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Nature-based solutions for agricultural water management and food security (WEBINAR)


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Nature-based solutions for agricultural water management and food security (WEBINAR)

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Nature-based solutions for agricultural water management and food security (WEBINAR)

  1. 1. Nature-based solutions (NBS) for agricultural water management and food security Scaling-up Adaptation in the Agricultural Sectors (SAAS) series
  2. 2. Scaling-up Adaptation in the Agricultural Sectors (SAAS) series Scaling up Adaptation in the Agricultural Sectors (SAAS) Webinar Series ■ Webinar 1: Introduction to ecosystem-based adaptation in the agricultural sectors: Context, approaches and lessons learned ■ Webinar 2: Methods and tools to support the implementation of ecosystem-based adaptation in the agricultural sectors ■ Webinar 3: Ecosystem-based Adaptation and National Adaptation Planning: Opportunities for the Agricultural Sectors ■ Webinar 4: Opportunities for Ecosystem-based adaptation in coastal and marine ecosystems ■ Webinar 5: Nature-based solutions (NBS) for agricultural water management and food security ■ Ongoing…. For more information: details/en/c/1105466/
  3. 3. Scaling-up Adaptation in the Agricultural Sectors (SAAS) series Webinar Focus Questions ■ What are the approaches, tools and methods in place to promote the implementation and scaling up of nature-based solutions (NBS) in agricultural water management? ■ What are the lessons learned and good practices available from the past and ongoing experiences? ■ What are the opportunities and challenges for scaling-up and integrating nature-based solutions into planning processes targeting climate change adaptation in general and ecosystem-based adaptation in particular in the agricultural sectors?
  4. 4. Scaling-up Adaptation in the Agricultural Sectors (SAAS) series Agenda FAO discussion paper: Nature-Based Solutions at the service of agricultural water management and food security Ben Sonneveld , Senior Researcher, Amsterdam Centre for World Food Studies/Athena Institute and Amani Alfarra, Land and Water Officer, FAO Nature-based Solutions for Agricultural Water Management – Key-findings of the UN World Water Development Report Prof. Stefan Uhlenbrook, Coordinator and Director, UN World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP, UNESCO programme) Key messages from the Convention on Biological Diversity on nature-based solutions for water and agriculture Dr. Harry David Cooper, Deputy Executive Secretary, CBD Nature-based solutions for water and agriculture - guidance under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Ms. Lisa Janishevski is Programme Officer for Biodiversity and Climate Change, CBD Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS): Wasabi cultivation system in Japan Hiroyuki Ono is an Associate Professional Office, GIAS Q&A Summary and closing remarks
  5. 5. Nature-Based Solutions at the service of agricultural water management & food security Amani Alfarra, Ph.D. Water Resource Officer Land and Water Division Climate, Bio diversity Land and Water Department June 28, 2018 FAO Discussion Paper
  6. 6. Why NBS in agricultural water management? 6 • FAO discussion paper analyzes NBS in the agricultural water management sector; • Demand for food will increase exponentially and climate change is expected to increase; and • Alternative solutions are needed: NBS can contribute to enhancing water quality and availability.
  7. 7. Global Water Demand
  8. 8. Agricultural Water Demand Source: Adapted from That leaves 30 % for everything else: - Domestic - Industries - Electricity - Environment Agriculture is responsible for an average of 70 % of water withdrawals from surface and groundwater sources worldwide
  9. 9. Water scarcity: a global issue 4 billion people (66% of all people) lives under severe water scarcity for at least 1 month of the year. It affects all regions of the world Source: Mekonnen & Hoekstra, Univ. Twente, Feb 2016 Share of agricultural water demand over total water demand. Source: FAO, Land and Water Division, 2018.
