Nutrition policies: 
from 1992 ICN to 2014 ICN2 
Chizuru Nishida 
Coordinator, Nutrition Policy and Scientific Advice 
Dep...
The ICN Preparations (1990 – 1992) 
Country and Regional level: 
 Designation of an official country focal 
point 
 Coun...
The International Conference on Nutrition (ICN) 
Rome, 5 – 11 December 1992 
A Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) held in Gen...
What was pledged: 
(ICN, Rome, December 1992) 
To make all efforts to eliminate before the end of this decade (by 2000): 
...
"........ Rome was not built in a day, and our alliance to achieve nutritional 
well-being will unfortunately take time to...
Status of NPAN No. of Countries 
Final/draft/preparing NPAN 139 
- Final NPAN prepared 72 
- Draft NPAN 26 
- NPAN in prep...
ICN Plan of Action for Nutrition 
Strategies and actions: 
• incorporating nutritional objectives, considerations and 
com...
Regional review meetings to evaluate the progress and experiences of countries 
in developing and implementing national nu...
Global Nutrition Policy Review 
• Questionnaire based survey conducted in 2009 – 2010 
• 7 modules: 
1. Overview of the nu...
Policy environment and main gaps 
Policies 
• Most countries have nutrition policies, 
but they do not: 
− Address challen...
Coordination mechanisms for nutrition 
Sectors 
• Most often involved: 
Health, education, food 
and agriculture 
• Least ...
Are nutrition problems coherently addressed? 
Policy content in countries with and without a double burden of malnutrition...
Are nutrition problems coherently addressed? 
Nutrition actions in countries with and without a double burden of malnutrit...
Obesity and diet-related NCDs 
• Most often implemented and at 
national scale: 
– Promotional interventions, e.g. 
• Food...
Food security and agriculture 
• Policy goals 
– Most common: 
• Increase output and farm 
incomes 
• Improve quality of t...
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ICN2-Nutrition policies: from 1992 ICN to 2014 ICN2

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Nutrition policies: from 1992 ICN to 2014 ICN2
Chizuru Nishida
Coordinator, Nutrition Policy and Scientific Advice
Department of Nutrition for Health and development
WHO/HQ

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  • This slide shows countries with and without a double burden of malnutrition – defined as stunting in children u5 ≥20% and women’s obesity ≥5% (15 of 54 countries had a double burden problem, 20 of 54 countries did not have a double burden problem).Existence of relevant policies:Overall, policy response does not tackle the double burden that exists in the countries with both adult obesity and child stunting.These countries more often tackled undernutrition issues than obesity and diet-related NCDs
  • Implementation of relevant programmes and actions:Some programmes are widely implemented and at national scale in both groups of countries (i.e. promotion of breastfeeding, complementary feeding)The programmes to address obesity and diet-related NCDs are not sufficiently implemented or scaled-up.
  • ICN2-Nutrition policies: from 1992 ICN to 2014 ICN2

