Notes: The figures listed above refer to the proportion of countries in each region that refer to the agriculture sectors (crops, livestock, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture = agriculture [crops and livestock] + LULUCF) in their mitigation and adaptation sections. Sub-Saharan Africa places a greater emphasis on the agriculture sectors (for both mitigation and adaptation) than any other developing country region.
Notes: Specific needs in the agriculture sectors include: Technical: forest inventories and national planning systems; technologies to support MRV. Capacity development: best practices for sustainable forest management; support for implementation of afforestation and reforestation; training on assessing GHG emissions and removals.
FAO provides assistance from global to local levels. This work cuts across pillars of food security, climate resilience, disaster resilience and sustainable land/resource management. Ranging from support: to global conventions, commitments and policy (e.g. UNFCCC, UNCCD) Full spectrum of ‘normative’ work (developing tools, datasets—partnerships) Country level and policy planning (e.g. NAPA, NDCs, REDD+) To local level projects, developing and sharing developing best practice (e.g. applying tools in field schools/farmer/govt, business, community groups).
CSA is not an approach, not a methodology—but an organizing principle. Offers the way forward for mainstreaming climate change adaptation and mitigation into all FAO development activities Focus on food security Ensures country-driven processes Employs ecosystem-based approach Ensure trans-boundary collaboration Ensures participatory, gender-sensitive, location-specific adaptation Deliver through partnerships (e.g. one UN) Take long-term programmatic approach Promote synergies between adaptation, mitigation and productivity increase (climate-smart agriculture)
3 areas that CSA is being addressed by FAO
The agricultural sectors are directly relevant to: Mitigation: Forest and Land Use Adaptation: Health, food and water security; Livelihoods of people and communities; and Ecosystems and ecosystem services.
3 GCMs x 2 emission scenarios
FAO, Climate Change Adatation, and NAPs
Meeting of Least Developed Countries Expert Group.
Monrovia, Monteserrado, Liberia.
07-10 September 2016
FAO, Climate Change Adaptation,
Natural Resources Officer
NDCs and agriculture sectors
• NDCs an important guide for future
programming decisions by country
• Countries identified 256 INDC actions for the
agriculture and land-use sectors
% of INDCs referring
to ag sectors
Sub-Saharan Africa LULUCF: 87 %
East / Southeast Asia LULUCF: 81%
South Asia LULUCF: 63%
North Africa and West
Latin America and the
Mitigation (LULUCF: 145 countries) and (Agriculture: 140 countries) Adaptation (131 countries refer to Ag in the context of adaptation)
% of INDCs referring
to ag sectors
Sub-Saharan Africa 100%
East / Southeast Asia 92%
South Asia 100%
North Africa and West
Latin America and the
Source: FAO analysis, data status 7.9.16
The agriculture sectors in the INDCs
The agriculture sectors are among the foremost priorities for
climate action in developing countries
Planning and Implementation
Technical and capacity needs
• Enhanced inter-sectoral and inter-ministerial cooperation is
often identified as a priority.
• Many countries refer to importance of monitoring, evaluating
and reacting to the performance of their adaptation and
• 1/3 of countries refer to research and capacity building in Ag
sectors as part of adaptation sections
• About 60% of countries express the need for technology
transfer and capacity development .
• Countries prioritize technical capacities, followed by capacity
development to engage stakeholders, and formulate relevant
strategies and policies.
FAO Action on Climate Change
Support at a number of levels
Climate Smart Agriculture
An organizing principle to help guide
actions to transform and re-orient
agricultural systems to effectively and
sustainably support food security under
the new realities of climate change.
Three pillars of CSA:
1.Increase, in a sustainable manner, productivity and income
growth in agriculture.
2.Support adaptation across the agricultural sectors to
expected climatic changes and build resilience.
3.Reduce, where possible, the greenhouse gas emissions of
Focus of FAO work on CSA
1)Making the case for CSA
– Building an evidence base
1)Developing and applying CSA practices
– Demonstrating and scaling-up site-specific
– Building enabling institutional and policy frameworks
Country support on NAPs
- some examples
• Voluntary guidelines to support the integration of
Genetic Diversity into National Adaptation Planning
• Agriculture supplement for the LEG technical guidelines
for the NAP process (NAP-Ag supplement). To be
finalized in 2016.
• Fisheries and aquaculture sub-sector specific guidance
document for country support.
• Supporting 29 developing countries out of which nine
are considered Least Developed Countries across
Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean on the
design and implementation of processes related to
adaptation planning/ National Adaptation Plans.
Relevant programs and projects
- some examples
• NAP-Ag Programme – 11 countries, FAO and UNDP
• Strengthening the Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change in the Fisheries and
Aquaculture Sector - Chile
• AMICAF – Indonesia and Paraguay
• Climate Change Adaptation in the Eastern Caribbean Fisheries Sector
• Improved fisheries management for sustainable use of marine living
resources in the face of changing systems
• Reducing vulnerability and increasing adaptive capacity to respond to
impacts of climate change and variability for sustainable livelihoods in
agriculture sector in Nepal
• Consolidating capacities for DRR in Agriculture in Southeast Asia (Lao PDR,
Cambodia, the Philippines, DPR Korea)
• Community-based Climate Resilient Fisheries and Aquaculture
Development in Bangladesh
FAO-GEF adaptation portfolio
Global and Africa
The majority of FAO-GEF CCA work in Africa seeks to strengthen the
resilience of small holder agriculturalists and agroecosystems
•Coastal communities in Togo
•Small holder farmers through farmer field schools in Uganda, Berundi,
Senegal, Mozambique, Burkina Faso.