  10. 10. What is NBS? 10 • In principle, NBS mimics natural processes and builds on fully operational water-land management concepts that aim to simultaneously improve water availability and quality and raise agricultural productivity; • No straightforward distinction between NBS and other human induced management of ecosystem services. • More than one definition and interpretation of NBS exists;
  11. 11. Definitions  Ecohydrology is defined as an integrative science that focuses on the interaction between hydrology and biota. It aims at reinforcing ecosystem services in modified landscapes while reducing anthropogenic effects. It utilizes the watershed as a basic unit for planning and incorporates the concept of improved ecosystem resilience as a management tool. Ecohydrology accentuates the importance of the incorporation of eco-tecnological measures that complement standard engineering approaches.  The Ecosystem Approach is a conceptual framework for resolving ecosystem issues, adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity. This approach focuses on the integrated management of land, water and living resources with the aim of promoting the conservation and sustainable use in an equitable manner. It encompasses the application of adequate scientific methodologies specific to biological organization including its essential processes, functions and interactions among organisms and their environment. In addition, it embodies the human aspect thus considering human diversity as an integral component of the ecosystem.  The Wise Use of Wetlands has been defined by the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands as “the maintenance of their ecological character, achieved through the implementation of ecosystem approaches, within the context of sustainable development”.  Ecosystem-Based management focus on the conservation, sustainable management and restoration of ecosystems. This approach recognizes the vast array of interactions within an ecosystem, involving humans. It considers resource trade-offs to protect and sustain diverse and productive ecosystems and services they provide.  Environmental Flows consider the management of the quantity, timing, and quality of water flows below a dam, with the aim of sustaining freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods that depend on them. Green Infrastructure is a strategically planned network of natural and semi-natural areas that are specifically designed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services from water purification to climate change to recreation. These spaces provides opportunities for green jobs and enhance biodiversity.  Green infrastructure provide environmental, economic and social benefits through natural solutions and help reduce the dependence on grey infrastructure.  Ecological Engineering is defined as the design of ecosystems for the mutual benefit of humans and nature. It involves the restoration of ecosystems that have been disturbed by human activities and the development of new sustainable ecosystems comprising both human and ecological values.  Agroecology has been defined as “the application of ecological science to the study, design and management of sustainable agriculture”. Its objective is to create diversified agroecosystems that mimic natural systems as closely as possible to enhance sustainable production and self-reliance.  Ecosystem Services are “the benefits obtained from ecosystems” and generally categorized as: 1) Provisioning services, 2) Regulating services, 3) Habitat services, 4) Cultural and amenity services. Agriculture relies on critical ecosystem services such as pollination, pest control and soil fertility to produce provisioning services (e.g. food, fibre and fuel), and can also contribute to regulating ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration and water purification.  Payment for Ecosystem Services is a tool for achieving ecosystem conservation while improving the livelihoods of farmers as environmental service providers.  Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems: are landscapes formed through a remarkable process of coevolution of humankind and nature, they combine agricultural biodiversity, resilient ecosystems and a valuable cultural heritage. Moreover, they sustainably provide multiple goods and services, food and livelihood security for millions of small-scale farmers. These sites have emerged over centuries of cultural and biological interactions and synergies, representing the accumulated experiences of rural people. Ecosystem Based Adaptation (EBA) is an approach that uses biodiversity and ecosystem services as an entry point for the development of overall adaptation strategies to climate change. The Ecosystem Based Adaptation (EBA) in agricultural sectors includes the sustainable management, conservation and restoration of agriculture, forestry and fishery related ecosystems to provide services that help people adapt to the adverse effects of climate change.  Ecosystem Based Adaptation (EBA) can be cost effective, generate social, economic and cultural co-benefits, and contribute to the conservation of biodiversity, overall ecosystem health and sustainable natural resources management. Ecosystems either aquatic, inland, coastal and marine provide humans with resources for recreation, food and livelihoods. They perform environmental functions that contribute to human well-being.
  12. 12. Is NBS – a new paradigm for water management ?
  13. 13. Types of NBS 13 NBS TYPOLOGY Type 1 No or minimal intervention in ecosystems; maintains or improves delivery of eco-services of preserved ecosystems. This NBS incorporates areas where people live and work in a sustainable way including nature conservation and national parks. Type 2 Interventions that develop sustainable and multi-functional ecosystems and landscapes that improve delivery of selected eco-services. This type of NBS is strongly connected to benefitting from natural systems agriculture and conserving the agro-ecology. Type 3 Manages ecosystems in intrusive ways and includes full restoration of degraded or polluted areas using grey infrastructures.
