Flujos de Vapor y Carbono: Avances
en el monitoreo para la gestión de la
huella ecológica en Agricultura
Dr. Francisco J. ...
Source: Millenium Ecosystem Assessment
Burney J A et al. PNAS 2010;107:12052-12057
©2010 by National Academy of Sciences
Paradigma de una Intensificación
Sostenible
while emissions from factors such as fertilizer production and
application hav...
Net Primary Productivity
Net Ecosystem Exchange
NEP = Net ecosystem productivity= (-)NEE
Intercambio ( Flujo) de CO2
entre la atmósfera y el
ecosis...
Huella del agua de un producto
Huella Verde
► Volumen de agua de lluvia evaporado o incorporado en el
producto.
Huella Azu...
Donde:
H: Huella Hídrica (m3
/ha/Unidad de Producción)
ET: Evapotranspiración del cultivo (mm)
RHC: Requerimientos hídrico...
Y la Huella azul…
Donde:
H: Uso de agua por el cultivo (m3
/ha/Unidad de producción)
RR: Riego (mm/ha)
RRef: Riego efectivo
– Método de Penmann-Monteith
– Modelos
– Otros
Requerimientos del Cultivo
Flujo de Vapor/Evapotranspiración
• Gran Problema es que en pocas circunstancias
se mide el flujo de vapor
• Ecuación de P...
Medidas Directas
Medidas Directas
Medidas Directas
Metodología Eddy Covariance
• Ampliamente usada para medición de flujos
de gas y energía en la atmósfera. (Capa
Límite).
•...
Cierre Balance Energético
La formulación y justificación del EBC radica en la
primera ley de la termodinámica adaptada por...
Fundamentos
Campbell Sci, 2006.
Capa límite atmosférica
The lowest layer of the atmosphere that is in direct contact
with Earth’s surface. Conditions and ...
Flujo turbulento
Baldocchi, D. 2001. Wind and Turbulence, Surface Boundary Layer. Teachers Note. University of California,...
a and Anderson, 2003. Introduction to the Eddy Covariance method, General Guidelines and Conventional Workflow. Li-Cor Bio...
Instrumentación
• Anemómetro Sónico
• Open path Gas Analyzer
• Higrómetro
• Termocupla
• Datalogger
H+Le(Wm-2
)
-200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
y = 0.93x - 4.24
r
2
= 0.85
n = 4304
a)
Rnet - G (W m
-2
)
-200 0 200 400 600 800 ...
Baldocchi, 2008
-182.9gC m-2
y-1
≈1.829tC ha-1
y-1
FN <0 representan una pérdida de CO2 de la atmósfera y
ganancia por la ...
Sitio de Estudio
Ubicación geográfica: (33°02'S
70°44'O 660 m.s.n.m),
Clima Mediterráneo
Suelo franco arcilloso, C:N = 12
...
Eddy Covariance
Adaptación de Burba and Anderson, 2010.
Resultados (Bravo et al., in prep)
Comparison between estimated (LEe) and observed (LEo) latent heat flux over a drip-irrigated Merlot
vineyard. The solid li...
Desafíos
• Nuevas Hipótesis: Cómo las fluctuaciones
climáticas (Tº,pp, Rn) bajo ciertas condiciones
(sequías, heladas, eve...
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Flujos de Valor y Carbono: Avances en el monitoreo para la gestión de la huella ecológica en la Agricultura

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  • Regional and global trends in population (Upper Left), crop production (Upper Right), crop area (Lower Left), and fertilizer use (Lower Right), 1961–2005.
  • The exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the ecosystem is known as net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at any particular point in time (Moncrieff et al., 2000). NEP and NEE are widely used as indicators of the amount of carbon accumulated or lost (medium-term storage) by an ecosystem. However, not all these carbon remain
  • Green water footprint – Volume of rainwater consumed during the production process. This is particularly relevant for agricultural and forestry products (products based on crops or wood), where it refers to the total rainwater evapotranspiration (from fields and plantations) plus the water incorporated into the harvested crop or wood.
    Blue water footprint – Volume of surface and groundwater consumed as a result of the production of a good or service. Consumption refers to the volume of freshwater used and then evaporated or incorporated into a product. It also includes water abstracted from surface or groundwater in a catchment and returned to another catchment or the sea. It is the amount of water abstracted from groundwater or surface water that does not return to the catchment from which it was withdrawn.
