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FAO/INFOODS Global Food Composition Database for Pulses

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www.fao.org/pulses-2016/en/ International Year of Pulses - Global Dialogue - The IYP Action Plan: major outputs - Ruth Charrondiere, Nutrition Officer, INFOODS coordinator. Nutrition and Food Systems Division, FAO

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FAO/INFOODS Global Food Composition Database for Pulses

  1. 1. FAO/INFOODS Global Food Composition Database for Pulses U. Ruth Charrondiere, Fernanda Grande, Morgane Fialon, Barbara Stadlmayr, Sergio Dahdouh, Sarah Najera Espinosa, Maria Xipsiti, Ramani WijesinhaBettoni Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
  2. 2. Aim: Eliminate Hunger and Malnutrition in the World HOW? Undernutrition Overweight and obesity Micronutrient deficiencies Malnutrition
  3. 3. How to feed the world? + Pulses can play an important role
  4. 4. Western Europe in 2011  Pulses 1% of protein supply  106 g/d/c protein supply, of which 40g are plant and 66g animal protein Globally in 2011  Pulses 3% of energy supply  Pulses 7% of protein supply  Increase of protein supply from 70 to 80 g/d/c  Least developed countries: 61 g/d/c protein supply, of which 47g are plant and 14g animal protein Importance of Pulses Source: FAOSTAT 0.83 g/kg BW is protein requirement. A 70 kg adult needs 58g of protein. In Europe, we can diminish the protein supply, especially of animal protein. Pulses can be used to replace part of animal protein.
  5. 5. Benefits of pulses: Nutrition, food security and health Low Glycemic index Low fat No cholesterol High fibre High complex carbohydrates High protein Good to combine with cereals to improve protein quality High folate and B-vitamins High mineral Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, K High satiety Long storage Low food waste Lower anemia Lower risk for cancer and cardiovascular diseases Lower risk for obesity and diabetes Lower risk of neural tube defects Adequate growth and development Protein source for vegetarians and those wanting to lower high meat consumption Less constipation Cheap source of protein
  6. 6. Stigma of pulses and some solutions Long cooking time Stigma of being poor people’s food Forgotten food Bloating Flatulence Phytate hinders mineral absorption Soak and throw away soaking water Germination Fermentation Cooking Research on varieties with less phytate or bloating components Promote more the health and nutritional benefits Improve image of pulses through chefsResearch on varieties with lower cooking time Protein source for vegetarians and those wanting to lower high meat consumption Promote the environmental benefits of pulses Integrate pulses into school meal or purchase programmes Fairs Communication strategies FBDG Develop new and attractive products and recipes with pulses
  7. 7. Legacy of the IYP FAO/INFOODS Global Food Composition Database for Pulses Version 1.0 - uPulses1.0 Fernanda Grande, Morgane Fialon, Barbara Stadlmayr, Doris Rittenschober, Sergio Dahdouh, Sarah Najera Espinosa, T Longvah & U. Ruth Charrondiere
  8. 8. 1st step – collection of analytical data • 16,720 articles were screened for 23 different species of pulses • 2,570 food entries and 34,064 data points • most of the data points are related to proximate composition (49%), minerals (25%) and amino acids (16%). Almost no vitamins • this data will be published in the next update of the FAO/INFOODS Food Composition Databases •FAO/INFOODS Food Composition Database for Biodiversity •FAO/INFOODS Analytical Food Composition Database
  9. 9. 2nd step – User database with complete nutrient profile  Total 152 food entries  16 species resulting in 58 raw food entries  94 entries of boiled pulses through FAO/INFOODS recipe calculation:  pulse, water-soaked, cooked in different water, drained  pulse, water-soaked, cooked in different water (water not discarded)  48 components with statistics (mean, median, SD, min, max, n, value documentation)  Energy and 10 macronutrients including FA fractions, nitrogen  9 mineral  9 vitamins  18 amino acids  Phytate: IP6 and if available other isomers  2 sets of databases  Per 100 g edible portion in fresh weight basis  Per 100 g edible portion on dry matter basis  To be published in January 2017
  10. 10. Global Pulses Database – Components included Macronutrients Minerals Vitamins Amino acids Phytic Acid Water Carbohydrate, available by difference Fibre, total dietary Protein Nitrogen Fat Fatty acids, total saturated Fatty acids, total monounsaturated Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated Cholesterol Ash ____________ Energy (kJ and kcal) Calcium Iron Magnesium Manganese Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc Copper Vitamin A (RE and RAE) Vitamin D Vitamin E Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Niacin-equivalent Vitamin B-6 Folate, total Vitamin C Alanine Arginine Aspartic acid Cystine Glutamic acid Glycine Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Proline Serine Threonine Tryptophan Tyrosine Valine Phytic acid - IP6 (and fractions when the data is available)
  11. 11. Global Pulses Database – Foods included Description Specie Types Common bean Phaseolus vulgaris Pea Pisum sativum Lentil Lens culinaris Chickpea Cicer arietinum Black turtle Red KidneyNavy Pinto Green Yellow Green Red Kabuli Desi
