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Land Tenure Security, Migration and the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGTs)

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The presentation provides an overview of the linkages between land tenure security, migration and the VGGTs

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Land Tenure Security, Migration and the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGTs)

  1. 1. Land Tenure Security, Migration and the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGTs) Marcela Villarreal, PhD Director of the Partnerships and South-South Cooperation Division at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations World Bank Land and Poverty Conference 2018
  2. 2. Structure 1. Objective 2. Current data and research 3. An analytical Framework linking land tenure security and migration 4. The Voluntary Guidelines 5. Conclusions
  3. 3. ⬆️ Tenure Security = ⬇️ Migration • VGGT contribute to create a culture of good governance where tenure rights are respected and migration can be an effective choice rather than a necessity Hypothesis
  4. 4. Growing number of migrants in the world From 2000 to 2017 • Up from 173 to 258 million • Rate has surpassed that of population growth • Increase in the share of migrants in the world population from 2.8% to 3.4% • About half are women In 2050 • Expected to exceed 400 million 0 100 200 300 400 500 2000 2017 2050 Chart 1: International Migrants (Millions) Source: UNDESA Population Division (2017): Trends in International Migrant Stock
  5. 5. Differentiating migration flows Source: IOM Global Migration Trends Factsheet (2015) International and Internal Migration 258 763 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Total International Migrants (2017) Total Internal Migrants (2013) There are over a billion migrants across the globe
  6. 6. Forced Migration in the World Over 84 million persons were forcibly displaced in 2015 Assylum Seekers: 3.2 million Internally Displaced People - IDPs : 40.8 millionRefugees: 21.3 million Displaced by natural disasters: 19.2 million Source: IOM Global Migration Trends Factsheet (2015)
  7. 7. Source: UNDESA Population Division (2017): Trends in International Migrant Stock Percentage distribution of international migrants by region of destination, for regions of origin, 2000 and 2017 Most migrants stay within their region of origin Migration occurs primarily between countries that are located within the same region of origin with the exception of the Americas
  8. 8. Source: UNDESA Population Division (2017): Trends in International Migrant Stock High-income countries host most international migrants International migrants by country income group, 2000 and 2017 High- income 64% Middle- income 32% Low-income 4% 2017 81 m 165 m 11 m High- income 58% Middle- income 37% Low-income 5% 2000
  9. 9. Remittances are larger than ODA Source: World Bank (2017): Migration and Development Brief 28 Remittance Flows to Developing Countries 1990–2019 Acronyms: FDI = Foreign Direct Investment; ODA = Official Development Assistance. • Remittances are estimated to reach $596 billion worldwide with $450 billion going to low and middle income countries • Flows are significantly bigger than ODA and are more stable than private capital flows
  10. 10. Causes of rural-out migration • Dramatic land degradation and desertification affect around one third of the land used for agriculture and 1.2 billion people worldwide • 73% of global population without access to social protection live in rural areas • Migration due to natural-hazard and climate related disasters is estimated at 26.4 million persons per year (2008- 2015) Food insecurity & low agricultural productivity Rural-urban inequalities in the provision of services & opportunities Lack of access to income generating opportunities Climate change and weather related disasters Lack of access to services, technology, inputs and markets Lack of Social Protection Bad Governance & Conflict Depletion of natural resources due to environmental degradation
  11. 11. Migration studies • Individual’s utility function • Household influence • Community/contextual variables Little on Governance issues
  12. 12. Governance fundamental to both migration and land tenure • Poor governance underlies many of the factors that directly affect migration: from the socio-economic to those relating to conflict and unrest • Need to focus on the role of governance variables as relevant factors in the migration process • These factors are also essential to ensure secure land tenure rights for rural populations Governance factors shaping the decision to migrate Strength of institutions Adequacy of policy Ability to participate and influence policy processes Transparency and accountability of government
  13. 13. What is Good Governance? • Participation and voice: all women and men should have a voice in the decisions that will affect their lives • directly or indirectly through intermediate institutions that represent their intention • Transparency: all relevant information is open, available and accessible to all • Accountability: all decision makers are accountable • Rule of law: legal frameworks should be fair and enforced regardless of power, influence or wealth
  14. 14. Factors for successful implementation of VGGT • Political will from the Government at all levels and sectors: involving sectors as important as involving different actors • Institutional framework with clear mandates, roles and responsibilities to ensure effective follow-up and implementation of the recommendations made by the multi-stakeholder platform • An inclusive and consensus-building steering committee • Multi-stakeholder platform that guarantees voice to all relevant stakeholders at central as well as decentralized levels • Development of the capacities of all actors to participate effectively in the platform and to perform their roles and responsibilities • Strong accountability mechanisms for all actors engaged in the process, including the United Nations
  15. 15. Land tenure security and Migration • Highly contextual • Complex set of variables affecting decision to migrate • Hierarchy of factors • Thresholds • Inconclusive evidence in the literature
  16. 16. Analytical Framework LAND TENURE INTERMEDIATE VARIABLES MIGRATION CONFLICT NATURAL DISASTER UNREST PRODUCTIVITY • Credit • Services • Inputs • Soil quality F O R C E D V O L U N T A R Y INSTITUTIONS / POLICIES / PARTICIPATION / TRANSPARENCY / ACCOUNTABILITY INTERNALLY DISPLACED ASSYLUM SEEKERS REFUGEES INTERNATIONAL INTERNAL RURAL-RURAL RURAL-URBAN POPULATION PRESSURE SOCIAL SECURITY EDUCATION FOOD SECURITY INVESTMENT TENURE RIGHTS G O V E R N A N C E
  17. 17. Investment is a key mediating factor ⬆️ Security of Tenure ⬆️ Investment ⬆️ Food security ⬇️ Migration ⬆️ Agricultural Productivity / ⬆️ Soil quality
  18. 18. Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forestry in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT) • 3 years consultation/negotiation member countries, civil society organizations and private sector • Legitimacy of a multi-stakeholder process • Over 60 countries-- some improved land policy/ laws • Foundations of a culture of respect, shared power, rights and responsibilities • VGGT implementation contributes to create a culture of good governance where tenure rights are respected and migration can be an effective choice rather than a necessity
  19. 19. VGGT Principles GENERAL 1. Recognition and respect of all legitimate tenure right holders 2. Safeguard legitimate tenure rights against threats and infringements 3. Promote and facilitate enjoyment of legitimate tenure rights 4. Provide access to justice to address the infringement of these rights 5. Prevent tenure disputes, violent conflicts and corruption IMPLEMENTATION 1. Human dignity 2. Non-discrimination 3. Equity and justice 4. Gender equality 5. Holistic and sustainable approach 6. Consultation and participation 7. Rule of law 8. Transparency 9. Accountability 10. Continuous improvement
  20. 20. Conclusions 1. Evidence partially supports the assumption that increased tenure security would reduce migration 2. Highly contextual relationship 3. Significant intermediate variables such as investment, agricultural productivity, land degradation, demographic pressure 4. Factors: tenure system, tenure rights, rights holders 5. Good governance is crucial. It improves both security of tenure and the possibility of making migration a choice rather than a need 6. VGGT implementation promotes a culture of good governance

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