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Processing and integrating soil map information
from different regions into China Soil Geo-data
base at 1:50,000 scale
GSP...
Outlines
1. China soil survey in recent years
2. Tasks of China Soil Geo-data base
3. Processing & integrating of China So...
high fertility
middle fertility
Low fertility
just for forestry & husbandry
China has limited arable land resources
- arab...
• 1958-1960: 1st national soil survey (MOA)
• 1979-1986: 2nd national soil survey (MOA, 200 mill. ¥)
• 2006-now: Soil poll...
Sampling plans were made by using 1:10,000 scale
topographic maps.
• 5 million soil profiles were observed, parent materia...
Maps at 1:50,000 scale for 2400 counties were
drafted based on observations
Soil map
Soil organic matter
Soil total nitrog...
2、我国宝贵土壤调查资料(以纸质方式保存)正在
大量丢失,迫切需要抢救、整理与保护
一、立项背景
Soil map of a county
Soil map of a county
Soil Map
Available N
Total N
Available K
Available P
pH
OM
湖北省鄂城县(7个专题图)
Soil and soil property maps of a county
• Description of physical and chemical
properties of soil profile
Description of physical and
chemical properties of soil profile
Long-term changing soil property: texture, parent
materials, morphological and other physical soil
feature
The 2nd nationa...
Short-term changing soil property: OM, nutrient,
tillage depth, tighten, salting etc. important for
evaluate soil quality ...
Regions with significant soil acidification from
1980s to 2010s
Main advantages of legacy soil data from 2nd soil survey
① Large quantity of field survey, field sampling and
laboratory a...
Country Soil profiles number
China 100,000 (available)
New Zealand 2,500
Australia 160,000
Belgium 15,000
Denmark 8,000
Ge...
Main advantages of legacy soil data from 2nd soil survey
② One standardized approach for sampling planning,
sampling, labo...
Problem
Valuable records and maps deposited separately at
provinces or counties were heavily loosed and
damaged and diffic...
• Supported by many famous scientists in China
and financed by MOST, development of China
China Soil Geo-data base at 1:50...
2. Tasks of China Soil Geo-data base
◆ collect and preserve soil maps and records
of 2400 counties
◆ develop a China Soil Geo-data base with
temporal and spati...
Soil paper maps and records of 2400 counties were
collected from the whole country.
Shanxi Tibet
Jiangxi prov. Hainan
3. Processing & integrating of China Soil Geo-data
Soil type State issued Existing
Great group 61 312
Sub group 229 1872
Species/Family 663 15600
Variety 3000 62400
Main dif...
Main difficulties of date integration
(3) Large data processing work: each map contains
1,000-9,000 polygons, 50-150 soil ...
bad paper map condition
State issued taxonomy
Existing issued published Existing
Order 12 14
?
Sub order 31 39
Great group 312 61 140
Sub group 18...
61 Soil great group of China
State issued (1990)
Overview of soil classification
• 《 Soil Classification 》
2001, European Soil Burean
• 《 Soil Genesis and Classification》
...
• 《Digital Soil Mapping》
EU Digital Soil Mapping
WG, 2005,262页
•《Digital Soil Mapping, An
Introductory Perspective》
2007, ...
System
China (issued) USA Germany
Nr. Exam. Nr. Exam. Nr. Exam.
Order 12 钙层土 12 Entisols 4 Terrestrische
Böden
Sub
order 3...
System
China (issued) USA Germany
Nr. Exam. Nr. Exam. Nr. Exam.
Order 12 钙层土 12 Entisols 4 Terrestrische
Böden
Sub
order 3...
Basic thoughts for integrating soil names
1) Soil classification system should be no more
complicated as it is. At least, ...
铁铝土纲
Ferralsols
淋溶土纲
Alfisols
半淋溶土纲
Semi-alfisols
钙层土纲
Pedocals
12 Soil order of China, State issued
干旱土纲
Aridisols
漠土纲
Desert soils
初育土纲
Amorphic soils
半水成土纲
Semi-aqueous soils
12 Soil order of China, State issued
水成土纲
Aqueous soils
人为土纲
Anthrosols
高山土纲
Alpine soils
盐碱土纲
Alkali-saline soils
12 Soil order of China, State issued
Great
group
Main soil forming
process
砖红壤
Latosols
热带雨林、季雨林下,
强烈脱硅富铝风化
赤红壤
Latosolic
red earths
南亚热带季雨林,脱硅
富铝风化程度仅次于砖
红壤,比...
61 Soil great group of China
After integration(=State issued)
Basic thoughts for revision
1) Soil classification system should be not more
complicated for soil scientists to distinguis...
