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THE DEFINITION OF IUU FISHING
Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is a broad
term originally defined in 2001...
INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS
ADDRESSING IUU FISHING
1. FAO Agreement to Promote Compliance with International
Conservation an...
A purposely designed toolbox, concluded within the framework of
the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, to comb...
THE 2009 FAO AGREEMENT
ON PORT STATE MEASURES
• 2009 FAO Conference approved the
Agreement as an Article XIV instrument un...
Status of the PSMA
• The Agreement opened for signature in November 2009
and remained opened for one year (until November ...
Structure of the Agreement
The Agreement applies to vessels not flying the flag of
the port State, seeking entry into or b...
• The entry into force of the PSMA would not only strengthen international efforts to
curb IUU fishing but will, as a resu...
FAO VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR
FLAG STATE PERFORMANCE
• The fulfilment of responsibilities by flag States, as set out in
int...
• The Guidelines are wide-ranging and address:
 their purpose and principles
 the scope of application (geographical, ve...
THE GLOBAL RECORD OF FISHING
VESSELS, REFRIGERATED TRANSPORT
VESSELS AND SUPPLY VESSELS
The Global Record is one of the l...
• Strategy document on the design, development and
implementation of the Global Record (GR)
Achievements and on-going work...
• Global initiative starting with a pilot project limited to key partners:
o Regional representation
o Developed and devel...
PERSISTENT CHALLENGES TO COMBAT
IUU FISHING
There are several political, legal, institutional, educational
and operational...
Thank you for your attention
Combatting IUU Fishing through the implementation of the Port State Measures Agreement and other instruments
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Combatting IUU Fishing through the implementation of the Port State Measures Agreement and other instruments

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Combatting IUU Fishing through the implementation of the Port State Measures Agreement and other instruments.

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Combatting IUU Fishing through the implementation of the Port State Measures Agreement and other instruments