    1. 1. Nutrition policies: from 1992 ICN to 2014 ICN2 Chizuru Nishida Coordinator, Nutrition Policy and Scientific Advice Department of Nutrition for Health and development WHO/HQ PREPARATORY TECHNICAL MEETING FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy 13-15 November 2013
    2. 2. The ICN Preparations (1990 – 1992) Country and Regional level:  Designation of an official country focal point  Country paper --- nutrition problems, past experience in confronting them, plans for future action Regional / Sub-regional technical consultations Draft World Declaration and Plan of action for Nutrition Global level:  Framework paper on Meeting the Nutrition Challenge  8 theme papers  Case studies - Topic approach - Whole country approach  Main background paper on "Assessment and analysis of trends and current problems in nutrition"
    3. 3. The International Conference on Nutrition (ICN) Rome, 5 – 11 December 1992 A Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) held in Geneva, 18 – 24 August 1992:  Reviewed and revised the draft of the World Declaration and Plan of Action for Nutrition The Conference in Rome, 5 – 11 December 1992:  Adopted the World Declaration and Plan of action for Nutrition
    4. 4. What was pledged: (ICN, Rome, December 1992) To make all efforts to eliminate before the end of this decade (by 2000): • famine and famine-related deaths • starvation and nutritional deficiency diseases in communities affected by natural and man-made disasters • iodine and vitamin A deficiencies To reduce substantially within this decade (by 2000): • starvation and widespread chronic hunger • undernutrition, especially among children, women and the aged • other important micronutrient deficiencies, including iron • diet-related communicable and noncommunicable diseases • social and other impediments to optimal breast-feeding • inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene, including unsafe drinking-water
    5. 5. "........ Rome was not built in a day, and our alliance to achieve nutritional well-being will unfortunately take time to reach its objectives. However, with this Declaration and Plan of Action, we are the architects of a new nutrition order…... We must fulfill our responsibility , no our obligation, to lift the burden of malnutrition, in all its forms, from the frail shoulders of our newborn, our young children, our mothers, the coming generation, and indeed all humanity. ... A clarion call for solidarity and concerted action has rung out ….. We must all respond….. We have a mandate for action. Let time not escape, for now is the time to act……." Dr Hiroshi Nakajima, Director-General, WHO Extract from the ICN Closing Remarks Rome, 11 December 1992
    6. 6. Status of NPAN No. of Countries Final/draft/preparing NPAN 139 - Final NPAN prepared 72 - Draft NPAN 26 - NPAN in preparation (plan formulation has been hampered by various causes, including lack of local capacity, inadequate institutional arrangements, lack of resources or political turmoil) 41 World Declaration on Nutrition (adopted by 1992 ICN) "..... we (the Ministers and the Plenipotentiaries) ... affirm our determination to revise or prepare, before the end of 1994, our national plans of action, including attainable goals and measurable targets, based on the principles and relevant strategies in the Plan of Action for Nutrition. We pledge to implement it."
    7. 7. ICN Plan of Action for Nutrition Strategies and actions: • incorporating nutritional objectives, considerations and components into development policies and programmes; • improving household food security; • protecting consumers through improved food quality and safety; • preventing and managing infectious diseases; • promoting breast-feeding; • caring for the socio-economically deprived and nutritionally vulnerable; • preventing and controlling specific micronutrient deficiencies; • promoting appropriate diets and healthy lifestyles; • assessing, analysing and monitoring nutrition situations.
    8. 8. Regional review meetings to evaluate the progress and experiences of countries in developing and implementing national nutrition plans and policies 1. 1996 - 1997 2. 1999 - 2001 Key elements and obstacles in successfully developing and translating national nutrition plans and policies into action 1. Official governmental adoption & political support • not just having nutrition budget line • but specifically allocated "governmental funds" for nutrition • influential ministry leading the process • having high profile advocate 2. Intersectoral coordinating mechanism • location in the government • specifically allocated budget for their operation • members from all concerned stakeholders 3. Ability to translate plans into action • Prioritization of activities & designation of responsible sectors/ministries 4. Disconnect between national policy priority and regional / provincial level policy priority 5. Lack of human capacity in nutrition 6. Frequent turnover of staff -- Lack of institutional memory and continuity 7. Incorporation of monitoring & evaluation mechanism 8. Unavailability of reliable national food, nutrition and health data 9. Continuously changing international context of macropolicy on food and nutrition
    9. 9. Global Nutrition Policy Review • Questionnaire based survey conducted in 2009 – 2010 • 7 modules: 1. Overview of the nutrition policy and architecture 2. Infant and young child nutrition 3. International Code of Marketing of BMS 4. School-based programmes 5. Vitamins and minerals 6. Obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases 7. Food security and agriculture policies • 123 countries responded • Report published 2013 – Served as background paper for CIP-MIYCN • Data available on the WHO Global Database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA) www.who.int/nutrition/gina
    10. 10. Policy environment and main gaps Policies • Most countries have nutrition policies, but they do not: − Address challenges of the double burden of malnutrition − Address nutrition challenges throughout lifecourse − Include evidence-informed actions comprehensively − Address underlying and basic causes of malnutrition • Food security strategies seldom include nutrition goals or actions Coordination • Intersectoral coordination mechanisms exist in most countries, but they do not: − Address existing challenges comprehensively − Anchor in high-level policy making frameworks e.g. PMO Implementation • Most countries implement some key interventions at national scale, but they do not: − Implement a comprehensive set of essential nutrition actions at scale − Address maternal nutrition through reaching out to girls and reproductive age women before pregnancy − Address adequately risk factors for obesity and diet-related NCDs Monitoring and evaluation • Most countries conduct national surveys, but they do not: − Include relevant indicators − Disaggregate data sufficiently to address inequities − Conduct surveys routinely in a timely manner − Use collected data for inform policy formulation Source : WHO, 2013. Global Nutrition Policy Review
    11. 11. Coordination mechanisms for nutrition Sectors • Most often involved: Health, education, food and agriculture • Least often involved: Finance Location • Most often in the Ministry of Health Source : WHO, 2013. Global Nutrition Policy Review
    12. 12. Are nutrition problems coherently addressed? Policy content in countries with and without a double burden of malnutrition Countries with stunting ≥20% and women’s obesity ≥5% Source : WHO, 2013. Global Nutrition Policy Review Countries with stunting <20% and/or women’s obesity <5%
    13. 13. Are nutrition problems coherently addressed? Nutrition actions in countries with and without a double burden of malnutrition Source : WHO, 2013. Global Nutrition Policy Review Countries with stunting ≥20% and women’s obesity ≥5% Countries with stunting <20% and/or women’s obesity <5% Note: darker area indicates implementation at national scale, the lighter area indicates implementation at subnational scale, and the full bar implementation at any scale (national or subnational)
    14. 14. Obesity and diet-related NCDs • Most often implemented and at national scale: – Promotional interventions, e.g. • Food-based dietary guidelines • Nutrition counselling in PHC • Food labelling • Media promotion of health nutrition • Fruit an vegetable promotion • Less often implemented: – control-demanding/legislative interventions, e.g. • Removal of TFA • Price control Source : WHO, 2013. Global Nutrition Policy Review
    15. 15. Food security and agriculture • Policy goals – Most common: • Increase output and farm incomes • Improve quality of the products – Less common: • Combating undernutrition • Reducing obesity and diet-related NCDs • Promoting healthy diet Source : WHO, 2013. Global Nutrition Policy Review

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