40 indexes of soil family in Germany
Index Code Index Code
Humu
sform
(Mull)x mu
Färbun
g
braune( r) b
(Moder) mo graubrau...
Revision of China soil classification system
Category
State
Issued
Existing Revised taxonomy
Order 12 12 14
Sub order 31 3...
Main difficulties of date integration
(1) Difference of soil naming among different
regions
(2) Difference in soil propert...
3. Processing & integrating of China Soil Geo-data
(2) Data model of China soil geo-data base
Layers Contents Geo feature ...
3. Processing & integrating of China Soil Geo-data
(1) integrating soil naming among different regions
(2) Data model of C...
The data processing flow consists 106 sections
2: Xb
原图修复
1: Xa
图件登记与
元数据建库
3:Xc
扫描
4:Xd
图像文件处理
Data processing flow
6: Xf
矢量数据
元数据建库
5: Xe
建图像文件数据库
7-12:X1-6
配准、矢量化,建
基...
14: Xh
矢量数据
格式标准化
16: Xj
境界标准化
15: Xi
坐标标准化
17: Xk
属性表与
字段标准化
19: Xm
三元表达式
18: Xl
存储目录标准化
20:Xm1
原图再现
21: Xn
土类整合模型
80,000 map unite
60,000 soil types
500 soil property classes
300 basic geo-info types
Integrating soil types and property ...
Interface: 4 normalized documents
• Fra (data set organizer): define data set organization
• Dir (map unite directory): de...
By using the interface, software tools for data
processing were developed.
Dozens of intermediate and final products have been
derived.
- Soil profile data base with geo references
- China Soil Map...
2016
2011
With help of the interface and software tools,
integrating soil info from different regions into
one China Soil ...
4. Application
Data share
up to now: already supplied to 23 provinces,
1218 counties and dozens of universities
and research institutes
◆...
Main contributors of China soil geo-data base at
1:50,000 scale: 16 institutes together
Discussion and conclusion
1. Important roles of soil info in agriculture
• Fertilization
• Water management in crop produc...
2. Some nature of soil information
• Soil information will never be “old” for soil
scientists.
• For the end users, i.e. f...
Thanks for your attention!
Processing and integrating soil map information from different regions into China Soil Geo-data base at 1:50,000 scale - W...
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Processing and integrating soil map information from different regions into China Soil Geo-data base at 1:50,000 scale - Weili Zhang

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This presentation was made during the GSP/E-SOTER Global Soil Information workshop that took place at the FAO HQ, Rome , Italy from 20-23 March 2012. This presentation was made on the third day by Dr. Zhang, Weili, and it presents Processing and integrating soil map information from different regions into China Soil Geo-data base at 1:50,000 scale.

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Processing and integrating soil map information from different regions into China Soil Geo-data base at 1:50,000 scale - Weili Zhang

  1. 1. Processing and integrating soil map information from different regions into China Soil Geo-data base at 1:50,000 scale GSP WORKSHOP 19 - 23 March 2012, Rome Prof. Dr. Zhang, Weili Email: wlzhang@caas.ac.cn Soil and Fertilizer Institute Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  2. 2. Outlines 1. China soil survey in recent years 2. Tasks of China Soil Geo-data base 3. Processing & integrating of China Soil Geo-data 4. Application
  3. 3. high fertility middle fertility Low fertility just for forestry & husbandry China has limited arable land resources - arable land resource per person less than 40% of the world average - only 30% belongs to fertile soil - keep decreasing since 1996, especially fertile soil resources Map of soil fertility classes
  4. 4. • 1958-1960: 1st national soil survey (MOA) • 1979-1986: 2nd national soil survey (MOA, 200 mill. ¥) • 2006-now: Soil pollution investigation(MOE MOL,1 bill.¥) • 1999-2009: Investigation and classification of land resources for agricultural use (MOL,400 mill. ¥) • 2002-now: Investigation and evaluation of arable land fertility (MOA,200 mill. ¥) • 2005-now: Investigation of soil nutrient status (MOA, 7 bill. ¥) • 2007-2009: 2nd national land resource survey (MOL,15 bill. ¥) • 2002-now: Investigation of land elements (MOG) China soil survey in recent years High priority has been paid on understanding soil quality for food security by the central government