•Coastal fishers in the Benguela current.
•Agropastoral systems and communities in Angola, Mali and Niger.
Update - Globally
• 8 countries: Kenya, Philippines, Nepal, Thailand, Uruguay, Uganda,
• 3 additional countries: Colombia, the Gambia and Zambia
• Launch of FAO and UNDP websites
• 05-07 April - Global Capacity Development Workshop on Integrating
Agriculture in NAPs in FAO HQ
• 11-15 July - NAP Expo 2016 – Parallel Sessions:
– Establishing baselines for NAPs and scaling up adaptation action (UNDP, UNEP, FAO,
BMUB, GCF (Representative from Gambia, Thailand, Philippines, Kenya and Zambia)
– Experiences on ecosystem-based approaches under the Convention on Biological
Diversity (CBD, FAO)
– Technical guidance on NAPs (Representative from Philippines)
Global Capacity Development
Ministries of Agriculture and
FAO and UNDP Country focal
Partner organizations –
Oxfam, NAP Global Network
Lead experts of the agriculture
Thematics and Training Peer-to-Peer Exchange
Country Poster Session –
Overview of key issues for
Buddy system – peer-to
peer-exchange on select
Sharing of work plans and
milestones for 2016
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mainstreaming CCA into
Building and evidence base for
CCA in agriculture
Leveraging support for NAPs
NAP Technical Guidelines and
integration of ag sectors and
Country Team Work planning
05-07 April – FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy
All workshop material posted online:
Update - National
• Country inception workshops, launching the NAP for
climate variability and change in the agriculture sectors
– Kenya – 08 June 2016, Nairobi, Kenya
– Uruguay – 07 July 2016, Montevideo, Uruguay
– Zambia – 26-28 July 2016, Siavonga, Zambia
– Uganda – 02 August 2016, Kampala, Uganda
• Launch of Webinar Series for the NAP-Ag
Programme – focusing on technical topics from impact
evaluation, CbA, gender, monitoring and evaluation, climate finance,
integration of the agriculture sectors, etc.
• In-country trainings on Impact Evaluation and Cost-
Benefit Analysis of adaptation options
– Webinar and Briefing Note on Economics of Adaptation – Impact
Evaluation and CbA
• Gender mainstreaming in national policies
– First series of country trainings
– Dissemination of a training manual on mainstreaming gender in
country policymaking on adaptation in agriculture
– Webinar and Briefing Note on Gender into Policy Making and
Highlights and country priorities
• Undertake coherent NAPs, NDCs, NAMAs and NCs
• Strengthen capacities to link climate policy and public finance
• Mainstream climate change adaptation and disaster risk
reduction into agriculture sector plans, policies, budgets (both
national and provincial).
• Improve impact monitoring frameworks
• Wide consensus on the need for working together across Ministries
and national agencies working on environment, agriculture, forestry,
fisheries, planning, finance and women’s affairs to work together to
enhance climate change adaptation.
• Countries requested support on identifying suitable tools for
building the evidence base, develop capacity and build effective
work plans and budgets for the NAP process.
– Evidence base for adaptation plans for the agricultural sector
– Evidence base for agricultural sector inputs into National Climate Change
– Evidence base to understand climate benefits of adaptation options and their
Agricultural sectors & GCF
• There is significant potential for the agricultural sectors to
deliver on GCF priorities.
FAO and GCF
• FAO is exploring three ways to support Member
States to work with the GCF.
– As a GCF-accredited implementing entity.
• FAO hopes to be accredited at either the October (B.14) or
December (B.15) Board meeting.
• Projects up to USD 250 million (inclusive of co-financing).
• Grant-implementing entity.
• Projects characterized by a medium level of env/social risk.
– Supporting the design and implementation of projects
led by other accredited entities.
– As a delivery partner in the GCF Readiness
• Mainly to develop the GCF country programme.
Technical work in support of NAP – an example:
Evidence-based climate change adaptation
• Any climate change adaptation
programme/project should be supported by
• Evidence about:
– Past climate, and its impacts on local agriculture
– Future projected climate and its impacts on local agriculture
– Characterization of vulnerability to climate change and other
factors (social, environmental, etc)
– Current GHG emissions
– Identification and appraisal of potential adaptation practices,
including cost-benefit, mitigation benefits
– Effectiveness of adaptation interventions (monitoring and
Which regions are more affected by river
flow changes, and irrigation potential?
Changes in discharge by season and agreement among 3 GCMs x 2
2011-2040 vs 1971-2000
Which regions are
more affected than
other regions by
What are the
Rainfed rice yield change 2011-2040 vs 1971-2000
Peru – corn yield projection
Which crops are more vulnerable and where?
What are optimal crop mix?
• Strengthen linkage between research and decision
making to build evidence base
• Information gap: assessment at national level with sub-
national disaggregation, medium- to long-term CC
• Link with policy processes such as National Adaptation
Plans (NAPs), Climate-Smart Agriculture, Agricultural
Investment Programme, etc
• Philippines, Peru, Morocco, Malawi, Zambia, Indonesia,
Paraguay, and more
• Using MOSAICC and other tools
• Addressing capacity gap in developing countries
• By national scientists
• With country’s own data
• For country's information needs, to inform
country’s programmes and projects
• Individual capacities
• Institutional capacities --- stakeholder
engagement, interdisciplinary team