  1. 1. THE DEFINITION OF IUU FISHING Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is a broad term originally defined in 2001, within the context of the IPOA-IUU, and includes: • Fishing and fishing-related activities conducted in contravention of national, regional and international laws. (illegal) • Non-reporting, misreporting or under-reporting of information on fishing operations and their catches. (unreported) • Fishing by “Stateless” vessels. (unregulated) • Fishing in convention areas of RFMOs by non-party vessels. (unregulated) • Fishing activities which are not regulated by States and cannot be easily monitored and accounted for. (unregulated) • Fishing in areas or for fish stocks for which there are no conservation or management measures. (unregulated)
  2. 2. INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS ADDRESSING IUU FISHING 1. FAO Agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing Vessels on the High Seas, 1993 (Compliance Agreement) 2. FAO Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing, 2009 (Port State Measures Agreement) Aims to prevent fish caught by foreign fishing vessels engaged in IUU fishing activities from being landed and entering international markets, thus removing the incentive to engage in IUU fishing. Aims to prevent the "re-flagging" of vessels under the flags of States that are unable or unwilling to enforce international fisheries conservation and management measures.
  3. 3. A purposely designed toolbox, concluded within the framework of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, to combat IUU fishing, for use by all States, in general, flag States, coastal States and port States. Aim to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing through the effective implementation of flag State responsibilities. This instrument is a valuable tool for strengthening compliance by flag States with their international duties and obligations regarding the flagging and control of fishing vessels. 4. Voluntary Guidelines for Flag State Performance (2014) 3. International Plan of Action to prevent, deter and eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (2001)
  4. 4. THE 2009 FAO AGREEMENT ON PORT STATE MEASURES • 2009 FAO Conference approved the Agreement as an Article XIV instrument under the FAO Constitution. • The purpose of the Agreement is to prevent IUU- caught products from entering international markets, thus removing incentive to engage in IUU fishing. • The Agreement is based on 2 voluntary international instruments:  2005 Model Scheme on Port State Measures to Combat IUU Fishing: an intermediate step towards the conclusion of the binding Port State Measures Agreement  2001 IPOA-IUU
  5. 5. Status of the PSMA • The Agreement opened for signature in November 2009 and remained opened for one year (until November 2010). • 23 FAO Members signed in that period: Angola, Australia, Benin, Brazil, Canada, Chile, EU, France, Gabon, Ghana, Iceland, Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Russian Federation, Samoa, Sierra Leone, Turkey, USA, Uruguay. • 19 FAO Members have ratified, accepted, approved or acceded to the Agreement (Australia, Chile, Costa Rica, EU, Gabon, Iceland, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Palau, Republic of Korea, Seychelles, Somalia, Sri Lanka, St Kitts and Nevis and Uruguay) • The Agreement will enter into force 30 days after deposit with FAO DG of the 25th instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
  6. 6. Structure of the Agreement The Agreement applies to vessels not flying the flag of the port State, seeking entry into or being in ports. Part 1 • Interpretation and application of the Agreement • Fundamental international law, instruments and practices Parts 2-4 • Step-by-step requirements and procedures for vessels and port States, from the point of prior to entry into port of vessels • Inspections and follow-up actions Parts 5 and 6 • Considerations regarding the role of flag States and the requirements of developing States Parts 7-10 • Dispute settlement, non-parties, monitoring, review and assessment of final provisions, including entry into force
  7. 7. • The entry into force of the PSMA would not only strengthen international efforts to curb IUU fishing but will, as a result, also contribute to strengthened fisheries management and governance at all levels. Entry into force and implementation of the PSMA • Through the implementation of defined procedures to verify that foreign vessels have not engaged in IUU fishing, and other provisions relating to the denial of access to ports, port inspections, prohibition of landing, detention and sanction, fish caught from IUU fishing activities can be blocked from reaching national and international markets. • Used in conjunction with other tools such as the Global Record of Fishing Vessels, catch documentation schemes and other MCS tools, port State measures have the potential to be the most cost-effective and efficient means of combating IUU fishing. • Through the appropriate use of the funding mechanisms to be established under Article 21 of the PSMA, developing States will be better placed to combat IUU fishing.
  8. 8. FAO VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR FLAG STATE PERFORMANCE • The fulfilment of responsibilities by flag States, as set out in international law and various international instruments related to fisheries, complements the implementation of effective port State measures. • The objective of the FAO Voluntary Guidelines for Flag State Performance (negotiated 2011-2013) is to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing through the effective implementation of flag State responsibilities. • The Guidelines are a valuable tool for strengthening compliance by flag States with their international duties and obligations regarding the flagging and control of fishing vessels.
  9. 9. • The Guidelines are wide-ranging and address:  their purpose and principles  the scope of application (geographical, vessels)  performance assessment criteria (measures, actions)  cooperation between flag States and coastal States  a procedure for carrying out an assessment (self assessment, external assessment)  encouraging compliance and deterring non-compliance by flag States (corrective, cooperative, measures)  cooperation with and assistance to developing States with a view to capacity development  the role of FAO (receive reports, monitoring, assistance) • It is hoped that through these Guidelines, fisheries and maritime administrations will be encouraged to work more closely together, that national regimes and capacities will be strengthened, and that RFMOs will play a meaningful role in using the Guidelines to strengthen flag State performance and ultimately to combat IUU fishing.
  10. 10. THE GLOBAL RECORD OF FISHING VESSELS, REFRIGERATED TRANSPORT VESSELS AND SUPPLY VESSELS The Global Record is one of the latest tools being developed by FAO to combat IUU fishing by making readily available information on vessels engaged in fishing and fishing-related activities, including, inter alia, on their operations, physical characteristics, ownership, flag history, track record and previous convictions. The Global Record is expected to strengthen MCS schemes and serve as an important facilitating tool in the implementation of international instruments such as the PSMA and VGFSP.
  11. 11. • Strategy document on the design, development and implementation of the Global Record (GR) Achievements and on-going work • Establishment of GR Informal Open-Ended Technical and Advisory Working Group (GRWG) – focus on overall strategy and financing • 5-year programme proposal: system development, capacity development and awareness-raising • Prototype presented at COFI 2014 • Establishment of GR Core Groups (GRCGs) – focus on Data Requirements, Data Exchange and Third Party Data
  12. 12. • Global initiative starting with a pilot project limited to key partners: o Regional representation o Developed and developing States o Targeted support Moving forward – Pilot Project • Modification of prototype according to agreed data requirements and extension to include data collection • Public access for user feedback • Increased commitment and participation of partners is vital for the success of the project • Donors so far: Australia, European Union, Iceland, Republic of Korea, Spain, United Kingdom and United States
  13. 13. PERSISTENT CHALLENGES TO COMBAT IUU FISHING There are several political, legal, institutional, educational and operational challenges to be addressed in the fight against IUU fishing, including: • Strengthening of legal and governance frameworks at national, regional and global levels • Enhancing the capacity of developing States to manage, monitor and control fishing activities • Developing globally accepted standards for market access, trade and traceability mechanisms
  14. 14. Thank you for your attention

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