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Species diversification in global aquaculture - a forthcoming technical paper for FAO WAPI module on aquaculture production

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http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3539e.pdf

World Aquaculture Performance Indicators (WAPI) is an endeavour initiated by the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department to develop user-friendly tools for compiling, generating and providing easy access to quantitative information on aquaculture sector performance at the national, regional and global levels. The ppt presents a forthcoming technical paper as a background document for FAO WAPI module on aquaculture production

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Species diversification in global aquaculture - a forthcoming technical paper for FAO WAPI module on aquaculture production

  1. 1. SPECIES DIVERSIFICATION IN GLOBAL AQUACULTURE A forthcoming technical paper for FAO WAPI module on aquaculture production
  2. 2. Co-authors CAI, Junning: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. YAN, Xue: Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Beijing, China ZHOU, Xiaowei: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 2
  3. 3. Aquaculture species diversification: a popular notion attractive to policymakers and other experts This paper would: •Examine/clarify the concept and measurement of species diversification in aquaculture ― For systematic assessment and monitoring species diversification in aquaculture •Examine the status and trend of species diversity in aquaculture at the global, regional and national levels and highlight some salient patterns or stylized facts of species diversification in aquaculture ― Providing knowledge and information for evidence-based policymaking and business planning •Explore how to use species diversity measures to facilitate evidence-based decision makings 3
  4. 4. Data and method 4
  5. 5. Data source: FAO data on aquaculture production (FishSTAT) The most comprehensive dataset on global aquaculture production • Covering 206 countries or territories • 580 species items • Quantity data from 1950 – 2014; value data from 1984 – 2014. • Different farming environments: freshwater, brackishwater, marine Imperfect data • Data submitted by countries may not be accurate. • Some FishSTAT species items are actually species groups. • Some species-level data are estimated from more aggregated level. • Value data are less reliable than quantity data. 5
  6. 6. Multiple dimensions of species diversification measurement Timeframe: 1950 – 2014; focusing on 1990- 2014 Types: Focusing on FishSTAT species items (580 in total); also considering higher groups 6
  7. 7. Diversity indices 7
  8. 8. Effective number of species (true diversity) 8
  9. 9. Some notes on diversity indices 9
  10. 10. Quantity vs. value measures 10
  11. 11. Indonesia: a case of quantity and value-based diversity indices give opposite indication of species diversification 11
  12. 12. South Africa: a case of quantity and value-based diversity indices give opposite indication of species diversification 12
  13. 13. Species scope 13
  14. 14. Examples of 328 species groups 14
  15. 15. Species diversity for major aquaculture species groups Year: 1990-2014; Area = All; Environment = All; Scope = Aquatic products; Diversity measure (q =1) 15
  16. 16. Salient patterns or stylized facts of species diversification in aquaculture 16
  17. 17. The status of species diversification in global aquacultu 17
  18. 18. 1990 to 2014: More species diversified global aquaculture 18
  19. 19. More species diversified aquaculture for the world as a whole 19
  20. 20. Aquaculture species diversification: regional perspective 20
  21. 21. Less species diversified aquaculture in developed regions 21
  22. 22. More species diversified aquaculture in developing regions 22
  23. 23. Less species diversified aquaculture in Africa 23
  24. 24. Top-10 species in Africa: 1990 vs. 2014 Diversity in 1990 = 8.2 Diversity in 2014 = 7.2 24
  25. 25. Less species diversified aquaculture in Europe 25
  26. 26. Top-10 species in Europe: 1990 vs. 2014 Diversity in 1990 = 9.8 Diversity in 2014 = 6.7 26
  27. 27. Aquaculture species diversification in European countries 27
  28. 28. Regional species diversification may not reflect average species diversification of countries in the region: the case of Australia/New Zealand 28
  29. 29. More species diversified aquaculture in Latin America and Caribbean 29
  30. 30. Top-10 species in LAC: 1990 vs. 2014 Diversity in 1990 = 9.1 Diversity in 2014 = 11.0 30
  31. 31. More species diversified aquaculture in Northern America 31
  32. 32. Top-10 species in Northern America: 1990 vs. 2014 Diversity in 1990 = 6.6 Diversity in 2014 = 9.2 32
  33. 33. More species diversified aquaculture in Oceania 33
  34. 34. Top-10 species in Oceania: 1990 vs. 2014 Diversity in 1990 = 5.6 Diversity in 2014 = 6.5 34
  35. 35. Salient patterns or stylized facts 35
  36. 36. China: the largest and most diversified aquaculture producer 36
  37. 37. Declined species diversification in China’s marine shrimps and prawn aquaculture Year: 1990-2014; Area = All; Environment = All; Scope = Aquatic products; Diversity measure (q =1) 37
  38. 38. Norway and Chile: Export-oriented countries may have large production yet low diversity 38
  39. 39. Egypt: country with less diverse aquaculture resources may have large production yet low diversity 39
  40. 40. Hong Kong and Singapore: High income cities with strong preference over seafood may have small production yet high diversity 40
  41. 41. Malawi: high diversity because of restriction over introduced species 41
  42. 42. Marine shrimps and prawns: large-scale producers tend to be less species diversified than small-holder producers Year: 1990-2014; Area = All; Environment = All; Scope = Aquatic products; Diversity measure (q =1) 42
  43. 43. Use of knowledge and information about species diversification patterns for evidence-based decision making 43
  44. 44. Lessons learned • Species diversification patterns are under the influence of many factors. • Different countries tend to have different species diversification patterns. • A country tends to have different species diversification patterns at different aquaculture development stages. • A variety of dimensions need to be specified for species diversification to be properly defined and measured. 44
  45. 45. Remaining questions • How can a country learn from other countries’ experiences in species diversification? ― What can government learn? ― What can the private sector learn? • How do we know whether a certain species diversification pattern is good or bad for a country? • What are other species diversification measures to use? • How can species diversification measures be used to help government design proper aquaculture development strategies or make decisions on specific issues such as allocation of public funds to different research activities? • How can species diversification measures help farmers select farming species? 45
  46. 46. Facilitating evidence-based policymaking: an example 46
  47. 47. Facilitating evidence-based policymaking: an example (continued) 47 0510152025 Percent 0 5 10 15 Diversity index (q=1; scope = fish; area = all; environment = all; type = FishST 1000 =< Production < 10000 tonnes 010203040 Percent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Diversity index (q=1; scope = fish; area = all; environment = all; type = FishST Production < 1000 tonnes 05101520 Percent 0 5 10 15 Diversity index (q=1; scope = fish; area = all; environment = all; type = FishST 10000 =< Production < 100000 tonnes 0510152025 Percent 0 5 10 15 20 25 Diversity index (q=1; scope = fish; area = all; environment = all; type = FishST Production >=1000000
  48. 48. FAO World Aquaculture Performance Indicators (WAPI): An initiative to facilitate evidence-based policymaking and sector management in aquaculture and fisheries 48
  49. 49. Welcome collaboration on WAPI 49 WAPI@fao.org

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