  14. 14. 14 Things to consider • Typologies are not static but dynamic representation; • Many NBS examples cover more than one typology; • NBS term also recognizes the value of regulations and customary laws of indigenous people.
  15. 15. NBS and the SDGS
  16. 16. 16 Conclusions • We are not claiming that NBS is the panacea but it can be an important contribution to upcoming water resources challenges in the agriculture sector; • Case studies assessed confirmed that there are certain requirements to be met for an NBS-type intervention to be successful (i.e. collective action, stakeholder involvement, creating and organizing funds, institutional collaboration); • NBS require investments and studies show that NBS-interventions are economically feasible and efficient; • Valuation of ecosystem services is sometimes difficult and incomplete.
  17. 17. 17 What are your thoughts on NBS in agricultural water management?
  18. 18. 18 THANK YOU!
  22. 22. WHY IS IT DIFFICULT TO IMPLEMENT NATURE BASED SOLUTIONS FOR WATER MANAGEMENT? Ben Sonneveld Senior Researcher Amsterdam Centre for World Food Studies VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  23. 23.  The need for NBS  Why is it difficult to implement NBS  NBS policies  Findings of case studies  A road map for NBS interventions PRESENTATION
  24. 24.  Rising demand for food  More affluent societies demand water rights  Destruction of ecosystems by conventional water management interventions  NBS water management interventions preserve integrity of ecosystems (sustainability)  Cost efficiency considerations The need for NBS in water management
  25. 25.  Characteristics of ecosystems relate to non- excludability issues in water management:  Lumpy indivisible water bodies (aquifers, inland waters)  Distributed water flows require ample space  Interconnectedness makes all places equal  No ‘closing down’ if unprofitable  Difficult to protect from unpaid use Why is it difficult to implement NBS?
  26. 26.  Consequences of non-excludability  Unpaid use of ecosystem services  No price signals of scarcity  Inadequate pricing results in:  Free rider’s behaviour (‘Tragedy of the Commons’)  No incentive for production of eco-services  No role for ecosystem custodians Why is it difficult to implement NBS?
  27. 27.  Strict conservationism monitoring costly  Monetizing eco-services  Production function analyses/Defensive expenditures Process knowledge/empirical basis  Surrogate markets (hedonic pricing; travel cost) Confounding factors  Contingent valuation (Willingness To Pay) What does she/ he really wants to pay?  Distribution of property rights Eco-services can not be partitioned Policies to deal with excludability
  28. 28.  Characteristics of these shared eco-systems are now better understood  Elinor Ostrom (Noble prize winner) shows that well functioning institutions are a proper answer to management of shared ecosystems. (reward good stewardship, penalize neglect, and sustain transfer to next generations).  Which other elements are essential in this process? Policies to deal with excludability
  29. 29.  Study on NBS for water management commissioned by FAO analyzed 21 case studies  Factors considered in our evaluation are:  Characteristics  Country/region/ecosystem/farming system  identification of stakeholders and beneficiaries,  prevailing degradation process,  typology of NBS intervention  Qualification assessment  stakeholder involvement,  degree of transdisciplinarity,  rewarding schemes for custodians,  stability of institutional collaboration and  success or failure of the NBS. 21 case studies
  30. 30. Rubrics for NBS evaluation Code Transdisciplinarity Rewarding custodians Institutional collaboration Success/failure -- Absence of transdisciplinary approach Absence of rewarding schemes No collaboration Social and ecological NBS objectives were not achieved - Transdisciplinary approach present but implementation unsuccessful Presence of rewarding schemes but unsuccessful implementation Some collaboration Either social or ecological NBS objective was achieved -+ Transdiscipline approach present with some results Rewarding schemes present with some results Collaboration established with minor results Part of the social and ecological NBS objectives were achieved + Transdiscipline approach successful; clear involvement of transcendence stakeholder Rewarding schemes successful; payments assure NBS objectives Collaboration successful; alignment of activities Social and ecological NBS objectives were achieved successfully ++ Transdiscipline approach very successful; stakeholders of transcendent disciplines fully participate in NBS process from design to implementation rewarding schemes very successful; payments assure NBS objectives and encourage other PES initiatives Collaboration very successful; alignment of activities and establishment of sustainable relationships Social and ecological NBS objectives were achieved successfully and mutually strengthened each other
