World Supply, Demand and Trade of Fish and Fishery Products


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Author: Audun Lem PhD, Senior Fishery Industries Officer

A presentation done at an international seminar on fisheries and aquaculture economics held in Spain at the end of July provided information on the changes and developments affecting the world’s fish producers, consumers and markets.

The FAO presentation highlights that aquaculture will be overtaking wild capture fisheries by 2018

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World Supply, Demand and Trade of Fish and Fishery Products

  1. 1. World Supply, Demand and Trade of Fish and Fishery Products Audun Lem, PhD Production and supply o Aquaculture o Capture fisheries Trade and markets o Price projections o Consumption by region o Trade & domestic markets o Fish & nutrition o Traceability, eco-labels & sustainability
  2. 2. Aquaculture vs capture production 1950 - 2012 Source: FishstatJ & Globefish Highlights (2013) Note: 2011 & 2012 estimated figures Aquaculture vs capture production 1950 – 2022? Source: FishstatJ , Globefish Highlights (2013) & OECD-FAO Agricultural outlook 2013-2022 Note: 2011 & 2012 estimated figures, 2013-2022 projected
  3. 3. World aquaculture production map by major species 2011 Capture fisheries today Marine Fisheries Large proportion either fully utilized or over-exploited Limited potential for increased production In-Land Fisheries Some stocks collapsed or collapsing But many remain underutilized Lack of data
  4. 4. FAO databases on 392 wild stocks 6% underutilized 20% moderately utilized 50% fully utilized 15% overfished 6% depleted 2% recovering 7
  6. 6. GLOBAL SEAFOOD SINCE 1976 Income growth + Urbanisation + Product development World fish markets at a glance 2010 2011 2012 2012 / 2011estim. f'cast million tonnes % WORLD BALANCE Production 148.0 156.2 156.7 0.3 Capture fisheries 89.0 93.5 90.2 -3.5 Aquaculture 59.0 62.7 66.5 6.1 Trade value (exports USD billion) 109.0 127.3 129.3 1.5 Trade volume (live weight) 56.7 58.8 59.6 1.4 Total utilization 148.0 156.2 156.7 0.3 Food 128.0 131.4 134.6 2.4 Feed 14.6 18.3 15.6 -15.0 Other uses 5.4 6.4 6.5 1.6 SUPPLY AND DEMAND INDICATORS Per caput food consumption: Food fish (kg/year) 18.6 18.8 19.1 1.3 From capture fisheries (kg/year) 10.0 9.9 9.7 -2.0 From aquaculture (kg/year) 8.6 9.0 9.4 4.9
  7. 7. Global market trends Strong growth: now 4th biggest importer and biggest exporting country Steadily increasing per kaput consumption: 31 kg/kaput long-term growth: # 1 market (EU 27) rising population and stable consumption at 23 kg/kaput increasing import dependence long-term growth, overtaking Japan as # 1 importing country rising population and stable consumption 24 kg/kaput long-term decline in fish consumption and imports of meat>fish. high consumption but falling: 57 kg/kaput Top Importers and Exporters in 2010, 2011 & 2012 * includes intra-EU trade Source: Globefish Highlights 2013
  8. 8. WTO and fish trade 159 MEMBER COUNTRIES RULES BASED SYSTEM o TARIFFS o SPS/TBT o SUBSIDIES o DISPUTE SETTLEMENT ROLE OF BILATERAL/PLURILATERAL AGREEMENTS World per capita fish consumption map by major species group 2009
  9. 9. Fish & Nutrition Fish provides many valuable nutrients protein long-chain omega-3 fatty acids fat-soluble vitamins minerals like iron, calcium, iodine, zinc & selenium With numerous health benefits (known) reduced risk of cardiac death, aids neurodevelopment in unborn infants (probable) reduced risk of stroke, (possible) reduced risk of depression Which are important in developing countries fish provides nutrients where they are most needed cheap small pelagics growing component of developing country diets Globalization of supply chains (separation of producer and consumer) + Concerns about food safety and quality assurance + Consumer awareness of fisheries sustainability issues = Growing need for traceability mechanisms and guidelines Are costs and benefits equally distributed along the supply chain? Balance between need for traceability and minimizing unnecessary barriers to trade? Traceability in the Supply Chain
  10. 10. Eco-labeling and Certification Costs & Benefits o Fishers bear most of the cost retailers reap most of the rewards o Access to new markets o Stable supply and integrated value chains
  11. 11. Many new labels: clarification needed oWhat is sustainable? oTransparent connection to producer FAO response Guidelines o for Eco-Labeling of Fish and Fishery Products from Marine Capture Fisheries (2005) o for the Eco-Labeling of Fish and Fishery Products from Inland Capture Fisheries (2010) o for Aquaculture Certification (2011)
  12. 12. Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries Sets out principles and international standards for responsible practices with respect to the goals of conservation, management and development FAO actively promoting its implementation and monitoring progress Internationally agreed but non-binding CONCLUSIONS SUPPLY INCREASES THANKS TO AQUACULTURE o BUT FISHERIES MANAGEMENT STILL AN ISSUE WORLD TRADE IS INCREASING o BUT SHARE OF 3 BIG MARKETS DECLINING o ROLE OF CHINA o WTO FISH AND NUTRITION ROLE OF TRACEABILITY AND LABELING
  13. 13. THANK YOU