  12. 12. Global Pulses Database – Foods included Description Specie Types Lupin Lupinus spp Lima bean Phaseolus lunatus Cowpea Vigna unguiculata Bambara groundnut Vigna subterranea Lupinus albus Lupinus angustifolius Lupinus luteus
  13. 13. Description Specie Types Adzuki Vigna angularis Mung bean Vigna radiata Mungo bean Vigna mungo Pigeon pea Cajanus cajan Description Specie Types Rice bean Vigna umbellata Moth bean Vigna aconitifolia Hyacinth bean Lablab purpureus Broad bean Vicia faba Global Pulses Database – Foods included
  14. 14. - Analysis to propose retention factors (started, results expected in January 2017) • raw • soaked, cooked in soaking water and drained • soaked, cooked in soaking water and not drained • soaked, cooked in new water and drained • soaked, cooked in new water and not drained • not soaked, cooked in soaking water and drained • not soaked, cooked in soaking water and not drained Global Pulses Database – issues and challenges Red kidney beans, whole Kabuli chickpea and dehulled lentils
  15. 15. 2nd step – User database with complete nutrient profile  Challenges 1. Missing yield factors (=indicate weight change when cooking)  solution: cooked many pulses 2. Unsure Nutrient retention factors (=indicate nutrient losses when cooking)  solution: will be established through new analysis 3. Missing values  Especially for vitamins – solution: borrow from FCT/FCDB  Dietary fibre: Few data found for soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, and no data for the most recent method (AOAC 2011.25). Only Prosky and similar dietary fibre values  Especially for 6 minor species -> not able to allocate sufficient seeds to be analyzed. Deleted from DB or with missing data  No solution found. Values will remain blank  To be published in January 2017
  16. 16. Phytate and Phytic acid - Retention factors calculated during the project based on about 30 data points • IP6 content changes a lot after food processing • Data on phytate is available in very few food composition tables (The Gambia, Minilist) for a limited number of foods and mainly for raw foods o Are we overestimating the phytate content and the decrease in minerals availability?
  17. 17. ENERGY AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION Example– ”Simplified database”
  18. 18. Example– ”Simplified database”
  19. 19. Example– ”Simplified database”
  20. 20. Example– ”Simplified database”
  21. 21. Example– ”Simplified database”
  22. 22. Possible uses of the Global Pulses Database • To increase the production and consumption of pulses • To promote pulses for their good nutritional benefits • To calculate better nutrient intakes • To motivate counties to include more pulses into their FCT/FCDB • To be able to set standards in Codex, EU and other standard setting bodies • To prove that pulses, compared to cereals, are equal or better in providing a range of essential nutrients
  23. 23. Nutrient productivity concept Taking into account yield per hectare, content of 9 nutrients and their DRI for 1 year for 10 adults: 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% 250% Wheatflour,white Wheatflour,… Rice,white Rice,brown Maize Barley,hulled Barley,pearled Millet Sorghum Lentil Chickpea Mungbean Pigeonpea Potato Soybean Mango Banana Sweetpotato,… Energy 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% 250% 300% 350% 400% 450% Wheatflour,… Wheatflour,… Rice,white Rice,brown Maize Barley,hulled Barley,pearled Millet Sorghum Lentil Chickpea Mungbean Pigeonpea Potato Soybean Mango Banana Sweetpotato,… Total DRI 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Pork,Goodagriculture… Pork,Redlabel,FRA Pork,Heavierfinishing,… Pork,Indoorbreeding,… Pork,Outdoorbreeding,… Pork,Conventional,GBR Pork,Organic,GBR Chicken,Conventional,… Chicken,Freerange… Chicken,Organic,GBR Chicken,Conventional,… Beef,100%suckler,GBR Beef,Lowland,GBR Beef,Hillandupland,GBR Beef,Non-organic,GBR Beef,Organic,GBR Milk,Averagefarm,NZL Milk,Conventionalfarm,… Milk,Organicfarm,SWE Milk,Intensive… Milk,extensive… Milk,Tenconventional… Milk,Elevenorganic… Milk,119conventional… Milk,Conventionalfarm,… Milk,Organicfarm,GBR Milk,Morefodderas… Milk,60%higheryields,… Milk,20%autumn… Egg,Batterycage,NLD Egg,Deeplitter,NLD Egg,Deeplitterwith… Egg,Aviarywithoutdoor… Egg,Non-organic,GBR Egg,Organic,GBR Egg,100%cage,GBR Egg,100%freerange,… Pork Chicken Beef Milk (cow) Egg (hen) Total DRI
  24. 24. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 YIELD 0 5 10 15 20 25 PROTEIN CONTENT (G PER 100G) Nutrient productivity and biodiversity – same agricultural conditions In FCT quinoa has 13.1 g/100g EP High protein High yield High protein Low yield Yield (tons/ha/harvest) High yield Low protein 0% 100% 200% 300% 400% 500% 600% 700% 800% 900% Protein productivity
  25. 25. Four main functions of a food system Food system functions determine availability, affordability, convenience and desirability of various foods - in other words the food environment - and thus the behavior of consumers. Through the food environment, the food system influences consumers’ diets and nutritional status. Food environment Food system Source: Dufour, 2016 If pulse consumption is to increase, the whole food system has to change

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