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Pastoralism and Animal Health – Challenges

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http://www.fao.org/pastoralist-knowledge-hub/pastoralist-networks/regional-networks/north-africa-and-the-near-east/en/

Alessandro Ripani from OIE presented the work of OIE with regards to pastoralism at the of Meeting of North African and West Asian Pastoralists that took place from 14-15 January 2016 in Hammamet, Tunisia.

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Pastoralism and Animal Health – Challenges

  1. 1. Pastoralism and Animal Health – Challenges “Workshop of the Pastoralists Knowledge Hub on building an enabling environment for the sustainable development of pastoralists in North Africa and the West Asia Hammamet, 14 and 15 January 2016” Dr Alessandro Ripani OIE Sub Regional Represenative for North Africa 1
  2. 2. Rationale of pastoralism I  Two-thirds (2,500-3,400 Mha) of the agricultural land on planet Earth is grassland  Limited rainfall, high altitude or mountainous conditions.  High seasonal and inter-annual variation of pasture requires high flexibility and mobility  Various types of mobile livestock husbandry systems have developed that are well adapted to these systems 2 A sheep herd in Kyrgyzstan
  3. 3. 3 Pastoral areas in the Sahel and in Central Asia
  4. 4. Rationale of pastoralism II  Not in competition with human nutrition because humans cannot digest cellulose  Land reserves sustain considerable human and animal populations which could not be sustained in any other way in such areas  Pastoralist communities are underserved by and under- represented in many governments 4 Dromedary herd in North Mali Kyrgyz sheep breeders
  5. 5. Rationale of pastoralism III  Risk of delinquency or terrorism when pastoralist livelihoods are compromised  Regularly hit by natural disasters such as drought, locust invasions or snow storm catastrophes (e.g., Zud in Mongolia)  Large areas currently inaccessible because of political unrest and violence  Threats from mining operations, conversion to cropping or land grabbing 5 Kel Tamachek tent in North Mali Kyrgyz yurt
  6. 6. Social-ecological framework for pastoralism  Semi-arid ecosystems • lack of water • seasonality of rainfall • hot and cold areas / highland-lowland contexts • livestock / wildlife interface  Natural resources • highly limited agricultural production • almost exclusive use by extensive pastoral livestock systems • Horticulture, e.g. gum arabicum • mining, oil 6  Energy • lack of forests • potential for renewable energy • animal source fuels  Geography • long distances • lowland and highland contexts  Demography • low population density • limited governance • conflicts (resources) • Access to education, health, and Veterinary Services
  7. 7. 7 Yak and cattle in Terelj, Mongolia A ger (traditional felt tent) in Mongolia
  8. 8. Pastoral livestock production  Highly intensive vs. extensive pastoral livestock production systems • extensive pastoralism is almost the only way for sustainable use of semi-arid highland-lowland landscapes  Type of animals: drought- tolerant ruminants  Feed and water: seasonal availability of fodder necessitates a mobile lifestyle 8 Preparing for transhumance in Chad
  9. 9. 9 Bactrian camels in the South Gobi, Mongolia
  10. 10. Threats to pastoralism  Land grabbing  Fencing  Detrimental policies on • Land use • Sedentarization / mobility • Lack of social services (health, education, environment, security)  Erosion / desertification  Lack of effective conservation / protection of genetic resources  Conflicts / civil unrest / terrorism  Food insecurity / natural disasters  Transboundary animal diseases 10 Health service for Kel Tamachek in North Mali: nearest health centre is >60 km away
  11. 11. 11 Poor water quality in North Mali A starving sheep in North Mali, 2006 An austere Kel Tamachek household in North Mali Water must be pulled up from 80 m deep wells in North Mali
  12. 12. Unique potentials of pastoralism  Ecological potentials: • Preservation of unique ecosystems • High rate of carbon sequestration • No competition with human nutrition as cellulose can only be used by ruminants • Animal excreta-derived fuels/fertilizer • Human presence in remote territories  Economic potentials: • Biodiversity / conservation areas • Ecotourism • Increased offtake of animal protein, animal products 12
  13. 13. 13 Animal source fuel and food conservation Collecting cattle dung for fuel in Kyrgyzstan Preserving milk with salt in Naryn oblast in Kyrgyzstan
  14. 14. Future of pastoralism I  Community engagement, pastoralist associations, self-help frameworks  Decentralized environmental management with active participation of pastoralist stakeholders in policy making  Maintain mobility in socially and ecologically acceptable forms  Promote Global partnerships – World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism (WISP)  Develop veterinary assistance with governments and private sector involvement 14
