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FAO’s Geopolitical Ontology and Services (2013)


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The FAO geopolitical ontology and related services have been developed to facilitate data exchange and sharing in a standardized manner among systems managing information about countries and/or regions.
The geopolitical ontology ensures that FAO and associated partners can rely on a master reference for geopolitical information, as it manages names in multiple languages (English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, Russian and Italian); maps standard coding systems (UN, ISO, FAOSTAT, AGROVOC, etc); provides relations among territories (land borders, group membership, etc); and tracks historical changes.
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FAO’s Geopolitical Ontology and Services (2013)

  1. 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)FAO’s GEOPOLITICAL ONTOLOGYand SERVICESFAO Country Geopolitical Services Use Cases Profiles Ontology © FAO, 2013
  2. 2. OUTLINE Background Geopolitical Ontology Services:  module maker  web services Use Cases in the FAO Country Profiles FAO of the UN 2
  3. 3. ABOUT FAOFood and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)Mandate: to raise levels of nutrition, improve agricultural productivity, better the lives of rural populations and contribute to the growth of the world economy Established in 1945 One of the major agencies of the UN system Counts 192 member countries HQ in Rome, Italy Over 100 worldwide offices FAO of the UN 3
  4. 4. FAO IS A KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION Article 1 of FAO’s Constitution: – “The Organization shall collect, analyse, interpret and disseminate information relating to nutrition, food and agriculture” FAO experts’ knowledge network: – Agronomists, foresters, fisheries and livestock specialists, nutritionists, economists, statisticians, information and communication technology and information management professionals FAO Internet in numbers: – 4 million visitors/month – 3 million web pages, 100 000 documents, hundreds of databases and information systems FAO of the UN 4
  5. 5. CASE STUDY IN 2002National programmes could produce more effective results through a cross-sectoral, country-based approach. Main problem: – To provide web users access to FAO information by country Solution: – The FAO Country Profiles system was designed to access, by country, all FAO’s major repositories and information systems It was launched in October 2002: FAO of the UN 5
  6. 6. NOT THAT SIMPLE... FAO had a large number of information systems that included: – information about countries: e.g. statistical systems – information related to countries: e.g. publications  but....... Silos: information was produced and used in a circumscribed manner Lack of integration and means to exchange data FAO of the UN 6
  7. 7. SIDE EFFECTS Duplication/multiplication of effort in the: – collection of basic data – maintenance of reference data Difficulty for users to locate available data regarding a particular country: – distributed throughout the thousands of web pages or systems FAO of the UN 7
  8. 8. SOME KEYS TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM Find out how the different data sources classified the country data Adoption of a set of agreed metadata standards for countries classification Ensure quality metadata at the source Identification of authoritative resources for referenceMapping of country classifications and country namesBuild a system made of rules FAO of the UN 8
  9. 9. SEMANTIC TECHNOLOGY The FAO Country Profiles system is up and growing since 2002 Average of more than 50,000 visits per month The use of semantic technologies was soon identified as a need to improve the system and to ensure that: – it could keep growing on content, and – new requested functionality such as comparison and aggregation could be implemented In 2006, FAO decided to build a Geopolitical Ontology to support: – the FAO Country Profiles system, and – major country-based information systems in FAO FAO of the UN 9
  10. 10. GEOPOLITICAL ONTOLOGY - MOTIVATION• To improve: • Interoperability: systems exchange and data sharing • Maintenance: names, codes, relationships • Dynamics/change: manage historical changes FAO of the UN 10
  11. 11. REQUIREMENTS – TYPESTerritories: Groups: – Self-governing: – Geographic:  countries, nations  Europe, Asia, Oceania – Non-self-governing – Economic:  US Virgin Islands  European Union – Other areas – Special groups:  Antarctica  LIFDC, SIDS, LLDC FAO of the UN 11
  12. 12. REQUIREMENTS – BASIC DATACodes: Names: – ISO-3166 Alpha-2  official, short and for lists: – ISO-3166 Alpha-3 Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Italian, – UN code M.49 Russian and Spanish – FAOSTAT – FAOTERM – AGROVOC – GAUL code Coordinates: – UNDP code – Max, Min Latitude – DBPediaID – Max, Min Longitude FAO of the UN 12
