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Extensive serological and virological FMD surveys in wild boar were implemented to prove freedom from the disease in Bulgaria/Turkish Thrace (2011) and better understand its role the FMD enzootic areas in Anatolian Turkey (2011-2012, commissioned by the EuFMD Standing Technical Committee and funded by EC through EuFMD).
Samples were collected from shot wild boar: in Thrace mostly on the border between Bulgaria and Turkey (n=1004), and in 4 provinces with different disease situation in Anatolian Turkey (n=252). Information on sex, age, group size, GPS coordinates and other details was recorded. Results of laboratory test were compiled into georeferenced database and explored together with information on spatio-temporal occurrence of FMD in livestock.
Only one virus (serotype Asia-1/ lineage Sind08) was detected in Gümüşhane Province in Turkey. It was most closely related to the recent livestock isolates. Average seroprevalence (SP) in all animals sampled in 2011 in Thrace was 7.8 %. It was higher closer to outbreak locations in livestock (17.9 % (12.6 - 24.3)) and declined further away, reaching zero beyond 50 km radius. Juveniles had significantly lower SP of 5.6% (3.4 – 8.5) as compared to adults
(9.1 % (6.9 – 11.6)). No difference in SP was found between sexes. In Anatolia FMD positive animals were found in all 4 provinces. Average SP was 13.1 % (9.2-17.9) with large regional variation (Rize 4.8 % (0.1-24) and Erzrum 41 % (18-67)).
Wild boar get involved into FMD transmission of multiple serotypes (O, Asia-1, SAT-2) and exchange viruses with livestock. Disease prevention, control and eradication strategies should account for this complication where wild boar density is high. Timely detection of FMD incursions to wildlife requires non-invasive sampling methods.
(c) S.Khomenko / EuFMD (firstname.lastname@example.org)