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In the past four decades, it was clear that the spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is connected to the evolution of the means of transportation and communication.
•There is no region in the world other than the Middle East that can show the increased introduction of new serotypes of FMD viruses due to the increased trade activities and developed means of transportation.
•The region is still in the center of the international transportation due to its location at the cross-roads of the international shipping routes
G. Yehia, A. Petrini and J. Domenech