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Census Theme 2 and 3 - Land and irrigation

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Census Theme 2 and 3 - Land and irrigation.

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Census Theme 2 and 3 - Land and irrigation

  1. 1. Regional Workshop for Monitoring the SDGs related to Food and Agriculture Sector and on the WCA 2020 Nadi, Fiji 6-10 November 2017 Oleg Cara Agricultural Census and Survey Team FAO Statistics Division Theme 2: Land Technical Session 11
  2. 2. Contents •Background •Importance of the theme •Items: type, reference periods, importance of the items, concepts and special characteristics •Country experiences 2
  3. 3. Background  In Theme 2, the most important change in respect to previous programmes is that land use classification was updated to be consistent with the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) – Central Framework  Land use at parcel level is a new item for this theme  The theme comprises 4 items at holding level and 7 items at parcel level  Out of them, three items are essential items, one of them is also a frame item 3
  4. 4. Importance of the Theme  The area operated by holdings is a critical element in census analysis.  Different types of actual use of land define the structure of agriculture of a country.  Structure of land tenure is important in any analysis at aggregate level.  Census data about parcellation of land constitute valuable information for policy making at agricultural and rural levels. 4
  5. 5. Items Theme 2 comprises the following items: 5 For the holding: 1. Total area of holding. 2. Area of holding according to land use types. 3. Area of holding according to land tenure types. 4. Presence of soil degradation For each parcel 1. Location 2. Area 3. Land use 4. Land tenure 5. Terms of rental 6. Use of shifting cultivation 7. Number of years since cleared
  6. 6. Item 0201: Total area of holding Type: Essential and frame item Reference period: census reference day Concept: Total area of holding is the area of all the land making up the agricultural holding. It includes all land operated by the holding regardless to title or legal form. Caveat: land owned by the holder and rented TO others should not be included. On the contrary: area rented FROM others for agricultural production purposes need to be included in the holding area. 6
  7. 7. Item 0201: Total area of holding (contd) Are there landless holdings? Yes. With an insignificant or even zero land area the holding could have an agricultural activity, e.g.: holdings without land used for agricultural production, raising livestock on communal land. The holding’s land may consist of one or more land parcels. The parcels can be located in one or more separate areas or administrative units, providing they are part of the same economic production unit and share the same production means. 7
  8. 8. Item 0201: Total area of holding (contd) What types of land should be included? • Land used for growing crops, meadows and pastures. • Land temporarily fallow • Forest and other wooded land • Bodies of water • Farmyards and land occupied by farm buildings • Land for which a holding only has the right on the products of the trees growing on it. 8
  9. 9. Item 0202: Area of holding according to land use types Type: essential item Reference period: census reference year Concept: It is the breakdown of the total area reported in the previous item (it means the total area of the holding operated as of the census reference day), according to its use during the census reference year. Note: Land use should be distinguished from “land cover”. 9
  10. 10. Land use classes Land under farm buildings and farmyards Land under permanent meadows and pastures Land under temporary crops Land under temporary meadows and pastures Land temporarily fallow Arable Land Land under permanent crops Cropland Agriculturalland Landusedforagriculture Forest and other wooded land Area used for aquaculture Other land. 10
  11. 11. Land use classes: main differences between WCA 2020 and WCA 2010 The main differences are results of the harmonization efforts with the SEEA Land Use Classification (LUC):  Two categories: “land under farm buildings and farmyards” and “area used for aquaculture” have been detached from the category “other land”. “Area used for aquaculture” may also include inland and coastal waters if they are part of the holding.  The concept of “land used for agriculture” has been introduced in order to match the category “agriculture” of the SEEA LUC. It represents the total of “agricultural land” and “land under farm buildings and farmyards”.  A minimum size threshold of 0.5 hectares (ha) has been introduced for the “forest land” and “other wooded land”. 11
