T9: Soils, Water & Environment Research

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Prof. Dr. Aly I. N. AbdelAal, Director of Soils, Water & Environment Research Institute (SWERI), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Ministry of Agriculture and land Reclamation, Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December 2013, Amman, Jordan

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T9: Soils, Water & Environment Research

  1. 1. Prof. Dr. Aly I. N. AbdelAal Director of Soils, Water & Environment Research Institute (SWERI), Agricultural Research Center (ARC) Ministry of Agriculture and land Reclamation, El-Gammaa St. Giza, Egypt arwa_nagib@hotmail.com
  2. 2. Location of Egypt Egypt is the global heart • Egypt forms the northeast corner of Africa •Egypt lies within the dry tropical region, except for the northern parts that lie within the warm moderate region.
  3. 3. The Nile Delta and the Nile River Valley of Egypt, is one of the oldest agricultural areas in the world, having been under continuous cultivation for at least 5000 years. The arid climate of Egypt, characterized by high evaporation rates (1500 – 2400 mm/year) and little rainfall.
  4. 4. Agriculture in Ancient Egyptian
  5. 5. The River Nile is the life of the country serving: • Fresh water supply for agriculture, industry and domestic use • Hydro-electric power generation • Navigation.
  6. 6. The agricultural sector still accounts more than 30% of the gross national product and 80% of export earnings. Egypt, however, is now facing a challenging problem of how to increase the rate of growth in agricultural production to provide food that is sufficient for a high annual rate of population increase at about 2.5%.
  7. 7. Water supplies and demands in Egypt I. Water supplies 1990 2000 2025 Nile water Groundwater: In the Delta and New Valley In the desert Reuse of agricultural drainage water Treated sewage water Management and saving wasted water 55.5 57.5 57.5 2.6 0.5 4.7 0.2 - 5.1 6.3 7.0 1.1 1.0 8.0 2.4 - Total 63.5 71.7 74.2 Agriculture Households Industry Navigation 49.7 3.1 4.6 1.8 59.9 3.1 6.1 0.3 61.5 5.1 8.6 0.4 Total 59.2 69.4 75.6 II. Water demands The agriculture sector is the largest user and consumer of water in Egypt accounting for more than 85 percent of the total gross demand for water. On a consumptive basis, the share of agricultural demand is even higher at more than 95 percent. After: Abu-Zeid, 1995, Abdel-Shafy and Aly, 2002.
  8. 8. 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 275 250 225 200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 Population Growth (1897-2050) 2050 2035 2025 2016 2006 1996 1986 1976 1966 1960 1947 1937 1927 1917 1907 0 1897 Population Growth (Million) 300 Per-Capita Water Allocation Per-Capita Water Allocation (1000 m3) EGYPT: Population Growth & Per-Capita Water Allocation 1897 - 2050
  9. 9. Horizontal Expansion Plan Till Year 2017 (3.4 Million Feddan) Location Area/fed Sinai 413300 East Delta 647730 Middle Delta 108820 West Delta 1012900 Middle Egypt 99150 Upper Egypt 468100 Beachs of Naser lack 50000 Halaib nad Shalatin 60000 Toshiky 540000
  10. 10. Present and Future Challenges 1. Desertification 2. Climatic Change 3. Waterlogged, saline and sodic 4. 5. 6. 7. soils Urbanization Encroachment Soil Pollution Water Pollution Awareness deficient
  11. 11. 1. Desertification A stony plain
  12. 12. 2) Effect of Climatic Changes Sea-water Intrusion Distribution of groundwater salinity in ppm in the lower Nile delta for 50 m depth, showing intrusion of saline water into the northeastern part and brackish water in the northwestern part including Alexandria (modified from Gaamea, 2000).
  13. 13. Shoreline Erosion Land Productivity Declined Map of the Nile delta shows main vulnerability degree (15% artificially protected sectors, 30% unprotected sectors and 55% naturally protected sectors) and the existing structural mitigations along the Nile delta coastal zone.
  14. 14. Salt Affected Soils
  15. 15. 4) Urbanization Encroachment Due to the high increase in population and the dominant of social living the urban encroachment is occurred.