  5. 5. Sampling plans were made by using 1:10,000 scale topographic maps. • 5 million soil profiles were observed, parent materials, morphological and other soil feature were recorded. • 200 thousand profiles were sampled, soil texture, OM, pH, EC, N, P, K, micro nutrient contents, depth, salt and other soil properties of each profile layer were analyzed and recorded • 2 million soil samplings of tillage layer were sampled and analyzed. The 2nd national soil survey of China(1979-1986)
  6. 6. Maps at 1:50,000 scale for 2400 counties were drafted based on observations Soil map Soil organic matter Soil total nitrogen Soil available phosphorus Soil available potassium Soil pH
  7. 7. 2、我国宝贵土壤调查资料(以纸质方式保存)正在 大量丢失,迫切需要抢救、整理与保护 一、立项背景 Soil map of a county
  8. 8. Soil map of a county
  9. 9. Soil Map Available N Total N Available K Available P pH OM 湖北省鄂城县(7个专题图) Soil and soil property maps of a county
  10. 10. • Description of physical and chemical properties of soil profile
  11. 11. Description of physical and chemical properties of soil profile
  12. 12. Long-term changing soil property: texture, parent materials, morphological and other physical soil feature The 2nd national soil survey of China
  13. 13. Short-term changing soil property: OM, nutrient, tillage depth, tighten, salting etc. important for evaluate soil quality changes. Soil parameters 1979 - 1985 n 2005- 2010 n increase (%) OM (%) 1.82 1,151,366 2.42 85,512 33% Available P (mg/kg) 7.9 907,502 18.8 56,515 138% Available K (mg/kg) 105 667,673 119.08 45225 13% Change of soil OM, available P and K in China. The 2nd national soil survey of China
  14. 14. Regions with significant soil acidification from 1980s to 2010s
  15. 15. Main advantages of legacy soil data from 2nd soil survey ① Large quantity of field survey, field sampling and laboratory analysis Main cropping area: one observation profile/2-7 ha The 2nd national soil survey of China
  16. 16. Country Soil profiles number China 100,000 (available) New Zealand 2,500 Australia 160,000 Belgium 15,000 Denmark 8,000 Germany 160,000 France 540 Italy several thousands Spain 453 England 6,000 Soil profile with detailed records of soil texture, OM, pH, EC, N, P, K, micro nutrient contents, depth and other soil physical and chemical properties of each profile layer
  17. 17. Main advantages of legacy soil data from 2nd soil survey ② One standardized approach for sampling planning, sampling, laboratory analysis, recording and mapping Clear objectives: soil resources (soil type) and fertility (fertility related property) ③ Relatively precise operation by experts. The 2nd national soil survey of China
  18. 18. Problem Valuable records and maps deposited separately at provinces or counties were heavily loosed and damaged and difficult to be applied. The 2nd national soil survey of China
  19. 19. • Supported by many famous scientists in China and financed by MOST, development of China China Soil Geo-data base at 1:50,000 scale was officially started since 2006.
  20. 20. 2. Tasks of China Soil Geo-data base
  21. 21. ◆ collect and preserve soil maps and records of 2400 counties ◆ develop a China Soil Geo-data base with temporal and spatial soil info by integrating data of different regions and sampled in different periods. ◆ finish one China soil map at 1:50000 scale ◆ improve date share of soil information Tasks
  22. 22. Soil paper maps and records of 2400 counties were collected from the whole country. Shanxi Tibet Jiangxi prov. Hainan
  23. 23. 3. Processing & integrating of China Soil Geo-data
  24. 24. Soil type State issued Existing Great group 61 312 Sub group 229 1872 Species/Family 663 15600 Variety 3000 62400 Main difficulties of date integration (1) Difference of soil naming among different regions (2) Difference in soil property representation and map layers organization etc. Difference of soil naming among different regions