  31. 31. . Using compost pits in Nepal Examples from the 21 case studies Main characteristics: Success, type 2 Groundwater management in Aweil East, Sudan Main characteristics: Failure, type 1
  32. 32. Example of the Inventory of case studies Name Country Ecosyst em Initiator/funding Stakeholders Beneficiarie s Degradatio n process NBS NBS typolog y Trans- disciplinarity * Rewarding custodians Institut ional collabo ration Succes s/failur e ** C1.Baviaanskloof/Ts itsikamma and uMngeni catchments South Africa Watersh ed Development Bank, NGO’s Governmental national/local Municipalities, NGO’s, provincial government researchers, farmers Urban water consumers Overgrazing Restoring thicket 1 +- -- -- + C2. Izta-Popo Mexico Land Private company Private company/urban population/land users Private company/ urban population Illegal logging, livestock grazing, fires Reforestation/ infrastructure (pits and banks 2/3 + + -- ++ C3. Saye River bank failure Nigeria River State Communities/far mers Communities /farmers River bank erosion Civil engineering structures 3 - - - - C 4. Athi River Kaiti,/Muuoni and Kikuu rivers Kenya Watersh ed NGO’s and local communities NGO’s and local communities Local communities Water scarcity and drought Water harvesting technique (sand bars)/agroecology 2 + -- -- + C 5. Water fund for catchment management Ecuador Watersh ed NGO’s, private companies, state NGO’s, private companies, state, farmers Urban population/ farmers Deforestatio n Conservation techniques 1/2 +- + ++ ++ C 6. Pangani River Basin II Tanzania River basin Colonial gov. / national government Rural/urban population Rural/urban population Watershed degradation hydropower plant/dam 3 - - - - C 6 Pangani River Basin I Tanzania River basin national government/ JICA Farmers Low irrigation efficiency Irrigation Project 2 - - -+ -+ C 8. Ruvu watershed Tanzania Watersh ed NGO’s Upstream communities, private companies industry, urban /rural population Local communities , companies, urban population and industry River sedimentatio n Restoration of rivers through adoption of agro- ecological practices. 2 ++ -- - ++ C 9. Lempa River El Salvador Watersh ed FAO and GEF Local communities and government staff in selected municipalities Local communities and selected officials in municipality Soil degradation Integrated natural resources management/ rainwater collection 2 ++ - ++ ++
  33. 33.  Success related to:  full stakeholder involvement (inter- and transdisciplinary platforms)  restoration activities that cover large areas  implementation of ad hoc funding and payment schemes  endurance of stakeholders; long time lapses are needed … we also found that  tedious exercises of natural resource valuation are omitted 21 case studies
  34. 34.  The aim of a road map for NBS interventions is to create a productive stakeholder engagement that balances interests of resource users against quality and sustainability of the ecosystem. A road map for NBS interventions
  35. 35.  Stakeholder/Actor identification  Inter- and transdisciplinary participatory platforms  Development of Decision Support Tools:  Detail monetary and ecological costs and benefits  Explicitly map and analyze conflict of interests  System (non-modular) model structure  Retention of subsidiarity principle  Rewarding good custodianships/penalize neglect  Implementation of conflict resolutions mechanisms  Endurance: lasting positive effects of well-designed NBS interventions outweigh quick wins based on ignorance A road map for NBS interventions
  36. 36. Nature-Based Solutions for Water Working with nature to improve the management of water resources, achieve water security for all, and contribute to core aspects of sustainable development Stefan Uhlenbrook, Rick Connor, Engin Koncagul, David Coates UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) 28 June 2018 Webinar organised by FAO
  37. 37. Nature-based solutions (NBS) are inspired and supported by nature and use, or mimic, natural processes to cost effectively contribute to the improved management of water. The defining feature is not whether an ecosystem being used is “natural” but whether natural processes are being proactively managed to achieve a water- related objective. A NBS uses ecosystem services to contribute to a water management outcome. A NBS can involve conserving or rehabilitating natural ecosystems and/or the enhancement or creation of natural processes in modified or artificial ecosystems. What do we mean by nature-based solutions (NBS) for water?