  16. 16. 5) Soil, Water and Air Pollution • • • • a) Soil pollution: Agricultural area in Egypt is 4% of the total area (3.2 million ha) Agriculture is very intensive (2-3 crops/year). The demand for raising productivity led to an increase in fertilizer use High imbalances in crop nutrition in favour of nitrogen (absence of accurate information on nutrient needs for different crops under different conditions) Country United States Morocco Egypt N 2.3 4.6 19.5 P2O5 1.5 3 4 K2O kg/tonne 2.5 4.5 0.5 Fruit yield (tonnes/ha) > 48 36–48 14–20 Amounts of nutrients applied to produce one tonne of orange and yield in different countries
  17. 17. Agriculture in Egypt has always been confined to the Nile Valley and Delta which comprise only 3.6% of the country’s land surface. Exceptions are a few oases in the western Desert and some recently reclaimed desert lands adjacent to the River Valley and Delta.
  18. 18. Soils, Water & Environment Res. Inst., ARC, Established in 1903
  19. 19. Soil Resources Management The cultivated area in Egypt to 8.4 million feddans, representing only 5% of Egypt total area (I million Km2)
  20. 20. Rehabilitation of irrigation systems Furrow Wide furrow Lining of irrigation canal Gated pipes
  21. 21. SOIL AND WATER MANAGEMENT Modern Irrigation Systems Land Leveling Soil Amendments
  22. 22. Wastes Agricultural Recycling Compost Biogas Technology To Produce Energy
  23. 23. Bio-Fertilizers and Biological Agents Seanobactreen Ascobeen Phosphoreen Nemales Potaples Solutions Microbeen Yeast Active Serialeen Pioveen okadin Mixed bacteria solution
  24. 24. Drainage Save Egyptian Soil From Deterioration
  25. 25. Pilot Areas and Drainage Technology The pilot areas and drainage technology deals with research topics covered over a decade of activities varied among design, implementation and maintenance problems which originate from the field practices of drainage project in Egypt. • A number of pilot areas have been constructed in the Nile Delta The Main Research Objectives: • Evaluation of the impact of drainage on agriculture
  26. 26. Pilot Areas and Drainage Technology The Main Research Objectives: • Evaluation of the impact of drainage on agriculture in relation to: (i). Degree of watertable control under various agricultural, hydrological and soil condition (ii). Degree of salinity control under various irrigation practices and subsequent drainage rates • Assessment of the impact of future drainage projects on crop production and water use under various design and/or construction concept • Evaluation and testing of different drainage material and auxiliary structure, installation techniques, operation controls and maintenance equipment • Development of monitoring methods to evaluate the effectiveness of the drainage projects.
  27. 27. Case Study Salty Clay Soils under Saline Shallow Watertable Depth in The Northern Eastern Nile Delta, Egypt
  28. 28. INTRODUCTION • Most of deteriorated salty clay soils are found • • • throughout the northern periphery of the Nile Delta. The clay cap is about 40 meters. It is the highly saline shallow ground water, which creates soil water logging, salinity and/or alkalinity associated with severe decline in soil structure and soil aeration. Since leaching water may pass only through macropores and not within clay peds. Consequently improving leaching efficiency through artificial restructure would be a possible solution.
  29. 29. Manzala Lake The clay about 60% The hydraulic conductivity is 0.0669 m/day. The average water table salinity is 25dS/m
  30. 30. The Aims • The aim is to study crop production as affected by drainage types for evaluating improvement soil condition to sustain land use for maximizing crop production and prevent soil deterioration.
  31. 31. General and long-term objectives •Developing locally applicable and easy techniques for reclamation and sustainable land use. •Avoiding soil deterioration. •Improvement of the socio-economic situation of small-scale farmers. •Improvement of international cooperation.
  32. 32. Specific objective to be achieved by the proposal •Improve the management of irrigated soils by introducing mole drainage. •To study the stability and suitability of the fine textured Egyptian soils for mole drainage. •Develop suitable tillage and mole drainage techniques for: - the reclamation of saline and sodic soils, and - the continuous control of groundwater tables and salinity. •To solve the complex management of the problem areas of heavy clay saline soils with shallow saline water table in the northern part of Egypt by testing new auxiliary drainage techniques.
