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FAO Approach to Migration and entry points for Migration-Land interventions (Land-based Investments and Facilitating Access to Land)

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The presentation provides an overview of the approach to migration from an FAO point of view.

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FAO Approach to Migration and entry points for Migration-Land interventions (Land-based Investments and Facilitating Access to Land)

  1. 1. Ion Bulgac, Migration Officer, Decent Rural Employment Team, ESP FAO Approach to Migration and entry points for Migration-Land interventions (Land-based Investments and Facilitating Access to Land)
  2. 2. DECENT RURAL EMPLOYMENT TEAM (DRET) Key Facts And Figures  258 million international migrants (UN DESA PD, 2017).  763 million Internal migrants (UN DESA PD, 2013).  46% of the world population lives in rural areas (UN DESA PD, 2015b);  68.5 million people forcibly displaced worldwide: 25.4 million refugees, 3.1 million asylum-seekers and over 40 million internally displaced people (UNHCR, 2018).
  3. 3. DECENT RURAL EMPLOYMENT TEAM (DRET)  FAO works on all forms of migration and pays attention to both internal and international movements;  FAO Comparative Advantage on Migration;  FAO acknowledges the role of migration: Reviewed Strategic Framework, Strategic Objective 3 Reducing Rural Poverty and Strategic Objective 5 Increase the Resilience of Livelihoods to Threats and Crises;  FAO Global Agenda on Migration: 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (2015), New York Declaration (2016), Global Compact on Migration (2018). RATIONALE FOR ENGAGEMENT ON MIGRATION
  4. 4. DECENT RURAL EMPLOYMENT TEAM (DRET) FAO Areas of Work on Migration
  5. 5. DECENT RURAL EMPLOYMENT TEAM (DRET) FAO Migration Corporate Framework: Greater coordination at different levels GLOBAL  Participation in global fora  Coordinated technical inputs to Global Compact for Migration REGIONAL  Stronger links with regional and sub-regional offices  Joint programming COUNTRY Strengthened capacities to address migration and mobilise resources in a coordinated manner Migration Corporate Framework to guide FAO’s work at global, regional and country level and ensure coherence and synergies within its programme of work Importance of strengthening the links among technical units and with regional and sub-regional offices Effective coordination at all levels
  6. 6. DECENT RURAL EMPLOYMENT TEAM (DRET) Migration – Land Nexus: Land-based Investments  International remittances – est. $613 billion. Low- and middle- income countries estimated to receive approx. $466 billion (World Bank, 2017).  40% of international remittances are sent to rural areas (IFAD, 2016).  60-80% of remittance income is used to cover food, medical expenses and education, while the remaining 20-40% is invested in land, livestock, housing, business ventures and savings.  Studies from Latin America, West Africa, South Asia show that remittances are used to improve agricultural land. There are also instances where this may not be the case (Sahel, Thailand).
  7. 7. DECENT RURAL EMPLOYMENT TEAM (DRET) Migration – Land Nexus: Land Investments (Case Study)  Factors determining investment of remittances (type of migration, size of remittances, availability of investment opportunities);  Conditions favoring investments in rural areas (Galetto, 2011);  The successful example of San Juanico, Mexico – migrants’ investments in the avocado production:  rapid accumulation of social capital within migrants’ network;  availability of high-quality, affordable land in the area.
  8. 8. DECENT RURAL EMPLOYMENT TEAM (DRET) Migration – Land Nexus: Land Investments (Entry Points): Fostering an enabling environment favoring land investments; Encourage greater financial literacy and inclusion of migrants and their families; Encourage and develop financial products and services incentivizing migrants to make investments, including in agricultural land; Encourage local governments/ investment authorities to develop relationships and engage with diaspora for information exchange, business partnerships, and investments prospects for ARD;
  9. 9. DECENT RURAL EMPLOYMENT TEAM (DRET) Migration – Land Nexus: Facilitating Access to Land Access to land is an essential requirement for starting farming and contributes to household food security and generates employment and income; Access to land can automatically mitigate the problems of homelessness, unsafe living and plays a vital role in poverty reduction and development;
  10. 10. DECENT RURAL EMPLOYMENT TEAM (DRET) Migration – Land Nexus: Facilitating Access to Land (Case Study)  INDONESIA (access to land - 12 rice-producing villages in 3 regions):  Local farmers DO NOT own their land + Big landowners are mostly Outsiders;  Land tenure occurs by marriage, or by inheritance => prompted many to move to other regions where they can earn more than farmers;  Only possible way to become a farmer for young people: find work outside agriculture + save enough money to buy or rent some land;  Speculative investment in land (by non-farmers) + rising land prices => people moving to other regions to do other paid jobs and informal work;
  11. 11. DECENT RURAL EMPLOYMENT TEAM (DRET) Migration – Land Nexus: Facilitating Access to Land (Entry Points)  More knowledge on main barriers of access to land and how this impacts rural communities in taking the decision to migrate.  Policy dialogue and options identifying and making land available in use- right form for individual use for young people (impacting reduction of youth unemployment);  Engagement mechanisms for governments with vulnerable groups (young people, women) in policy dialogue on land-related matters and ensure that developed policy options respond to their needs.  Mechanisms for negotiation (through intermediary, private company, NGO) with community leaders/ private owners facilitating access to land. Achieving positive outcomes requires building mutual trust and ensuring that the potential returns from allocating land for productive investment are fully acknowledged.
  12. 12. DECENT RURAL EMPLOYMENT TEAM (DRET) THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!

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