  25. 25. Main difficulties of date integration (3) Large data processing work: each map contains 1,000-9,000 polygons, 50-150 soil types and 20-50 basic geo-info types, but in bad map condition time consuming and cost limitation. 80,000 map units
  26. 26. bad paper map condition
  27. 27. State issued taxonomy Existing issued published Existing Order 12 14 ? Sub order 31 39 Great group 312 61 140 Sub group 1872 229 600 Species/Family 15600 663 Variety/ Series 62400 3000 (1) integrating soil naming among different regions China Soil classification system ◆ State issued: 1979 1st edit., 2000 1st rev., 2009 2nd rev. ◆ Soil taxonomy: published in 2007 (ISSCAS) 3. Processing & integrating of China Soil Geo-data
  28. 28. 61 Soil great group of China State issued (1990)
  29. 29. Overview of soil classification • 《 Soil Classification 》 2001, European Soil Burean • 《 Soil Genesis and Classification》 5th 6th Edition 2003,2010, Buol •《The Canadian System of Soil Classification》 3rd edition, 2011 • 《 Soil Taxonomy》USDA, Second Edition, 1999 • 《Soil Classification: A Global Desk Reference》, 2003 • Australian Soil Classification
  30. 30. • 《Digital Soil Mapping》 EU Digital Soil Mapping WG, 2005,262页 •《Digital Soil Mapping, An Introductory Perspective》 2007, 659页 • 《Digital Soil Mapping Bridging Research, Environment Application, and Operation》 2010,462页 • On digital soil mapping McBratney, Geoderma 2003 Influenced by progress of DSM
  31. 31. System China (issued) USA Germany Nr. Exam. Nr. Exam. Nr. Exam. Order 12 钙层土 12 Entisols 4 Terrestrische Böden Sub order 31 半干暖 温钙层 土 60 Fluvents 21 Schwarzerden Great group 61 栗褐土 270 Torrifluvents 56 Kalktschernos em Sub group 229 潮栗褐 土 2500 Typic Torrifluvents 220 Braunerde- Kalktschernos em Family/s pecies 663 轻壤质 洪淤土 — (Multiple) Fine-loamy, mixed,supera ctive,calcare ous, mesic — (40 items) md, mr, o, n, u, d, k, e, v, ku Variety/ Series 3000 厚粘体 轻壤洪 淤土 19000 Jocity Youngston Comparison of current soil classification system of different country
  32. 32. System China (issued) USA Germany Nr. Exam. Nr. Exam. Nr. Exam. Order 12 钙层土 12 Entisols 4 Terrestrische Böden Sub order 31 半干暖温 钙层土 60 Fluvents 21 Schwarzerden Great group 61 栗褐土 270 Torrifluvents 56 Kalktschernos em Sub group 229 潮栗褐土 2500 Typic Torrifluvents 220 Braunerde- Kalktschernos em Influence of language custom in addition to regional soil forming processes USA:Formative element Order 12 Sub order 28 Great group 57
  33. 33. Basic thoughts for integrating soil names 1) Soil classification system should be no more complicated as it is. At least, it should be easy for soil scientists to distinguish the main soil forming process. 2) Upper classes should be focused on main soil forming process or elements and remain certain stability.
  34. 34. 铁铝土纲 Ferralsols 淋溶土纲 Alfisols 半淋溶土纲 Semi-alfisols 钙层土纲 Pedocals 12 Soil order of China, State issued
  35. 35. 干旱土纲 Aridisols 漠土纲 Desert soils 初育土纲 Amorphic soils 半水成土纲 Semi-aqueous soils 12 Soil order of China, State issued
  36. 36. 水成土纲 Aqueous soils 人为土纲 Anthrosols 高山土纲 Alpine soils 盐碱土纲 Alkali-saline soils 12 Soil order of China, State issued
  37. 37. Great group Main soil forming process 砖红壤 Latosols 热带雨林、季雨林下, 强烈脱硅富铝风化 赤红壤 Latosolic red earths 南亚热带季雨林,脱硅 富铝风化程度仅次于砖 红壤,比红壤强 红壤 Red earths 中亚热带绿阔叶林,中 度脱硅富铝风化 黄壤 Yellow earths 亚热带湿润条件,多见 700一1200m山区,中 度富铝风化 铁铝土 Ferralsols 4 Soil great group of Ferralsols, State issued Visualized and short names of soil great group is much easier for soil scientists to distinguish main soil forming process.
  38. 38. 61 Soil great group of China After integration(=State issued)
  39. 39. Basic thoughts for revision 1) Soil classification system should be not more complicated for soil scientists to distinguish the main soil forming process 2) Upper classes should focused on main soil forming process or elements and remain certain stability. 3) Under classes (related with functional properties) tend to be described quantitatively or classified to grades to satisfy demands on soil information in future. Just try to keep original description.