  12. 12. Basic land use classes: main concepts  Land under temporary crops: all land used for crops with less than one year growing cycle.  Land under temporary meadows and pastures: Land temporarily (less than 5 years) cultivated with herbaceous forage crops for mowing or pasture.  Land temporarily fallow: arable land at prolonged rest (at least one year, usually no more than 5 years) before re-cultivation.  Land under permanent crops: land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years.  Land under permanent meadows and pastures: land used permanently (5 years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, through cultivation or naturally. 12
  13. 13. Basic land use classes: main concepts(cont’d)  Forest and other wooded land: o Forest land is land spanning more than 0.5 ha with trees higher than 5 metres (m) and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees that are able to reach these thresholds in situ. It covers both natural and plantation forests. o Other wooded land is land spanning more than 0.5 hawith: (i) trees higher than 5 m and a canopy cover of 5-10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ; or (ii) trees not able to reach a height of 5 m in situ but with a canopy cover of more than 10 percent (e.g. some alpine tree vegetation types, arid zone mangroves, etc.); or (iii) combined cover of shrubs, bushes and trees of more than 10 percent.  Land under farm buildings and farmyards: surfaces occupied with operating farm buildings (barns, silos, stables, etc.). 13
  14. 14. Item 0203: Area of holding according to land tenure types Type: essential item Reference period: census reference day Concept: It is the breakdown of the total area of holding, according to specific land tenure types. Land tenure refers to the arrangements or rights under which the holder operates the land making up the holding. 14
  15. 15. Land tenure types 15 Rented from someone else: Land is rented or leased from other persons (including state agencies), usually for a limited period of time under some of different rental conditions: an agreed sum of money and/or produce, for a share of the produce or in exchange of services. Land may also be granted for free. Legal ownership or legal owner-like possession: • The holder (or members of the holder’s household) possess title of ownership. • The land is held under conditions that enable it to be operated as if legally owned by the holder or members of the holder’s household (hereditary tenure, perpetual or long-term lease with nominal or no rent) • The land is held under a tribal or traditional form of tenure which is legally recognized by the state. Non-legal ownership or non-legal owner-like possession: • The holder (or members of the holder’s household) have operated the land without interruption for a long period without any form of legal ownership, title, long-term lease or payment of rent. • The holder is operating land owned by the state without any legal rights. • Land is operated under a tribal or traditional form of tenure which is not recognized by the state and it is outside the realm of the law. Other types • Squatting • Transitory tenure forms (e.g. trusteeship) • Land received by members of collective holdings for individual use • Land under inheritance proceedings
  16. 16. Item 0204: Location (for each parcel) Type: additional item Reference period: census reference day Concept of parcel: Parcel is any piece of land, of one tenure type, entirely surrounded by other land, water, road, forest or other features not forming part of the holding or forming part under a different land tenure type. A parcel may consist of one or more fields or plots adjacent to each other. Concept of field: Field is a piece of land in a parcel separated from the rest of the parcel by easily recognized demarcation lines. Concept of plot: It is a part or whole of a field on which a specific crop or crop mixture is cultivated. 16
  17. 17. Parcel divided in plots and fields 17
  18. 18. Items 0205, 0206, 0207, 0208: Area, land use land tenure and terms of rental (for each parcel) Type: additional items Items 0205 and 0207: same concepts and definitions as before Item 0206 Land use: new item (see similar holding-level item 0202) Item 0208: Terms of rental (for each rented parcel): Reference period: census reference day Forms of rental arrangements: • For an agreed amount of money or produce • For a share of produce • In exchange of services • Under other rental agreements. 18
  19. 19. Item 0209: Use of shifting cultivation (for each parcel) Type: additional item Reference period: census reference year Concept of shifting cultivation: It is a farming practice whereby a particular piece of land is cultivated for some years and then abandoned for a period sufficient to restore fertility by natural vegetative growth before being re-cultivated. Caveat: Data are collected on whether or not the parcel has been cultivated using shifting cultivation practices during the census reference year. 19
