm field trials were conducted from 2011 to 2013 to demonstrate and evaluate improved crop production technological packages for rainfed and irrigation agriculture: improved crop varieties, optimum crop management options and efficient crop protection practices against excessive rainfall born pests and diseases.
    28. 28. Ethiopia -4- Results: Improved agriculture production technologies Gedemso irrigation/rainfed site   Crop   RMT* T/ha   FMT** T/ha   NFP*** T/ha % Increase FMT over NFP RMT over FMT Maize 7.0 4.3 to 5.2 2.0 to 2.5 115 % to 108 % 63% to 35% Wheat 5.0 2.4 to 3.3 1.2 to 1.8 100 % to 83% 108% to 51% Tef 2.1 1.0 to 1.4 0.6 to 0.8 67% to 75% 110%to 50% Barley 3.5 2.5 to 3.0 + - 40% to 17 % Faba bean 3.5 1.7 to 2.7 + - 106% to 30% * Researcher managed trial ** Farmer managed trial ***Neighboring farmer practice
    29. 29. Ethiopia -5- Results: Improved agriculture production technologies Gumara-Maksegnit watershed rainfed site New forage species being introduced in the farming system: 2 Sesbania, 1 cajanus, 1 Penisetum, 5 vetch and 6 cactus cultivars are promising sources for increased feed availability and at the same time providing effective vegetative cover for soil and water conservation.
    30. 30. Ethiopia -6- Results: Improved agriculture production technologies Gumara-Maksegnit watershed rainfed site Cost efficient feed mixes for goat fattening being developed. On-farm produced forage legumes and enhanced nutritive value of crop residues. The work is at the initial stage. Goat health and disease risk management practices being identified. Characterization of disease symptoms, blood and fecal laboratory analysis. Goat breeding and genetic improvement practices being developed. Characterization of goat population and production systems, identification of breeding objectives and selection criteria, identification of all goats in the selected model village using the album method instead of the ear tagging practice rejected by farmers. Study on goat marketing and value addition initiated. Data collection for market analysis. The work on high value goat products and access to niche markets is to be conducted in parallel with goat fattening activities.
    31. 31. Eritrea -1- The intervention site: The village of Adi-Gheda and its surroundings
    32. 32. Eritrea -2- Farmers are exposed: Climate change- season variability: aannual precipitation highly unpredictable and poorly distributed, Limited access to irrigation water, Lack of improved quality of seeds (cereal and legumes), poor water use efficiency, low agriculture productivity, Water erosion, Lack of feed during dry spills
    33. 33. Eritrea -3- Field Interventions: Development of community based seed production practices and delivery systems, Development of Community based managed grazing land, and Generation of improved livestock production practices with focus on animal nutrition (feed blocks), animal health and forage cultivation, Capacity development
    34. 34. Eritrea -4- Results: Improved agriculture production technologies  Community based seed production and delivery model established. A significant quantity of seed of improved varieties has been produced and delivered to farmers. During 2011, a first group of 23 farmers produced 36 quintals of wheat, barley and chickpea seeds. During 2012, using the seed produced in 2010, a second group of 39 farmers produced 360 quintals of seeds.
    35. 35. Eritrea -5- Results: Improved agriculture production technologies  Feed block technologies developed tested. On the basis of the demonstration trials with a group of 20 sheep producers conducted during 2012, the results indicated that the use of feed blocks increased significantly the weight gain of sheep compared to the non-users of feed blocks.  A pilot community based grazing area model being tested. The progress made at this stage includes the establishment of a village based grazing area over an area of 15 ha.
    36. 36. Eritrea -6- Results: Improving livestock productivity  Sheep breeding – community approaches bring more income to farmers • Grazing field using water harvested pond in period of drought • Better breeds through community based program • Feed blocks- village based practice at the cost of the production • Health evaluation and monitoring bring more income, in turn, better livelihoods to farmers
    37. 37. Conclusions: • Yes !! water productivity can increase substantially • Improved production package can substantially reduce the amount of applied irrigation water • Substantial increase in WP requires shift in focus from land to water and land integrated management • The farmers income can improve by more than 10%.
    38. 38. Thank you

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