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Addressing emerging threats
to food security and livelihoods
for sustainable development in AIMS SIDS
Alemneh Dejene
Team ...
FAO’s support to SIDS/
Third International Conference
• Corporate website to systematize the
knowledge base of FAO on SIDS...
Major emerging threats
Atlantic Ocean SIDS
Indian Ocean SIDS
CLIMATE CHANGE
• Sea level rise
• Temperature
• Rainfall vari...
Climate change impacts in AIMS SIDS
(IPPC, 2007)
Atlantic Ocean
• Scarce water resources
• Siltation
• Poor infiltration i...
Livelihoods in the Indian Ocean SIDS
(UNFCC Country submission)
Maldives
Seychelles
Mauritius
Comoros
Maldives
• Tuna fish...
Livelihoods in the Atlantic Ocean SIDS
Cape Verde
Guinea-Bissau
Sao Tomé
& Principe
Cape Verde:
• Low agricultural potenti...
Food Security in AIMS
• “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic
access to sufficien...
Some adaptation options…
• water storage schemes;
• Small-scale water harvesting and irrigation for local food
production ...
…and the necessary enabling environment
• further diversification of the economy (e.g.. services sector);
• investment in ...
Closing Remarks
• Threats of CC are urgent. Immediate actions need to be taken, as
it impacts on livelihoods. These countr...
Closing Remarks
• Countries with a diversified livelihoods and economy have shown more
resilience to the impacts of climat...
Thank you
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Addressing emerging threats to food security and livelihoods for sustainable development in AIMS SIDS

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www.fao.org/sids

Presentation made in the context of the AIMS regional preparatory meeting on SIDS, held in Victoria, Seychelles on July 17-19 2013. This meeting is part of the preparatory process towards the Third International Conference on SIDS.

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Addressing emerging threats to food security and livelihoods for sustainable development in AIMS SIDS

  1. 1. Addressing emerging threats to food security and livelihoods for sustainable development in AIMS SIDS Alemneh Dejene Team Leader, Climate Impact, Adaptation and Environmental Sustainability, Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) AIMS Regional Preparatory Meeting Victoria, Seychelles 17-19 July 2013
  2. 2. FAO’s support to SIDS/ Third International Conference • Corporate website to systematize the knowledge base of FAO on SIDS • Task Team with experts from different technical departments and decentralized offices • Support to the SIDS regional preparatory meetings, inter-regional and the international Conference • Examining strategic partnerships for sustainable development in FAO’s core mandate areas • FAO currently supports 190 (operationally active on July 2013) projects in SIDS providing policy advice, analysis and technical assistance in agriculture, livestock, fisheries, forestry, natural resources management and food security, in its commitment to support resilient livelihoods and enhance food security. • 69 in AIMS • 60 in the Caribbean • 61 in the Pacific
  3. 3. Major emerging threats Atlantic Ocean SIDS Indian Ocean SIDS CLIMATE CHANGE • Sea level rise • Temperature • Rainfall variability • Extreme events
  4. 4. Climate change impacts in AIMS SIDS (IPPC, 2007) Atlantic Ocean • Scarce water resources • Siltation • Poor infiltration in to soils • Longer dry seasons • Over exploitation of aquifers • Saltwater intrusion • Waterborne diseases • Aridification • Reduction of rainy season • Health risks • Loss of agricultural land Indian Ocean • Insufficient access to safe drinking water • Droughts/Flooding • Soil erosion • Health risks • Decline in yields/fisheries productivity • Land degradation • Lagoon sedimentation and eutrophication • Coastal erosion • Saltwater intrusion • Salinization of soil • Coral bleaching • Rural-urban migration
  5. 5. Livelihoods in the Indian Ocean SIDS (UNFCC Country submission) Maldives Seychelles Mauritius Comoros Maldives • Tuna fisheries, affected by ENSO • tourism • high proportion of imported food Seychelles • Low agricultural potential (2.2% arable land) micro-irrigation. • high proportion of food is imported • Developed tuna fisheries (industrial) and artisanal fisheries • Path of growth in the secondary and non-tourism tertiary economy Comoros • high reliance on smallholder agriculture, fishing and forestry (80% of employment). • high proportion of food is imported Mauritius • significant tracts of arable land (90% under sugar cane) • Tuna fisheries & seafood hub (marketing and processing) • Diversified tertiary sector through financial services, information and communications technology, and property development.
  6. 6. Livelihoods in the Atlantic Ocean SIDS Cape Verde Guinea-Bissau Sao Tomé & Principe Cape Verde: • Low agricultural potential (~10% of arable land) & water shortages ; recently piloted rice production. • Artisanal & Tuna fisheries • High reliance on food imports • Tourism has been the fastest-growing sector Guinea Bissau: • Agricultural potential under-utilized (rice and livestock ). Rice prod. Affected by Cc. Commercial production is currently limited to cashew production. • High reliance on cashew and fish/shrimp exports. • Rich forest resources Sao Tomé & Principe: • Agricultural potential limited (~10% of arable land) & water shortages • High reliance on food imports • Cocoa production (exports accounting for 80% of all exports) but sensitive to rainfall fluctuations. • Fisheries risk over-utilization & artisanal fishing practices exposes fishermen to life- threatening ocean-climate hazards.
  7. 7. Food Security in AIMS • “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. (World Food Summit, 1996) Current food security and nutrition situation in AIMS • Large dependency on imported food • Availability of local food product (possible but imported products preferred) • Increasing Human health issues related to diet (high rates of diabetes and obesity) • Availability and access to water is limited and unstable • There is potential to o increase/develop livelihoods o added value for agriculture, fisheries & marine resources o Diversify economy o Increase resilience to emerging threats  Availability  Access  Utilization  Stability 4 dimensions of FS
  8. 8. Some adaptation options… • water storage schemes; • Small-scale water harvesting and irrigation for local food production (i.e. from rice to cash crops to horticulture); • desalination using renewable energy. • sustainable development of fisheries and coastal ecosystems • sustainable development of forest resources; • introduction of suitable modern technologies for climate- resilient production; • Climate services
  9. 9. …and the necessary enabling environment • further diversification of the economy (e.g.. services sector); • investment in physical defenses and risk transfer schemes; • agro-processing and value chain development; • Reducing heavy reliance on one sector as it is vulnerable to climate change • Governance & institutional strengthening (from community to international levels); • Effective and strategic partnerships for results • Regional Initiatives on Food Security & Nutrition for SIDS
  10. 10. Closing Remarks • Threats of CC are urgent. Immediate actions need to be taken, as it impacts on livelihoods. These countries have made good efforts to address them through the development of NAPAs, even in LDCs. • Other island vulnerabilities include external pressures (trade, food imports, globalization, etc) and internal processes (i.e. population growth, increasing income inequality, unemployment, rapid urbanization, etc). These processes are related and interact in complex ways to heighten the vulnerability of island social and ecological systems to climate change.
  11. 11. Closing Remarks • Countries with a diversified livelihoods and economy have shown more resilience to the impacts of climate variability and climate change, as it reduces risk. High reliance on tourism remains risky and safety nets are needed. High revenue activities, such as tuna and tourism need to be used for the development of services sector. • Innovative and efficient partnerships are essential, specifically-tailored for SIDS (inter-regional needs to be further examined) • Caribbean Climate Online Risk and Adaptation TooL (CCORAL) by the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) • Building institutional capacity remains critical in addressing the challenges of SIDS.
  12. 12. Thank you

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