    Grey water footprint – The grey water footprint of a product is an indicator of freshwater pollution that can be associated with the production of a product over its full supply chain. It is defined as the volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants based on natural background concentrations and existing ambient water quality standards. It is calculated as the volume of water that is required to dilute pollutants to such an extent that the quality of the water remains above agreed water quality standards.
    Source:
    Hoekstra, A.Y., Chapagain, A.K., Aldaya, M.M. and Mekonnen, M.M. (2011) The water footprint assessment manual: Setting the global standard, Earthscan, London, UK.
    See page 187, 189, 190.
  • Blue water use refers to the volume of irrigation water (withdrawn from surface or ground water) that evaporates from a crop field during the growing period. The distinction between green and blue water has been introduced by Malin Falkenmark, Swedish hydrologist.
  • EBC ha sido aceptado como uno de los más importantes para validar los datos de eddy covariance, por lo que su aplicación resulta formar un procedimiento estándar en la aplicación de esta metodología
    S the rate of change of heat storage (air and biomass) between the soil surface and the level of the eddy covariance instrumentation, and Q the sum of all additional energy sources and sinks. (Wilson et al., 2002)
  • In temperate ecosystems, seasonal trend in CO2 exchange
    (FN) follows the seasonal cycle of the sun, with qualifications.
    In temperate coniferous forests, seasonal patterns of FA and FR
    are in phase, causing FN to peak (most negative values, indicating
    uptake) when FA and FR do. In cold regions, temperate conifer
    forests lose carbon in the winter and gain it during the frostfree,
    growing season. And in milder regions, such as the Pacific
    North-west, south-western France and the south-eastern part of
    the United States, temperate conifer forests can be net carbon
    sinks year-round. In contrast, FR is delayed compared with FA
    in temperate deciduous and boreal coniferous forests. This lag is
    attributed to cold spring-time soils, which restrict FR and enable
    FN to be most negative then. Arid and semi-arid systems, such
    as Mediterranean and tropical savannas and annual grasslands,
    are water-limited. Consequently, the most negative rates of net
    carbon exchange occur during the wet winter and spring in
    Mediterranean-type climates and during the summer wet period
    for tropical savannas.
    Perennial grasslands, growing in temperate
    climates, experience summer rainfall, so their annual cycle of
    carbon exchange is moderated by the freeze-free period of the
    year, changes in leaf area index and vapour-pressure deficits. The
    greatest rates of carbon uptake occur for C4, C3 and mixed C3–C4
    grasslands during the summer growing season. Agricultural
    crops achieve the highest short-termrates of carbon uptake. But,
    ironically, their net annual uptake is not the greatest. Spring-sown
    crops, such as soybeans and corn, experience a short season of
    effective net carbon uptake because they must grow from seed
    The ranking of FN, at annual time scales, is not explained
    well by variations in climate variables, plant functional type or
    photosynthetic potential (Law et al. 2002; Arain and Restrepo-
    Coupe 2005; van Dijk et al. 2005; Reichstein et al. 2007b). A
    step-wise, multiple regression analysis revealed that only 45% of
    the variance in annual FN, for forests across central and northern
    Europe, is explained by a combination of sunlight, leaf area index
    and air temperature (van Dijk et al. 2005). More productive
    ecosystems (those with greater values of FA), which occur under
    wetter and warmer climates, do not necessarily produce large
    values of FN because FR scales linearly with available light,
    moisture and temperature (Arain and Restrepo-Coupe 2005; van
    Dijk et al. 2005; Reichstein et al. 2007b). This point is illustrated
    with data in Fig. 5,which shows that variations inFA explain only
    42% of the variation in FN. Consequently, it is better to partition
    FN into its components FA and FR, and relate the components to
    abiotic and biotic drivers, as is shown below.
  • El sitio de estudio se encuentra en la Región Metropolitana de Chile, 33º02&amp;apos;S 70º44&amp;apos;O 660 m.s.n.m.
