SURVEILLANCE FORFMD IN WILD BOARIN 2011-2012RESULTS FROM BULGARIAAND TURKEY              Sergei Khomenko             Tsvia...
Triggered by FMDincursion to the EU   Jan-April 2011    Serotype “O”
Follow-up activities:• Wildlife surveillance in Thrace (TR+BG) –  govt authorities / EU-FMD/FAO-EMPRES• Anatolian wild boa...
Scope of the surveys                             ANATOLIA (TR)                           Dec 2011 – Feb 2012              ...
Sero-positivity to FMDV:                        Thrace (epidemic O) versus                        Anatolia (endemic O, A, ...
NSP + in Wild Boar in Thrace
Spatio-temporal                     variation in sero-                      prevalence in                          Thrace ...
Conclusions on FMD           epidemic in Thrace• Spread was spatially and temporary limited;• Transmission between livesto...
Sero-prevalence in     5 provinces of concern         Anatolia: NSP+ in                                     livestock v WB...
Regional variation in                       60,000                                       infected with sero-prevalence:   ...
Most closely related FMD Asia-1 viruses were found to co-circulate in this region in cattle   Isolate from wild boar   Clo...
FMD outbreaks in  Serotypes in livestock       350                                     livestock (5 provinces)and wild boa...
Does age                                         matter?                                         3 adult (3-5 yrs)        ...
THRACE: virus O +                                                                                        ANATOLIA: virus A...
??? Hypothesis outline: ???• FMD easily spills over to WB from SR (Kurban in 2010-2011?)  and develops into epidemics in N...
• Clinical signs on the 4 DPI Experimental                         (domestic 2 DPI) – e.g.   infection                    ...
Non-invasive surveillance                        Chichikin et al, 2012    NEEDS:                  SOLUTIONS:• Aims at dete...
EXPERIMENT WITH A TAME WILD BOAR        EASY TO INCORPORATE                                           ANY SWABS INTO      ...
Telemetry project    Strandzha (10)    Tutrakan (10)    • Movements and habitat use                       of wild boar;   ...
Trapped …     A male’s home range - 23.09 – 10.10.2012                   STRANDZHA                  ~ 4 km… and collared  ...
Progress and challenges                with telemetry project• 90 animals trapped, but most juveniles + trap  failures, po...
Historical range of Sus scrofa                                FMD in                                                      ...
1*1 km                      +                             =    resolution                                                 ...
THANKS TO ALL
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Session 2: Surveillance for FMD in wild boar in 2011-2012: results from Bulgaria and Turkey

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Extensive serological and virological FMD surveys in wild boar were implemented to prove freedom from the disease in Bulgaria/Turkish Thrace (2011) and better understand its role the FMD enzootic areas in Anatolian Turkey (2011-2012, commissioned by the EuFMD Standing Technical Committee and funded by EC through EuFMD).

Samples were collected from shot wild boar: in Thrace mostly on the border between Bulgaria and Turkey (n=1004), and in 4 provinces with different disease situation in Anatolian Turkey (n=252). Information on sex, age, group size, GPS coordinates and other details was recorded. Results of laboratory test were compiled into georeferenced database and explored together with information on spatio-temporal occurrence of FMD in livestock.

Only one virus (serotype Asia-1/ lineage Sind08) was detected in Gümüşhane Province in Turkey. It was most closely related to the recent livestock isolates. Average seroprevalence (SP) in all animals sampled in 2011 in Thrace was 7.8 %. It was higher closer to outbreak locations in livestock (17.9 % (12.6 - 24.3)) and declined further away, reaching zero beyond 50 km radius. Juveniles had significantly lower SP of 5.6% (3.4 – 8.5) as compared to adults
(9.1 % (6.9 – 11.6)). No difference in SP was found between sexes. In Anatolia FMD positive animals were found in all 4 provinces. Average SP was 13.1 % (9.2-17.9) with large regional variation (Rize 4.8 % (0.1-24) and Erzrum 41 % (18-67)).

Wild boar get involved into FMD transmission of multiple serotypes (O, Asia-1, SAT-2) and exchange viruses with livestock. Disease prevention, control and eradication strategies should account for this complication where wild boar density is high. Timely detection of FMD incursions to wildlife requires non-invasive sampling methods.

