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Session 5 „Rainfed Agriculture: Financing Smart Agriculture Projects“

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Session 5 "Rainfed Agriculture: Financing Smart Agriculture Projects“, ICARDA, , Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December 2013, Amman, Jordan

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Session 5 „Rainfed Agriculture: Financing Smart Agriculture Projects“

  1. 1. Lead Convener International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas. http://www.icarda.org Co- Conveners DRC, WFP, FAO
  2. 2. Water Harvesting and Supplemental Irrigation. Climate Smart and Efficient Practices
  3. 3. Location: Muaqqar, Jordan (Typical Badia site) Precipitation: 200 mm/a; evaporation: ~ 2000 mm/a Evaporation of 4 winter months = 1 summer month Floods: 4 – 5 times / season CASE STUDY 1A: FARM RESERVOIRS IN JORDANIAN BADIA Field & tree crops Reservoir 2 Wadi Reservoir 1 Inflow Questions Reservoir 3  Is the eficiency of water used for supplemental irrigation of winter crops higher than that used for full irrigation in (early) summer?  Is the emptying of a reservoir as soon as it is filled more efficient than leaving it filled for later use? Farm reservoirs of 25,000 to 40,000 m3 volume. Dam
  4. 4. Results • Best yields and highest water use efficiency were obtained, when the stored water was used in winter (and not saved for the summer season) and the reservoirs emptied as often as possible. The water was pumped to fields and stored in the soil matrix. • Risk: There is the risk of not having runoff water to prolong the growing season after an emptying of the reservoir at the end of the winter season. The risk could me minimized by doing risk analysis based on longterm hydrological data. • Sedimentation was a problem, but sediment removal every 3 years did extend the lifetime of the reservoirs. The extracted sediments even contributed to an improved soil fertility. Financing: by CGIAR* Funds *CGIAR = Consultive Group on International Agricultural Research
  5. 5. CASE STUDY 1B: GROUNDWATER DAMS FOR SUBTERRANEAN WATER STORAGE  A trench is dug into the wadi sediment across a wadi bed, down to the bedrock  The dam is built from stone or concrete  The aquifer lasts for several months; water extraction by dug or tube wells Subsurface Dam Example : 120 m long and 2 meters high. 1 flood: ~ 25,000 m3 of water had been accumulated (over a wadi length of 300 m) and were ready to be used for supplemental irrigation. Financing: Material costs covered by an NGO, beneficiaries contribute labour
  6. 6. Distribution Pond Distribution Pond Pumps Bedrock Subsurface Dam High-tech example from the Negev Financing: By Government Sand Dams are constructed in wadis with a thin sediment layer. They are built in steps to retain only the coarser parts of the sediments carried by the wadi flood. Coarse sand can have a water content of 35 %, fine sand of 5% water only. A Sand Dam
  7. 7. CASE STUDY 1C: GREENHOUSE WATER HARVESTING IN LEBANON  Location: 350 m a.s.l. Precipitation:~ 1000 mm/a There are no springs in the area. Option to harvest rainwater from plastic greenhouses. The water is stored in a lined pond.  The pond water is flowing by gravity into other greenhouses.  It is used there for drip irrigation of ornamental plants. Pond Size: 1700 m2
  8. 8. Financing The ‘Green Plan’ agency is an autochthonous development authority under the Lebanese Ministry of Agriculture, partially financed by international donors. Green Plan experts develop together with interested farmers technical and financial development plans for their enterprises. Farmers receive soft loans for their share (18 to 39% of the total costs)  The rest is given as subsidies.
  9. 9. SUMMARY CASE STUDY 1A: FARM RESERVOIRS IN JORDANIAN BADIA CASE STUDY 1B: GROUNDWATER DAMS FOR SUBTERRANEAN WATER STORAGE (Subsurface Dams and Sand Dams) CASE STUDY 1C: GREENHOUSE WATER HARVESTING IN LEBANON Thanks for Your Attention!

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