  13. 13. REQUIREMENTS – HISTORICAL CHANGES To track historical changes from 1993 to present Czech Republic Czechoslovakia Slovakia from 1990 to present West Germany Germany East Germany FAO of the UN 13
  14. 14. REQUIREMENTS – COMPARE DATA Land border countries Countries in the same geographic or economic group Southern Asia
  15. 15. IMPLEMENTATION The Geopolitical Ontology Beta version 0.7 launched in 2008: – OWL-DL, UTF-8 encoding Latest version 1.1 released in July 2010 Information: OWL version: FAO of the UN 15
  16. 16. IMPLEMENTATION – EXAMPLE Partial representation of the geopolitical ontology: Example Russian Federation FAO of the UN 16
  17. 17. GEOPOLITICAL ONTOLOGY SERVICESTo facilitate usage of the Geopolitical Ontology knowledge by existing Information Systems (IS) Existing IS may not: – want to migrate to OWL – need the full richness of the geopolitical ontology  Geopolitical Ontology module maker service: allows to extract chunks of the ontology and export them in other formats Most IS already manage *some* country data: – may need to access ontology data to complement their information  Geopolitical Ontology web services: allow the exploitation of geopolitical knowledge through the access to atomic pieces of information only FAO of the UN 17
  18. 18. MODULE MAKER REQUIREMENTS Built-in modules = commonly required modules: – FAO members, self-governing territories – with or without their respective groups – with or without historical data Exporting formats: commonly required formats to use/import data modules in other information systems: – RDF, XML, Excel UTF-8 support: UTF-8 encoding to support, as a minimum, all FAO official languages: – Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish FAO of the UN 18
  19. 19. MODULE MAKER IMPLEMENTATION Request via HTTP Web JSPInterface Output in RDF XML Excel Jena API Geopolitical ontology FAO of the UN 19
  20. 20. MODULE MAKER PAGE5 Modules FAO members only FAO members and groups Self-governing territories only Self-governing territories and their groups Territories and groups valid in the current year (no historical data) FAO of the UN 20
  21. 21. WEB SERVICES REQUIREMENTS Architecture compatible with the geopolitical ontology Reusability of components developed for the module maker Modular/reusable design and implementation Scalable Simple maintenance RESTful FAO of the UN 21
  22. 22. WEB SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION Request via HTTP RESTLET framework Output in XML Jena Geopolitical ontology Web Service FAO of the UN 22
  23. 23. WEB SERVICES PAGE FAO of the UN 23
  24. 24. FAO COUNTRY PROFILES USE CASESUC-1: provide the land border countries of a given countryUC-2: provide the groups a given country belongs to, and all the members of each groupUC-3: list all LIFDC special group members sorted by geographic groupUC-4: provide key statistics (country area, agricultural area, land area, population and GDP) of a given country FAO of the UN 24
  25. 25. UC-1: LAND BORDER COUNTRIESDESCRIPTION Return ISO3 code and name of all land border countries (if any) of a given countryINPUT Country ISO3 code, language code Ex: India in English (IND, EN)OUTPUT All land border countries ISO3 codes and names in the selected language Ex: CHN, BTN, MMR, PAK, BGD, NPL, China, Bhutan, Myanmar, Pakistan, Bangladesh, NepalURI{cou ntry ISO3 code}/{language code} D/EN FAO of the UN 25
  26. 26. UC-2: GROUPSDESCRIPTION Return the groups a given country belongs to, and all the members of each groupINPUT Country ISO3 code, language code Ex: India in English (IND, EN)OUTPUT All groups acronym and their members (country ISO3 code, and name in selected language) Ex: SAARC, Southern Asia, Asia, LIFDC, FAO, WorldURI {country ISO3 code} / {language code} N FAO of the UN 26
  27. 27. UC-1, UC-2 IMPLEMENTATION FAO of the UN 27
  28. 28. UC-3: LIFDC MEMBERSDESCRIPTION Return all LIFDC special group members sorted by geographic groupINPUT language ISO2 code Ex: English (EN)OUTPUT ISO3 code and name for all LIFDC members sorted by geographic group Ex: America (HTI Haiti, HND Honduras, NIC Nicaragua), Europe (MDA Republic of Moldova), etc.URI DC/ { language code} FDC/EN FAO of the UN 28
  29. 29. UC-3 IMPLEMENTATION FAO of the UN 29
  30. 30. UC-4: KEY STATISTICSDESCRIPTION Return key statistics data about a given country.INPUT Country ISO3 code, language code Ex: Haiti in English (HTI, EN)OUTPUT Total, unit, year, and notes of country area, agricultural area, land area, population and GDP Ex: Haiti country area: 2775 (1000 ha), agricultural area: 1790 (1000 ha), land area: 2756 (1000 ha), etc.URI All/ {country ISO3 code} / {language code} csAll/HTI/EN FAO of the UN 30
  31. 31. UC-4 IMPLEMENTATION FAO of the UN 31
  32. 32. INFORMATION & CONTACT Web site  Contact   Caprazli, Kafkas (OCP) FAO of the UN 32