  33. 33. Manzala Lake Mole Experiment
  34. 34. Open Drainage - Moling for desalinization of Salty Clay Soils in Northeastern Egypt 12 Below 8 6 4 2 0 I II / y da D r a w do w n r a te m m 10 III Before Moling IV V After 10 8 6 4 2 / y da Above D r a w do w n r a te m m 12 0 I II III Before Moling IV V Afte r Moling Moling 20 m Drain Spacing 40 m D rain S pacing Seasons S easons Drawdown rate before and after moljng under different drain spacing treatments
  35. 35. Open Drainage - Moling for desalinization of Salty Clay Soils in Northeastern Egypt Uppe r laye r Dee per laye r 14 14 12 8 6 4 10 8 6 4 - E C, dSm 1 10 - E C , dS m 1 12 2 2 0 I 0 I II III IV II III IV V Before Mol i ng B ef ore Molin g After Seasons Afte r Mol i ng Molin g 20 m Drain Sp acin g V 40 m Drai n S paci ng S eason s Soil salinity before and after moling under different drain spacing treatments.
  36. 36. Open Drainage - Moling for desalinization of Salty Clay Soils in Northeastern Egypt Seasons I II III 40 IV 20 m 40 m IV 0 35 30 -2 0 -4 0 -6 0 -8 0 20 15 ( dS / m ) W a terta bl e s a linity W a tert a bl e dept h cm 25 10 5 0 -1 00 20 m 40 m I II III IV S ea s on s Mean groundwater depth (cm) and salinity in the successive years for both drainage treatments. IV
  37. 37. Mole Drainage for Maximizing Soil Productivity under Saline Groundwater Table, Egypt
  38. 38. 20 Without Gypsum With Gypsum 16 8 4 1999 2000 2001 3 .0 m 2 .0 m 2002 1 .5 m No Mole drain spacing 2003 3 .0 m 2 .0 m 1 .5 m ar No s 0 Ye E C dS m 12
  39. 39. W i th ou t G y ps u m W i th G yps um 45 E xch an ge abl e S od i um Pe rc e nt age 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 3 .0 m 2 .0 m 2002 1 .5 m No 2003 3 .0 m 2 .0 m Ye No ar 1999 2000 2001 0 s 5 1 .5 m Mole Drain Spacing Soil alkalinity (ESP) as affected with mole drainage and gypsum addition treatments.
  40. 40. W it h o u t G y ps u m R ice Y ield (Ton /fed d an ) 5 W it h G y ps u m 4 3 2 2003 2002 2001 2000 3 .0 m 2 .0 m 1 .5 m No M o le D ra in S pa cin g 1999 3 .0 m 2 .0 m 1 .5 m Rice yields (Ton/fd) as affected with mole drainage and gypsum addition treatments Ye No ar 0 s 1
  41. 41. • The experimental Treatment Design • Three drain spacing treatments separated by buffer zones: • (i) 15 m. spacing (calculated spacing according to the • • steady state formula, (Houghoudt, 1940); (ii) 30 m. spacing (conventional spacing adopted in the surrounding areas); and (iii) 60 m. spacing (double of the conventional spacing for future secondary drainage treatments). • The sub-treatments are two types of subsoiling; the distance between plowing 1.5 meters and the depth is 50 cm. There are: • (i). One direction: Parallel orientation subsoiling type and perpendicular on tile drains, and • (ii). Two directions: Net structure- subsoiling type.
  42. 42. The successive cultivated crops The successive cultivated crops were wheat, sorghum, and clover. Total yield including straw and grains were determined. Sorghum plant samples were taken randomly from each plot to determine fresh weight and dry matter. For clover, berseem cut was measured for fresh and dry weight. The crop production data is a n a l y z e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y .
  43. 43. Wheat • Plant heights as well as dry content are highly significant increased with decreasing drain spacing treatments. Subsoiling types are highly significant on the plant height (Figure1a & b). The total number of tillers per plant is highly significant increased with decreasing drain s p a c i n g t r e a t m e n t s . • The total yield is relatively (Wheat grain and straw) is relatively increased with decreasing drain spacing treatments (Figure 1c, 1d).). • The net treatment is more effective for wheat traits and yield than parallel treatment.