  40. 40. 40 indexes of soil family in Germany Index Code Index Code Humu sform (Mull)x mu Färbun g braune( r) b (Moder) mo graubraune(r) gb (Rohhumus) ro graue( r) gr (Tangel) ta rötliche(r) rt (Feuchtmull) mf Ausfäll. eisenreiche(r) ei (Feuchtmoder) md sulfatreiche(r) sf (Feuchtrohhumus) mr verfestigte(r) vf (Anmmor) o geogen (Organo) 1 og (Niedermoor)3 n kalkhaltige(r) 1 x x c (Übergangsmoor)3 u salzhaltige(r) 1 z (Hochmoor)3 h weit. pedog. Merkm. nassgebleichte(r) i Basizit ät basenreiche(r)2x x x eu humusreiche(r) x mittelbasische(r)2x x x m podsolige(r)2 p basenarme(r)2x x x dy lessivierte(r) l Wasse rhaus h. pseudovergleyte(r)2 s verfahlte(r) d vergleyte(r)2 g kolluviale(r)1x x x k (Auen) a erodierte(r)x e reliktische(r) (entwässerte(r)) r Nutz. (Acker)1 v
  41. 41. Revision of China soil classification system Category State Issued Existing Revised taxonomy Order 12 12 14 Sub order 31 31 39 Great group 61 312 61 partly listedSub group 229 1872 800 Species/Family 663 15600 11000 Variety 3000 62400 48000
  42. 42. Main difficulties of date integration (1) Difference of soil naming among different regions (2) Difference in soil property representation and map layers organization etc. (3) Large data processing work Solution: ◆ Data model development ◆ A processing flow supported by a series' of software tools
  43. 43. 3. Processing & integrating of China Soil Geo-data (2) Data model of China soil geo-data base Layers Contents Geo feature Sample years SOINT Soil type polygon, line SOIPT Soil profile point SOMPY Soil organic matter polygon SNTPY Soil total N polygon SNAPY Soil available N polygon SPAPY Soil available P polygon SKAPY Soil available K polygon SPHPY Soil pH polygon 1979-1985 PROPT Soil profile after 1990s point PLOPT Soil plough layer after 1990s point after 1990s Successful to organize soil survey information of China in the last 50 years.
  44. 44. 3. Processing & integrating of China Soil Geo-data (1) integrating soil naming among different regions (2) Data model of China soil geo-data base (3) Processing flow with a series of intermediate and final products to retain the important original information in case of future data mining ◆ a interface for soil geo-data base ◆ software tools for data processing
  45. 45. The data processing flow consists 106 sections
  46. 46. 2: Xb 原图修复 1: Xa 图件登记与 元数据建库 3:Xc 扫描 4:Xd 图像文件处理 Data processing flow 6: Xf 矢量数据 元数据建库 5: Xe 建图像文件数据库 7-12:X1-6 配准、矢量化,建 基准库、底图库等 13:Xg 图层标准化 多专题图层拆分
  47. 47. 14: Xh 矢量数据 格式标准化 16: Xj 境界标准化 15: Xi 坐标标准化 17: Xk 属性表与 字段标准化 19: Xm 三元表达式 18: Xl 存储目录标准化 20:Xm1 原图再现 21: Xn 土类整合模型
  48. 48. 80,000 map unite 60,000 soil types 500 soil property classes 300 basic geo-info types Integrating soil types and property classes should be done with all map unites
  49. 49. Interface: 4 normalized documents • Fra (data set organizer): define data set organization • Dir (map unite directory): define all map unites of a data set • Gr (geo-object type organizer): define all soil and basic geo-info types of a data set • Le (legend organizer): define soil and basic geo-info types of each map unite of a data set To connect each sections of the whole flow, a interface for soil geo-data base was established, to characterize each intermediate and final product exactly Fra GrDir Le
  50. 50. By using the interface, software tools for data processing were developed.
  51. 51. Dozens of intermediate and final products have been derived. - Soil profile data base with geo references - China Soil Map at 1:50000 scale - Vectored original map data
  52. 52. 2016 2011 With help of the interface and software tools, integrating soil info from different regions into one China Soil Geo-data base at 1:50,000 scale can be finished on time.
  53. 53. 4. Application
  54. 54. Data share up to now: already supplied to 23 provinces, 1218 counties and dozens of universities and research institutes ◆ Land soil quality evaluation ◆ Nutrient and fertilizer management ◆ Water pollution study ◆ Air pollution study, etc. 2013: Partly internet opening
  55. 55. Main contributors of China soil geo-data base at 1:50,000 scale: 16 institutes together
  56. 56. Discussion and conclusion 1. Important roles of soil info in agriculture • Fertilization • Water management in crop production: water holding capacity, irrigation strategy and equipments, etc. • Plough techniques …… Without combined technique development, efforts and investments just for getting soil data would not benefits farmers, i.e. society a lot. In this sense large attention should also be paid on applied research work.
  57. 57. 2. Some nature of soil information • Soil information will never be “old” for soil scientists. • For the end users, i.e. farmers, industries, consumers and policy makers, raw soil observation might become “too old”, even they are actually new. • Task of DSM and the Soil scientists is to make valuable forecasting or services for end users by using historical and actual soil observation. Suggestion to GSP: try to supply soil information to improve small farmers fertilizing practice in Asian & Africa by means of IR technique
  58. 58. Thanks for your attention!

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