  15. 15. 15 Transdisciplinary participatory stakeholder processes Engaging pastoral communities, local and central authorities and technical experts Engaging with pastoral communities, authorities & scientists in N’Djaména, Chad
  16. 16. Future of pastoralism II  Pastoral areas are an indispensable part of future land use.  It will be necessary to rethink local governance and social services, including animal and human health, education, transport, environmental management and security.  Improved social services like human and animal health services, locally adapted governance, and integrated adaptive management will pave the way for the sustainable use of pastoral areas, including, possibly, moderate intensification and larger export markets. 16
  17. 17. 17 Dairy camels waiting to be milked on the outskirts of Gode, South Ethiopia
  18. 18. Improving animal health  Better understanding of pastoralist management practices and movements to better deliver appropriate services  Development and application of appropriate technologies – e.g., cold chain, heat stable vaccines, field diagnostic kits  Training and use of veterinary para-professionals within pastoral communities with links to government and/or private veterinarians  Provide preventive, therapeutic and nutritional interventions  Foster supporting policies, laws and regulations to facilitate use of veterinary para-professionals and a high quality input supply chain, including vaccination campaign and disease eradication programmes 18
  19. 19. A One Health approach  Health services are often lacking for pastoralists as well as their animals  A one health approach to service delivery has merit  Offers greater efficiencies in service delivery – e.g., cold chain, staffing, transport  Can better address important zoonotic threats, e.g., brucellosis  Promotes greater participation in vaccination campaigns by pastoralists and their animals  Southern Sudan, 1990s. UNICEF Operation Lifeline Sudan Rinderpest vaccination in cattle; Polio vaccination in children.  Chad 2000s, Anthrax, pasteurellosis, blackleg and CBPP in cattle; Diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus in children (Schelling et al., EID, 13(3):373-379, 2007) 19
  20. 20. OIE efforts in support of pastoralism – Current I  Sensitisation of high level decision-makers on the importance of pastoralism 20
  21. 21. OIE efforts in support of pastoralism – Current II  Establishment of an “Alliance of Countries with Pastoralism Activities by Nomadic Populations” • First meeting during the 2013 OIE General Session 21
  22. 22. OIE efforts in support of pastoralism – Current III  Nouakchott Declaration on pastoralism (October 2013)  Regional Sahel Pastoralism Support Project (PRAPS) • 6 countries involved • OIE contributes to Component 1 – Animal Health o Support to countries through the OIE PVS Pathway o Regional coordination through Regional Animal Health Centre (RAHC) 22
  23. 23. Overview  Regional Project funded by the World Bank + national counterparts and beneficiary contributions;  Six countries: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Chad;;  + a regional institution: The Standing Committee Interstate fighting against drought in the Sahel;  Direct consequence of the statements and commitments made by the countries of the Sahel, regional organizations (ECOWAS, UEMOA, CILSS) and donors during the Nouakchott Forum in N'Djamena in 2013 to secure pastoralism and assosiated way of life (nomadism and transhumance) in the interest of people and Sahelian economies;  Peculiarity: - Coordination of activities at the regional level by CILSS but implementation at national level.
  24. 24. Project Development Objective  Improve access to essential productive assets, services and markets for pastoralists and agro-pastoralists in selected trans-border areas and transhumance axes across six Sahel countries, and strengthen country capacity to respond promptly and effectively to pastoral crises or emergencies  Améliorer l’accès à des moyens et services de production essentiels et aux marchés, pour les pasteurs et agropasteurs, dans des zones transfrontalières sélectionnées et le long des axes de transhumance dans les six pays Sahéliens, et améliorer la capacité de ces pays à répondre à temps et de façon efficace en cas de crises pastorales ou d’urgences
  25. 25. Beneficiaries of the Project Final beneficiaries: Breeders nomadic and transhumant agro-pastoralists; Central and decentralized national services in charge of livestock (including veterinary) Private service providers (including veterinarians) Regional Institutions (CILSS, CRSA);
  26. 26. Structure of the project COMPONENTS 1. improve animal health 2. improve the management of natural resources 3. facilitate access to markets 4. improve the management of pastoral crises 5. project management and institutional support
  27. 27. Thank you for your attention ! 29 12 rue de Prony, 75017 Paris, France www.oie.int – oie@oie.int

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