  38. 38. PART ONE Ecosystems and the water cycle
  39. 39. Ecological processes driven by climate, vegetation and soils in forests, grasslands, wetlands, as well as in agricultural and urban landscapes, play a major role in the movement, storage and transformation of water The relationship between ecosystems and the water cycle
  40. 40. Evaporation from the vegetation and soils from terrestrial ecosystems can be a very important source of precipitation for other areas The relationship between ecosystems and the water cycle Source: Van der Ent et al., 2014 Tekleabetal.2015
  41. 41. Since the year 1900, an estimated 64–71% of the natural wetland area worldwide has been lost due to human activity. Although about 30% of the global land remains forested, at least two thirds of this area are in a degraded state. The world’s ecosystems: Increasing degradation
  42. 42. PART TWO NBS for meeting water management objectives
  43. 43. NBS mainly address water supply through managing precipitation, humidity and storage, including soil infiltration and groundwater recharge NBS for improving water availability
  44. 44. It has been estimated that global crop production could be increased by nearly 20% as a result of on-farm soil and water management practices in rain-fed agriculture alone (e.g., improved water harvesting through modifying tillage regimes or mulching) NBS for improving water availability for agriculture
  45. 45. Urban green infrastructure, including green buildings, is an emerging phenomenon that is establishing new benchmarks and technical standards that embrace many NBS NBS for improving water availability in urban settlements
  46. 46. Non-point (diffuse) source pollution from agriculture, notably nutrients, remains a critical problem worldwide, including in developed countries. It is also the one most amenable to NBS. NBS for improving water quality
  47. 47. NBS, like grey infrastructure, have limits: They are not a panacea and must be evaluated and deployed based on locally specific conditions NBS for improving water quality - LIMITS
  48. 48. In 2009 the Netherlands initiated their ‘Room for the River’ programme. With a budget of €2.5 billion, the programme was designed to restore the natural floodplains of rivers (an NBS) along certain non-vulnerable stretches, diverting rivers and creating water storage areas, in order to protect the most developed riparian areas. The restored wetlands both provide additional storage and safeguarded biodiversity, while enhancing aesthetic and recreational opportunities. NBS for reducing risks to water-related extreme events (floods and droughts)
  49. 49. Effect of different NBS interventions on flood peak reduction (left) and combined effect of basin-wide interventions with flood magnitude (right)
  50. 50. PART THREE The untapped potential for NBS
  51. 51. Evidence suggests that, worldwide, green infrastructure only accounts for less than 5% of the total investment in water-related infrastructure and even less when compared to the overall expenditure in water resources management Current trends in investing in NBS
  52. 52. The ‘Green’ vs. ‘Grey’ debate The goal is to find the most appropriate blend of green and grey infrastructure to maximize benefits and system efficiency while minimizing costs and trade-offs Source: Acreman, 2011
  53. 53. The substantial value of social, economic and environmental co-benefits can tip investment decisions in favour of NBS Co-benefits of NBS
  54. 54. NBS for water have high potential to contribute to the achievement other SDGs and targets of the 2030 Agenda Supporting the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
  55. 55. PART FOUR Making it happen: accelerating the uptake of NBS
  56. 56. NBS do not necessarily require additional financial resources but usually involve redirecting and making more effective use of existing financing Leveraging financing
  57. 57. Investments in watershed protection have ended up saving New York City more than US$300 million per year on water treatment operation and maintenance costs alone Leveraging financing – Payment for Environmental Services
  58. 58. Peru’s Compensation Mechanisms for Ecosystem Services Law of 2014 is the first national-level regulatory framework specific for green infrastructure investment in the drinking water supply and sanitation sector in Latin America Enabling the regulatory and legal environment
  59. 59. NBS can require greater levels of cross-sectoral and institutional collaboration than grey- infrastructure approaches. This can bring groups of stakeholders together under a common agenda. Improving cross-sectoral collaboration and public participation