  20. 20. Item 0210: Number of years since cleared (for each parcel) Type: additional item Reference period: census reference day Purpose: The purpose of this item is to better understand the extent of recent land clearances. Suggested classes: • In the last year • 1-3 years ago • 4 or more years ago. 20
  21. 21. Item 0211: Presence of soil degradation: type and degree (for the holding) Type: additional item Reference period: census reference day Concept of soil degradation: It refers to the decline in soil quality due to natural processes or, more commonly, improper use by humans. Purpose: To get the holder’s overall impressions of the extent to which land degradation is present on holding and its effect in agricultural production. 21 Suggested categories for types of soil degradation Suggested categories for degree: •Soil erosion •Chemical degradation •Physical deterioration •None •Light •Moderate •Severe
  22. 22. Country experiences All countries collect holding-level information on the items included in this Theme. However for the items about land use, two main practices has been observed: • Ask the respondent about the land use categories on holding; • Recompose the land use categories from the answers provided for other questions in the questionnaire. Both methods have pros and cons: • To collect information directly from the holder (or other respondent) allows for cross-checking with the answers provided in other questions related to area of crops, meadows and pastures, etc. On the other hand, it overcharges the questionnaire asking for data that can be obtained from other questions. • Re-composition from the other answers discharges the questionnaire of questions but it may not allow reconstituting all land use categories and does not allow the above referred cross-checkings. In practice often combination of these methods is used 22
  23. 23. Country experiences (cont’d) Samoa: Agricultural Census 2009 In Section II: Total area of the holding in the Holding Form the following information was collected: • Number of parcels • For each parcel the following characteristics were covered: Location (district and village) Area (acres) Land use type (tree crops, other crops, tree crops and others, temporary fallow, non agricultural use, under livestock) Land tenure type (customary land, leased customary land, leased government land, own freehold land, leased freehold, others) Period of use (years) 23
  24. 24. Regional Workshop for Monitoring the SDGs related to Food and Agriculture Sector and on the WCA 2020 Nadi, Fiji 6-10 November 2017 Oleg Cara Agricultural Census and Survey Team FAO Statistics Division Theme 03 – Irrigation Technical Session 11 24
  25. 25. Contents •Background •Importance of the theme •Concept of irrigation •Items: type, reference periods, importance of the item, concepts and special characteristics •Country experiences 25
  26. 26. Background In Theme 3, new items are included: • Item 0302: Area of land actually irrigated: fully controlled and partially controlled irrigation (it is also essential item) • Item 0309: Area equipped for irrigation in working order: fully and partially controlled irrigation Theme 3 has only one frame item: use of irrigation on the holding: fully controlled and partially controlled irrigation. The theme comprises 10 items all of them at holding level. 26
  27. 27. Importance of the Theme  Analysis of farm management and agricultural practices (Irrigation cross tabulated with land use are important).  Understand cropping practices and the constraints in improving agricultural productivity;  Important consequences in environmental aspects of the agricultural production referred to for example: source, type and quality of water; drainage and use of wastewater.  Important financial aspects: payment for irrigation, investments needs, etc. 27
  28. 28. Concept of irrigation  Irrigation refers to purposely providing land with water, other than rain, for improving pastures or crop production.  Irrigation usually implies the existence of infrastructure and equipment such as: irrigation canals, pumps, sprinklers or localized watering systems. However, it also includes manual watering of plants. Uncontrolled land flooding by overflowing of rivers or streams is NOT considered irrigation. 28
