Climate-smart Approaches to Agriculture: lessons from recent experience


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by Wendy Mann


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Climate-smart Approaches to Agriculture: lessons from recent experience

  1. 1. Climate-smart Approaches to Agriculture: lessons from recent experience Wendy Mann Second FAO Knowledge Event on Climate-smart Approaches to Agriculture Doha, Qatar, 1 December 2012
  2. 2. BackgroundFunder: European CommunityDuration: 1 January 2012 - 31 December 2014.Partner countries: Malawi, Vietnam and ZambiaType of project: country readiness to scale-upclimate-smart approaches to agriculture throughcapacity strengthening 1
  3. 3. Climate Smart agricultureProject building evidence-based sustainable agriculturaldevelopment strategies, policies and investment frameworks to: 1. sustainably increase agricultural productivity and incomes, 2. build resilience and the capacity of agricultural and food systems to adapt to climate change, 3. seek opportunities to reduce and remove GHGs, compatible with achieving national food security and development goals. 4. encourage holistic approaches to FS, Ag. Dev and CC Climate smart approaches to agriculture:  mitigation and carbon markets not central focus  no blueprint for diverse contexts and capacities 1
  4. 4. Project Framework NEEDS PROJECT COMPONENTS OUTPUTS a policy environment & RESEARCH COMPONENT and agricultural Evidence What are the synergies and tradeoffs investments to improve between food security, adaptation and Base mitigation from ag. practices?food security and provide resilience under climate What are the barriers to adoption and Strategic risk profiles of these practices uncertainty Framework What are the policy levers to facilitate adoption, risk reducing tools, and what will they cost? Investment proposals POLICY SUPPORT COMPONENT Capacity Identifying where policy Building alignment/coordination at the national level is needed and how to do it Facilitating national participation/inputs to climate and ag international policy processes 2
  5. 5. Building What are relevant practices in Assessing country that increase returns toBlocks the situation farmers, reduce vulnerability to CC & emissions growthUnderstanding Guiding InvestmentBarriers to Define the baseline toAdoption determine benefits of Benefits: Food these practices Security, Adaptation, Test input, and Mitigation institutional, Are CSA practices information and being adopted? Identify Costs financial constraints If not, why not? synergies and tradeoffs of relevant practices How do Benefits & Costs of practicesManaging Climate Risk profile of relevant compare? CSA practices Building CoherentRisk Policies Risk-reducing Policy Levers for tools: safety nets, Risk Adoption insurance, Management Investment diversification Analysis proposals CSA Strategy: Role of information Technical, under a changing climate Institutional, and Financing Economic Priorities
  6. 6. A key feature: building strong links across research, policy and investment for policymakers and farmers• The analytical tools used, depend on question being addressed.• One approach is participatory scenario building: • Develop a storyline or narrative for scenarios • Identify key outcomes of interest • Quantify scenarios • Combine narrative scenarios with policy simulations 4
  7. 7. Issues addressed by countriesMalawi and Zambia:• Conservation agriculture/agro-forestry/livestock/soil & water conserv.• Diversification of production (dairy, legumes)• Smallholder irrigation management (Malawi)• Safety nets and risk management (Malawi)• Input use efficiency• The role of agriculture as a driver of deforestation (Zambia)Vietnam (Northern Mountains)• Agro-forestry systems/land management practices to addressdeforestation and unsustainable maize systems in uplands (erosion, landlandslides, loss of carbon from soil) and barriers to their adoption,• Diversification of productive activities into perennial crops (such ascoffee and tea) with potential multiple benefits. 5
  8. 8. Emerging Evidence: ZambiaPractices: Conservation agriculture (CA), i.e. planting basins/zero tillageAdoption: Preliminary econometric analysis of barriers to adoption of CA indicates that:(1) Adoption remains very low: ~5-6% (sample size 4,187) and ~90% of CA adopters in 2004 abandoned it in 2008(2) Adoption intensity is significantly higher for smallholders(3) Strongest determinants of adoption are: variable rainfall Access to extension information on CASuggestive evidence: farmers adopt CA as a variability reducing (yield smoothing?) practiceFurther work is needed to understand better why these patterns occurred. 6
  9. 9. Emerging Evidence: MalawiPractices: improved maize varieties, inorganic and organic fertilizers, legume intercropping, and agro-forestry (e.g. Faidherbia albida)Adoption: Important determinants: – Land tenure positively correlate with OF,LI, AF – Drought proneness positively correlate with AF&LIYields: – Improved seed, legume intercropping & agro-forestry positively correlate with productivity – Significant synergies among all three practices 7
  10. 10. Malawi: Building the evidence base on marginal costs of agricultural-based mitigation 1. agronomy_dry 150 100 2. Integrated nutrient management _dry 50 3. Tillage/residue 0 mgmt_dry$/t CO2e 4. Integrated nutrient -50 management_moist -100 5. Tillage/residue mgmt_moist -150 6. agronomy_moist -200 -250 7. agroforestry_dry -300 8. agroforestry_moist 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 t CO2e abated/year 9. water mgmt_dry 10. water mgmt_moist 9
  11. 11. How will Capacity be strengthened?1. Research institutions and universities; support for MSc and PhDstudents2. Local institutions: extension, land tenure, traditional systems3. National institutions: planning, inter-ministerial Ag, Env, Fin - dialogues (participatory scenario building tool) 4. Policy frameworks (CAADP, ASWAp, NCP, Action Plan on CC Response of Ag. and RD)5. Ag Ministry staff attendattend UNFCCC Talks6. Stakeholder consultation,interactive web-based 10platform
  12. 12. Thank you!Thank you