  60. 60. Traditional or local-community knowledge of ecosystem functioning and the nature– society interaction can be a significant asset Improving the knowledge base
  61. 61. Working with nature to improve the management of water resources, achieve water security for all, and contribute to core aspects of sustainable development Thank you Download the report at: More info at: Feel free to contact me: Stefan Uhlenbrook,
  62. 62. Nature-based solutions for water and agriculture - guidance under the Convention on Biological Diversity Lisa Janishevski CBD Secretariat © V. Lo
  63. 63. Azote/SRC 2016
  64. 64. Development goals Climate impacts Adaptation strategies Aichi Biodiversity Targets Drought Pests & diseases Drought Seawater intrusion Flooding Diverse crop varieties Sustainable agriculture Agro forestry IWRM Water demand management Water tanks
  65. 65. What are EbA and Eco-DRR? Ecosystem-based approaches to climate change adaptation (EbA): EbA is “the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services as part of an overall adaptation strategy to help people to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change.” - CBD Technical Series (2009) Ecosystem-based approaches to disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR): Eco-DRR is the “sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems to reduce disaster risk, with the aim to achieve sustainable and resilient development.” - Estrella and Saalismaa 2013
  66. 66. EbA and Eco-DRR overlap in practice, Both use approaches that already exist in biodiversity and ecosystem conservation, climate change adaptation and livelihood development. What are EbA and Eco-DRR? Midgley et al. 2012
  67. 67. Climate change is a “hunger- risk multiplier” UNICEF Nepal/2017/SJThapa Agriculture and climate change
  68. 68. Benefits of ecosystem based approaches in agriculture
  69. 69. Examples • Shade trees in coffee systems • Use of live barriers, crop covers and other soil conservation techniques • Use of fallow to restore soil fertility • Crop diversification to reduce risk of crop loss due to climate change • Conservation and/or restoration of forests and riparian areas to improve water provisioning and prevent soil erosion from increased heavy rainfall Panorama database: Farmer at a fenced eroded area in Azerbaijan © IBiS, GIZ
  70. 70. A few lessons… • Establish political commitment for integrated approaches • Improve cooperation among ecosystems/biodiversity, adaptation, development and disaster reduction communities • Scale up knowledge-sharing across levels and disciplines and make use of knowledge-sharing platforms • Recognize the limitations of using EbA or eco-DRR; ecosystems are subject to climate change impacts.
  71. 71. Making it happen Financial, political and technical constraints limit widespread adoption of EbA practices at scale. • Policymakers should integrate ecosystem based approaches into the agriculture sector. Include EbA, when applicable, into: • National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) • Regional and local adaptation programs and initiatives targeting farmers • Incorporate improvement of agricultural biodiversity, and biodiversity on farms, into National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans • Redirect current funding, innovative funding, consider PES • Improve knowledge, incorporate traditional knowledge
  72. 72. Guidance & tools under CBD – working with IPLCs • The Akwé: Kon Voluntary Guidelines for the Conduct of Cultural, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment regarding Developments Proposed to Take Place on, or which are Likely to Impact on, Sacred Sites and on Lands and Waters Traditionally Occupied or Used by Indigenous and Local Communities (CBD decision VII/16) • The Tkarihwaié:ri Code of Ethical Conduct to Ensure Respect for the Cultural and Intellectual Heritage of Indigenous and Local Communities Relevant to the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity (CBD decision X/42)
  73. 73. Guidance & tools under CBD • Voluntary guidelines on the effective design and implementation of ecosystem based adaptation and disaster risk reduction (CBD/SBSTTA/22/8 and information document CBD/SBSTTA/INF/1) • Primer for policymakers • Stepwise process matched with tools • Principles • Safeguards • Overarching considerations • 7 advocacy briefs for EbA and eco DRR into sectors including agriculture and water