  29. 29. Items 29 Theme 3: Irrigation comprises the following items:  0301: Use of irrigation on the holding: fully and partially controlled irrigation;  0302: Area of land actually irrigated: fully and partially controlled irrigation;  0303: Area of land actually irrigated according to land use types: fully and partially controlled irrigation (for the holding);  0304: Area of land actually irrigated according to method of irrigation: fully controlled irrigation (for the holding);  0305: Area of crops actually irrigated for each crop type: fully controlled irrigation (for the holding);  0306: Sources of irrigation water: fully controlled irrigation (for the holding);  0307: Payment terms for irrigation water: fully and partially controlled irrigation (for the holding);  0308: Use of other types of irrigation: partially controlled irrigation (for the holding);  0309: Area equipped for irrigation in working order: fully and partially controlled irrigation;  0310: Presence of drainage equipment (for the holding) ` • 1506: Rice cultivation: irrigation and water regimes (explained in Theme 15)
  30. 30. Item 0301: Use of irrigation on the holding: fully and partially controlled irrigation Type: frame item. Reference period: census reference year. Precision: this item is recommended for inclusion in the core module when a modular approach is used, to provide a sampling frame for related surveys. 30
  31. 31. Item 0302: Area of land actually irrigated: fully and partially controlled irrigation Type: new and essential item. Reference period: census reference year. Concept: this item refers to the physical area of land irrigated, not the total area of crops irrigated. Therefore, if the same area is cropped, irrigated and harvested twice a year, it should be counted once. 31
  32. 32. Item 0303: Area of land actually irrigated according to land use type: fully and partially controlled irrigation (for the holding) Type: additional item. Reference period: census reference year. Concept: as in the previous case, this item refers to the physical area of land irrigated, not the total area of crops irrigated. Thus, the land irrigated for successive crops in different seasons within the reference year is only counted once. Land use categories: • Land under permanent crops • Land under temporary crops:  Single-irrigated crop;  Multiple-irrigated crops. • Land under temporary meadows and pastures • Land under permanent meadows and pastures 32
  33. 33. Item 0304: Area of land actually irrigated according to method of irrigation: fully controlled irrigation (for the holding) Type: additional item. Reference period: census reference year. Concept: this item includes only areas of land irrigated by methods of fully controlled irrigation. Methods: • Surface irrigation • Sprinklers • Localized irrigation The definition and images of each method are given in the following slides. 33
  34. 34. Methods of irrigation Surface irrigation: System for partially or completely covering land with water for the purpose of irrigation. They include several types including furrow, border strip and basin irrigation. 34 Basin irrigation Furrow Irrigation
  35. 35. Methods of irrigation (cont’d.) Sprinklers: Sprinkler irrigation refers to pipes networks through which water moves under pressure before being delivered to the crop via sprinkler nozzles. 35
  36. 36. Methods of irrigation (cont’d.) Localized irrigation: It is a system whereby water is distributed under low pressure through a piped network, in a pre-determined pattern and applied as a small discharge to each plant. 36
  37. 37. Item 0305: Area of crops actually irrigated for each crop type: fully controlled irrigation (for the holding) Type: additional item. Reference period: census reference year. Concept: This item includes only areas of land irrigated by methods of fully controlled irrigation. It refers to the area of crops irrigated, as opposed to the area of land irrigated of previous items. Precision: For temporary crops – refers to that portion of the harvested area irrigated at some time during the reference year. For permanent crops - it refers to that portion of the area with permanent crops present of the day of enumeration that was irrigated at some time during the reference year. 37
  38. 38. Item 0306: Sources of irrigation water: fully controlled irrigation (for the holding) Type: additional item. Reference period: census reference year. Concept: This item includes only areas of land irrigated by methods of fully controlled irrigation. It refers to whether irrigation water used on the holding was obtained from one or several of the following sources: 38 •Surface water (e.g. streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, etc.) •Groundwater: water stored underground in aquifers, usually pumped from wells •Mixed surface water and groundwater •Municipal water supply: source of water accessible to at least two holdings withdrawn from the public piped distribution network •Treated wastewater: water without further immediate value for the purpose to which it was used or produced because of its quality • Other
  39. 39. Item 0307: Payment terms of irrigation water: fully and partially controlled irrigation (for the holding) Type: additional item. Reference period: census reference year. Concept: This item refers to whether payment was made for the irrigation water used in the holding. It encompasses the following categories:  Did not pay for water  Paid for water: • Fee based on area of land irrigated • Fee based on volume of water • Other (e.g. both, based on area an volume) 39