  44. 44. 1.1 A v e r a g e o f w he a t pla nt he ig ht (c m ) 50 S ubsoiling Parallel Subsoiling Net No A verage of w h eat d ry m atter (g/p lan t) No 40 30 20 15 m (a). 30 m 0.7 0.5 60 m 0.3 15 m 2.5 Parallel Net A v era g e o f w h ea t s tra w y ield (T o n /fd ) A ve r age of w he at gr ain yie ld (T on/fd) No 2 1.5 (c). 1 60 m 30 m 60 m (b). Drain spacing Subsoiling 30 m Net 0.9 Drain spacing 15 m Parallel Subsoiling No 4 Parallel Net 3 2 (d). Figure (1). Wheat as affected by drain spacing and subsoiling treatment, winter season Drain spacing 96/97: (a) Plant height. (b) Dry matter. (C) Grain Yield and (d) Straw Yield. Drain spacing 15 m 30 m 60 m
  45. 45. Sorghum • Plant heights as well as dry matter are relatively increased • with decreasing drain spacing treatments (Figure 2a &b); the net subsoiling is the highest treatment for increasing the plant height. The best treatment is net subsoiling combined with drain spacing at 15 m; while the worst treatment 60 m without any subsoiling treatments. The soil treated with 60 m drain spacing combined with (b). net subsoiling is much similar to the treatment of 15 m drain spacing on the sorghum plant height. The yields are relatively increased with decreasing drain spacing treatments (Figure 2c) and highly significant effect of subsoiling types on the sorghum yield. The net subsoiling is more increasing sorghum yield than the parallel treatments. The best treatment for increasing sorghum yield is drain spacing at 15 m combined with net subsoiling while the least treatment is drain spacing at 60 m.
  46. 46. Subsoiling No Parallel 12 Net No 110 (a). 15 m 30 m 60 m Drain spacing 12 Subsoiling No Parallel 10 Net Net 8 6 4 8 2 6 15 m 30 m 60 m 4 Drain spacing 2 (b). Parallel 10 130 90 A v era g e o f s o rg hum dry m a tter (g /pla nt) Subsoiling 150 S o r g h u m Y ie ld ( T o n /f d ) A v era g e o f s o rg h u m p la n t h eig h t (cm ) 170 15 m 30 m Drain spacing 60 m (c). Figure (2). Sorghum as affected by drain spacing and subsoiling treatment, summer season 96/97: (a) Plant height. (b) Dry matter and ( C) Sorghum Yield.
  47. 47. Clover • The fresh and dry weight content at second and third cut as affected by drain spacing combined subsoiling type (Figure 3a &b and Figure4a &b)) is relatively increased with decreasing drain spacing treatments. There is a highly significant on fresh weight. The net treatments are mostly affected on increasing fresh weight more than the other treatments.
  48. 48. Subsoiling No Parallel Net 11 10 9 8 7 6 15 m 30 m 10 A v era g e o f clo v er fres h w eig h t, th ird cu t (T o n /fd ) A ve r age of c love r fr e sh w e igh t, se c on d c u t ( T on /fd ) 12 60 m Subsoiling No Parallel Net 9 8 7 6 5 15 m 30 m Figure (3). Clover fresh weight [(a) second & (b) third cut] versus drain spacing and60 m Drain spacing subsoiling treatments. Drain spacing Subsoiling No Parallel Net 1.2 1 0.8 A v era g e o f clo v er dry m a tter w eig ht (T o n/fd) 1.6 1.4 Subsoiling No Parallel Net 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 15 m 0.6 15 m 30 m 60 m 30 m Subsoiling Figure (4). Clover Drain spacing [(a) second & (b) third cut] versus drain spacing and dry weight subsoiling treatments. 60 m
  49. 49. Soil Salinity • The closer drain spacing with net subsoiling realizes desalinization of the surface soil layers. There is also highly significant effect on lowering soil surface salinity by drain spacing and subsoiling (Figure 6). The drainage system should be combined with subsoiling in purpose to keep at least salinity in rootzone layer at a convenient level to sustain soil productivity and plant growth. This method is highly recommended for such condition to increase losing soil between drain spacing. The subsoiling either net or parallel helps increasing the watertable draw down for raising drainage efficiency. However, a narrow spacing could be expressive and not practical
  50. 50. 0.6 (a) Total soulable salts % 0.5 F ** LSD (5%) 0.12 (1%) 0.016 Whe at 96/97 C l ove r 97/98 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 15 m 30 m 60 m Drain spacing treatment 0.6 F ** LSD (5%) =0.012 (1%) =0.016 Wheat 96/97 Clov er 97/98 Total Soluble Salts (%) 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 (b) 0 NO Parallel Net S ubsoiling Figure (6 ). Surface soil salinity as affected by drain spacing and subsoiling in the year of: ( 96/97 & 97/98. [(a) Drain Spacing & (b) subsoiling treatments.