  74. 74. Guidance & tools under CBD Short term action plan on ecosystem restoration (XIII/5) • Principles, Key activities, Support • Guidance for integrating biodiversity considerations into ecosystem restoration: • address the drivers of loss • prioritize conservation • avoid afforestation of grasslands/low tree cover • take into account ecosystem function/services • restore habitats to recover/support species • natural regeneration • use native site-adapted species • adopt landscape perspective • prevent/eradicate invasive alien species
  75. 75. Technical Series under CBD • Interlinkages between biological diversity and climate change. Advice on the integration of biodiversity considerations into the implementation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto protocol (CBD TS 10) • Connecting Biodiversity and Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: Report of the Second Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Biodiversity and Climate Change (CBD TS 41) • Synthesis report on experiences with ecosystem-based approaches to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction (CBD TS 85)
  76. 76. Thank you for your attention! Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity 413 Saint Jacques Street, Suite 800 Montreal, QC, H2Y 1N9, Canada Tel: +1 514 288 2220 Fax: + 1 514 288 6588 Email:
  79. 79. What is GIAHS? Definition: Remarkable land use systems and landscapes which are rich in globally significant biological diversity evolving from the co-adaptation of a community with its environment and its needs and aspirations for sustainable development Longji Rice Terraces, China
  80. 80. How have GIAHS been created? ・Fragile ecosystem ・Extreme climate conditions ・Limited natural resources ・Geographic isolation Disadvantaged conditions Remarkable and Unique Agricultural Systems With Global Importance =GIAHS Farmers effort ・Attempt for overcoming these difficulties ・Wisdom for skillful use of resources
  81. 81. GIAHS Selection Criteria and Action Plan Global importance - Historical relevance - Contemporary relevance 1. Food and livelihood security 2. Agro-biodiversity 3. Local and Traditional Knowledge Systems 4. Cultures, value systems and social organizations 5. Landscapes and Seascapes Features Action Plan for Dynamic Conservation* 5 Criteria * Dynamic Conservation is activities for conservation without changing the essence of the GIAHS site
  82. 82. Designated sites in the World 50 GIAHS sites in 20 countriesSince launched in 2002….
  83. 83. Japanese GIAHS as Nature-Based Solutions Wasabi (Eutrema japonicum) cultivation in an area with heavy rainfall disasters
  84. 84. But what is wasabi? Introduction of Wasabi (Eutrema japonicum) - Sharp taste - Used as a condiment mainly for sushi and sashimi
  85. 85. Japanese GIAHS as Nature-Based Solutions Wasabi (Eutrema japonicum) cultivation in an area with heavy rainfall disasters Wasabi requires: - Stable water temperature (8-18℃) - Cool and shady place - Clean and abundant water
  86. 86. Traditional technique for optimal production • Supplied year-round with cool and oxygen rich water • Impurities filtered out by the layers of soil, pebble and rocks → Stable production → Prevent illness
  87. 87. Resilience against natural disasters Prevent floods by: • Storing water in the layers • Slowing down water flow Prevent landslides by: • Creating terraces Water flow through the wasabi fields
  88. 88. Role of surrounding forest against natural disasters • Storing a large amount of water • Adjusting the amount of water released to the field • Filtering water Forest surrounding wasabi fields • Stable supply of water • Clean water • Constant water temperature
  89. 89. Contributing to biodiversity • Slow down the flow of water → Increase biodiversity • Rarely uses fertilizers because water contains nutrients provided by forest soil → Little burden on environmentWater flow through the wasabi fields
  90. 90. Lessons learned and good practice • Maximizing the use of natural resources • Slopes, cold spring water, rocks, surrounding forests • For better production, taking advantage of a large amount of rainfall, which often causes natural disasters • Production method resilient to natural disasters
  91. 91. Opportunities and challenges Opportunities…. • Even in disadvantaged areas, it is possible to produce high quality products by utilizing local and traditional knowledge Challenges…. • Costly compared to conventional method • Fewer people willing to keep traditional way of farming
  92. 92. Thank you for your attention!