  40. 40. Item 0308: Use of other types of irrigation: partially controlled irrigation (for the holding) Type: additional item. Reference period: Data on partially controlled irrigation are normally collected for the census reference year, but data may be distorted by unusual weather conditions. Concept: Partially controlled irrigation activity covers the following specific methods: 40 Equipped wetland and inland valley bottoms: lowland areas subject to seasonal flooding that are used when covered with water. When control structures such as canals are constructed it falls in the partially controlled category Equipped flood recession: it refers to areas along the edges of rivers or other water bodies where cultivation occurs making use of water from receding floods. Structures may be built to retain receding water in which case it falls in the partially controlled category Spate irrigation: it is a method of random irrigation using the floodwaters of a normally dry watercourse or riverbed (wadi). There are two types of spate irrigation: a) floodwater is harvested in streambeds and spread through the wadi in which the crops are planted; b) floodwater is diverted from seasonal rivers into adjacent embanked fields for direct application
  41. 41. Item 0309: Area equipped for irrigation in working order: fully and partially controlled irrigation Type: additional item. Reference period: census reference day. Concept: This item refers to the existence of infrastructure and equipment for applying water to crops, which is in working order. Precision 1: Manual watering of plants using buckets, watering cans, etc. is not covered by this item. Precision 2: The equipment does not have to be used during the reference year. The item only refers to the existence in using conditions. 41
  42. 42. Item 0310: Presence of drainage equipment (for the holding) Type: additional item. Reference period: census reference day. Concept: Drainage means the artificial removal of the excess of water (both surface or groundwater) from the land surface by means of surface or subsurface conduits, to enhance agricultural production. Presence of drainage equipment means that the equipment is present on holding on the census reference day. Precision: Management of water for flood recession cropping (item 0308) is considered partially controlled irrigation, not drainage. 42
  43. 43. Country experiences New Zealand: Agricultural Production Census (APC) 2012 In the APC questionnaire, section ”Farm practices”, the following items were included: • Q78: During the year ended 30 June 2012, was any part of the farm able to be irrigated using resource consents and irrigation equipment that was on the farm? • Q79: During the year ended 30 June 2012, what was the total area that could have been irrigated using existing resource consents and equipment that was on the farm? • Q80: During the year ended 30 June 2012, what area of the farm could have been irrigated using each of the following systems? o Flood systems (e.g. wild flood, border strip, etc.) o Spray systems (e.g. centre pivot, linear, rotating and fixed booms) o Micro systems (indoor and outdoor) 43
  44. 44. Country experiences (cont’d.) Australia- Agricultural Census (AC) 2010/2011 In the AC questionnaire Part 15 “Irrigation and water use” were included: Q59: Does this business own, lease or have access to irrigation equipment (Yes/No)? Q60: Did you use water for agricultural production (including for livestock) between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011(Yes/No)? Q61: Total volume used for agricultural production on the holding between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011- by sources: ◦ Water taken from irrigation channels ◦ Water taken from on-farm dams or tanks ◦ Water taken from rivers, creeks, lakes, etc. ◦ Groundwater (e.g. bores, springs, wells) ◦ Recycled/re-used water from off-farm sources ◦ Town or country reticulated mains supply, etc. 44
  45. 45. Country experiences (cont’d.) Australia- Agricultural Census (AC) 2010/2011 Q62: Area watered and Volume applied for agricultural production: a) Pastures (for grazing, for seed, cut for hay, cut for silage) b) Cereal crops (for silage, for grazing or fed off, cut for hay, harvested for grain or seed) c) Other crops (rice, sugar cane, cotton, other broadacre crops) d) Fruit trees, nut trees, plantation or berry fruits (excluding grapevines) e) Vegetables f) Nurseries, cut flowers and cultivated turf g) Grapevines h) Other crops i) Other agricultural water e.g. livestock drinking water, dairy or piggery cleaning. 45
  46. 46. Many thanks 46

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