  51. 51. Watertable depths • The importance of the different water table depths is • the positions of them midway between drains during two- interval irrigations (Figure5). The drainage treatments have an enhancing effect on lowering the water table, particularly under narrow spacing between drains combined with subsoiling especially net treatment. Increasing downward water movement after irrigation gives the chance for the effective root zone to dry, shrink and form water p a t h w a y s .
  52. 52. winter96/97 0 summer 1997 winter97/98 winter96/97 summer 1997 winter97/98 W ate r tab le d e p th s (c m ) -30 -60 -90 -120 Parellel subsoiling Drain spacing 15 m 30 m 60 m Net Subsoiling -150 6 12 18 6 12 18 6 12 18 6 12 18 6 12 18 6 12 18 Days after irrigation The groundwater table depth during different seasons as affected by drain spacing and subsoiling type treatments.
  53. 53. Conclusion The best treatment is drain spacing at 15 m combined with net subsoiling. However, it is worthy to mention that treatment of wider drain spacing (30 m) combined with net subsoiling gives satisfactory results in lowering watertable and reducing salinity. It is also reduce drainage costs. Auxiliary treatments must be combined with any drainage system in the management of heavy clay low permeable soil.
  54. 54. RECOMMENDATIONS • Alluvial soils owing heavy clay, water • • logging, salts are associated with highly saline ground water and constitute a challenging problem. Solving must achieve lowering water table at the end of the irrigation intervals, accelerating the downward movement in the surface layers, to the drains so that irrigation water constitutes a temporary front separating the saline ground water table from the rootzone. The soil must not be left fallow for a long time.
  55. 55. The restructuring/ horizontal leaching may provide a variable field technique for reclamation of poorly permeable saline-sodic swelling soils. Wider spacing combined with secondary drainage treatment such as moling, Subsoiling or deep ploughing is recommended.
  56. 56. Initial Soil State at El-Serw North Eastern Delta
  57. 57. General view of the selected area
  58. 58. Leveling using LASER
  59. 59. Leveling using LASER
  60. 60. Soil during Management
  61. 61. Soil After Management
  62. 62. Manholes to measure discharge at El-Serw Experimental field
  63. 63. Low soil productivity and scattered berseem plants.
  64. 64. Clean the surrounded open drain
  65. 65. Constructed an open drain in the middle of the site
  66. 66. General view of new constructed open drain
  67. 67. Gypsum Distribution process
  68. 68. Measuring Mole Drain distances
  69. 69. Tractor & Mole Drain Started from Open Drain
  70. 70. Penetration of Mole Drain Started from Surround Open Drain
  71. 71. View of Mole Plow Diameter
  72. 72. Constructed Mole Drain Line With an indicator in The Front
  73. 73. General View of Mole Lines
  74. 74. Barley Plant Control
  75. 75. Barley Plant 3 m Mole Drain Spacing
  76. 76. Barley Plant 2 m Mole Drain Spacing
  77. 77. Barley Plant 1.5 m Mole Drain Spacing
  78. 78. Rice Plant Field With Mole Drains
  79. 79. Rice Plant Field With Mole Drains
  80. 80. Field Farmer with Mole Drains Rice Plant Field Farmer without Mole Drains
  81. 81. Scientists, Graduates and Farmers Visiting Mole Experiment
  82. 82. Mole Plow (Front View)
  83. 83. Mole Plow (Front View)
  84. 84. Mole Plow Connected with filling Box
  85. 85. Visitors

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