(c) S.Khomenko / EuFMD (eufmd@fao.org)

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Session 2: Surveillance for FMD in wild boar in 2011-2012: results from Bulgaria and Turkey

  1. 1. SURVEILLANCE FORFMD IN WILD BOARIN 2011-2012RESULTS FROM BULGARIAAND TURKEY Sergei Khomenko Tsviatko Alexandrov Naci Bulut Sinan Aktas Keith Sumption
  2. 2. Triggered by FMDincursion to the EU Jan-April 2011 Serotype “O”
  3. 3. Follow-up activities:• Wildlife surveillance in Thrace (TR+BG) – govt authorities / EU-FMD/FAO-EMPRES• Anatolian wild boar survey for FMD (TR) – EU-FMD/FAO-EMPRES• Wild boar ecology telemetry project (BG) - EU-FMD/FAO-EMPRES• Development of non-invasive wildlife surveillance methodology (BG) - EU- FMD/FAO-EMPRES• Wild boar population mapping (N Eurasia) – FAO-EMPRES
  4. 4. Scope of the surveys ANATOLIA (TR) Dec 2011 – Feb 2012 N=252 THRACE (BG+TR)Jan 2011 – Jan 2012 N=1004
  5. 5. Sero-positivity to FMDV: Thrace (epidemic O) versus Anatolia (endemic O, A, Asia) AGE THRACE ANATOLIA GROUP n NSP+ (95 % CI), % n NSP+ (95 % CI), % PADULT 628 9.1 (6.9 – 11.6) 185 24.9 (18.3 - 32.4) <0.05JUVENILE 358 5.6 (3.4 – 8.5) 67 7.5 (2.5 - 16.6) nsALL 1004 7.8 (6.2-9.6) 252 20.2 (15.5 - 25.7) <0.05 NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SEXES FOUND, ONLY BETWEEN AGES
  6. 6. NSP + in Wild Boar in Thrace
  7. 7. Spatio-temporal variation in sero- prevalence in Thrace Prevalence in time (quarter yearly 2011) To outbreaks TOTAL, n % Ab+ (95 % CI), %Prevalence by 0 – 5 km 168 10.1 (6.0 - 15.7) 6 – 10 km 179 17.9 (12.6 - 24.3) zones 11 – 20 km 223 8.5 (5.2 – 13.0) around 21 – 30 km 113 - outbreaks 31 – 50 km 186 5.4 (2.6 - 9.7) > 50 km 134 -
  8. 8. Conclusions on FMD epidemic in Thrace• Spread was spatially and temporary limited;• Transmission between livestock and wildlife was both ways (facilitated by humans?);• Disease event in wildlife developed in winter and died away end of spring• However, serology fails to identify sequence of the different stages of this particular disease event … EFSA, 2012; Alexandrov et al (in prep.), Dhollander et al (in prep.)
  9. 9. Sero-prevalence in 5 provinces of concern Anatolia: NSP+ in livestock v WB30 20.2 • Distinctly different from LR25 (P=0.1), but not SR (P=0.001); 17.420 • Except for Samsun prevalence15 in WB does not differ from SR (P=0.6-0.8);10 5.9 lower 95 % • Prevalence in WB correlates 5 upper 95 % Prevalence best with that in SR (r=0.9, R² 0 = 0,8), but not LR (ns). LR SR WB
  10. 10. Regional variation in 60,000 infected with sero-prevalence: FMD all over Turkey ! UNITS n % NSP+ (95 % CI) % ASIA + %O+ERZURUM 17 52,9 (27,8 - 77,0) 11,8 41,2SAMSUN 73 28,8 (18,8 - 40,6) 28,8GÜMÜŞHANE 58 17,2 (8,6 - 29,4) 12,1* 5,2KASTAMONU 76 13,2 (6,5 - 22,9) 13,2RİZE 21 4,8 (0,1 - 23,8) 4,8TOTAL 252 20,2 (15,5 - 25,7) 3,6 16,7ERZURUM is distinctly different from all other provinces (P<0.05)SAMSUN has higher prevalence than KASTAMONU (P=0.05)All other regional differences are NS* One virus positive animal in GÜMÜŞHANE
  11. 11. Most closely related FMD Asia-1 viruses were found to co-circulate in this region in cattle Isolate from wild boar Closely related isolates from cattle TURKEY
  12. 12. FMD outbreaks in Serotypes in livestock 350 livestock (5 provinces)and wild boar mismatch ! 300 250 200 NO SEROTYPE “A” FOUND ! 150 100 50 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 % outbreaks by serotype A Asia-1 O 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
  13. 13. Does age matter? 3 adult (3-5 yrs) wild boar might have been exposed to two serotypes during their life AGE GROUP ASIA + (%) O + (%) Total +ADULT (>21 month) 5 (13) 34 (87) 39SUB-ADULT (<21 and > 12 months) 3 (43) 4 (57) 7JUVENILE (<12 months) 1 (20) 4 (80) 5ALL 9 (18) 42 (82) 51
  14. 14. THRACE: virus O + ANATOLIA: virus Asia-1 + Dec 2010 Feb 2012BG: OTR: Serotype O Serotypes A, Asia, O 160 140 KURBAN KURBAN 120 100 ? 80 Livestock 60 Wild Boar 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2010 2011 2012 Rut Farrowing Rut Farrowing Rut Farrowing Rut
  15. 15. ??? Hypothesis outline: ???• FMD easily spills over to WB from SR (Kurban in 2010-2011?) and develops into epidemics in Nov – March;• Some serotypes (e.g. O, Asia) are better transmitted by WB, than the others (e.g. A) ?..• Livestock (summer) and WB (winter) epidemics are in a seasonal antiphase (“old serotypes” detected);• Hunters can play important role in disease transmission from WB to livestock;• Mostly adult animals are involved (rut?);• Many piglets born thereafter have maternal Ab protection (low prevalence in juveniles);• This + low population density in early spring + higher temperatures bring R0 below 1.
  16. 16. • Clinical signs on the 4 DPI Experimental (domestic 2 DPI) – e.g. infection incubation 4 days; • Most severe and evident lesions – 7 DPI; • Viraemia: 1 DPI through at least 9 DPI; • NSP antibodies detected 7-8 DPI; • RNA in saliva normally found up to 14 DPI and up to DPI 24 DPI intermittently.CREDITS: A. Breithaupt, K. Depner, B. Haas, M. Beer (FLI – Federal ResearchInstitute for Animal Health Institute of Diagnostic Virology)
  17. 17. Non-invasive surveillance Chichikin et al, 2012 NEEDS: SOLUTIONS:• Aims at detecting • Ropes (validated on virus by PCR; farms and in wild• Targets epi-unit (all boar for ASF animals attending (Chichikin et al, a feeding site); 2012).• As frequent as • CSF vaccine baits needed; with swabs;• Cost effective; • Swabs incorporated into food baits (e.g.• Logistically simple. maize cobs).
  18. 18. EXPERIMENT WITH A TAME WILD BOAR EASY TO INCORPORATE ANY SWABS INTO 6 1 7 2 8 3 SUITS FOR COMMERCIAL FEEDERS 9 4 10 5
  19. 19. Telemetry project Strandzha (10) Tutrakan (10) • Movements and habitat use of wild boar; • 20 GPS/GSM Tellus collarsBULGARIA (1 year – 24 fixes a day); • Adult females (group leaders) targeted; • All adults and piglets ear- tagged. http://www.followit.se/wildliferesearch.html
  20. 20. Trapped … A male’s home range - 23.09 – 10.10.2012 STRANDZHA ~ 4 km… and collared >500 positions by now
  21. 21. Progress and challenges with telemetry project• 90 animals trapped, but most juveniles + trap failures, poor GSM coverage, heat, lack of Zoletil …• 4 collars put into operation (two consistently give signal: a male in Strandzha and female in Tutrakan);• Field labor input underestimated – need more time and personnel;• Local collaborators were found and involved;• Potential cooperation with ASFORCE (+ 20 transmitters) is considered
  22. 22. Historical range of Sus scrofa FMD in wild boar: 1. Caucasus 1902 1908 1911 2 1917 5 1919 1925 2. Kazakh- 1927 1 stan 1931 1941 3 2011 ? 4 3. Kyrgyz- 1953 stan 4. Israel 1987- 1999 2007 2011 ? 5. Europe 1920s? 2011 Marek & Hutÿra, 1931; Sludskiy, 1956; Danilkin, 2002
  23. 23. 1*1 km + = resolution density data product504 spatial objects 48 countries (NUTs 1)Population and/or harvest data (2005-2010) 3,600,000 – post harvest 2-2,500,000 - harvested Khomenko, Robinson, Gilbert (in prep.)
  24. 24. THANKS TO ALL

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