  • Flujos de Valor y Carbono: Avances en el monitoreo para la gestión de la huella ecológica en la Agricultura

    1. 1. Flujos de Vapor y Carbono: Avances en el monitoreo para la gestión de la huella ecológica en Agricultura Dr. Francisco J. Meza Director Centro de Cambio Global UC fmeza@uc.cl Tercer Seminario Regional Agricultura y Cambio Climático Septiembre , 2012
    2. 2. Source: Millenium Ecosystem Assessment
    3. 3. Burney J A et al. PNAS 2010;107:12052-12057 ©2010 by National Academy of Sciences
    4. 4. Paradigma de una Intensificación Sostenible while emissions from factors such as fertilizer production and application have increased, the net effect of higher yields has avoided emissions of up to 161 gigatons of carbon (GtC) (590 GtCO2e) since 1961 Burney J A et al. PNAS 2010;107:12052-12057
    5. 5. Net Primary Productivity
    6. 6. Net Ecosystem Exchange NEP = Net ecosystem productivity= (-)NEE Intercambio ( Flujo) de CO2 entre la atmósfera y el ecosistema
    7. 7. Huella del agua de un producto Huella Verde ► Volumen de agua de lluvia evaporado o incorporado en el producto. Huella Azul ► Volumen de agua superficial o subterránea evaporado, incoporado en el producto o retornado en otra área o en el mar. Huella Gris ► Volumen de agua contaminado en el proceso de producción.
    8. 8. Donde: H: Huella Hídrica (m3 /ha/Unidad de Producción) ET: Evapotranspiración del cultivo (mm) RHC: Requerimientos hídricos del cultivo (mm/ha) PPef: Precipitación efectiva (mm) Calculando entonces, la Huella Verde es:
    9. 9. Y la Huella azul… Donde: H: Uso de agua por el cultivo (m3 /ha/Unidad de producción) RR: Riego (mm/ha) RRef: Riego efectivo
    10. 10. – Método de Penmann-Monteith – Modelos – Otros Requerimientos del Cultivo
    11. 11. Flujo de Vapor/Evapotranspiración • Gran Problema es que en pocas circunstancias se mide el flujo de vapor • Ecuación de Penman Monteith es la más completa desde el punto de vista teórico, pero al momento de aplicarla la llevamos a su nivel más simple ETo • El uso de estaciones meteorológicas automáticas permite el cálculo de ETo (pero no la medición de la ET)
    12. 12. Medidas Directas
    13. 13. Medidas Directas
    14. 14. Medidas Directas
    15. 15. Metodología Eddy Covariance • Ampliamente usada para medición de flujos de gas y energía en la atmósfera. (Capa Límite). • Método de medición directo, no afecta el medio de medición. • Matemáticamente complejo y requiere de instrumental sofisticado
    16. 16. Cierre Balance Energético La formulación y justificación del EBC radica en la primera ley de la termodinámica adaptada por los micrometeorólogos y que estipula que la energía incidente sobre un ecosistema debe ser transformada y/o utilizada en distintos procesos que ocurren en el ecosistema. Rn G L E H AsimilaciónCO2 Respiración (Wilson et al., 2002)
    17. 17. Fundamentos Campbell Sci, 2006.
    18. 18. Capa límite atmosférica The lowest layer of the atmosphere that is in direct contact with Earth’s surface. Conditions and processes within the ABL will react to changes at the surface within a period of less than an hour and within a distance of less than 100 km 4.5 ms-1 Capa de Mezcla zi = 1400 m Eddy por convección térmica Tarong, Queensland (AUS), stack height: 210 m, zi = 1400 m, w* = 2.5 ms-1 . Photo: Geoff Lane, CSIRO (AUS) Troposfera libre Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) Schmidt H. 2003. Micrometeorology, Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchange. Teachers Notes, Indiana University .
    19. 19. Flujo turbulento Baldocchi, D. 2001. Wind and Turbulence, Surface Boundary Layer. Teachers Note. University of California, Berkele
    20. 20. a and Anderson, 2003. Introduction to the Eddy Covariance method, General Guidelines and Conventional Workflow. Li-Cor Bioscience Burba and Anderson, 2003.
    21. 21. Instrumentación • Anemómetro Sónico • Open path Gas Analyzer • Higrómetro • Termocupla • Datalogger
    22. 22. H+Le(Wm-2 ) -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 y = 0.93x - 4.24 r 2 = 0.85 n = 4304 a) Rnet - G (W m -2 ) -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 H+Le(Wm -2 ) -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 y = 0.94x - 7.09 r 2 = 0.86 n = 3310 b) Cierre del Balance de Energía
    23. 23. Baldocchi, 2008 -182.9gC m-2 y-1 ≈1.829tC ha-1 y-1 FN <0 representan una pérdida de CO2 de la atmósfera y ganancia por la superficie en estudio (Hutley et al. 2005; Baldocchi et al. 2001; Paw U et al. 2004; Sellers et al. 2010) FN <0 representan una pérdida de CO2 de la atmósfera y ganancia por la superficie en estudio (Hutley et al. 2005; Baldocchi et al. 2001; Paw U et al. 2004; Sellers et al. 2010) Flujos de CO2/Intercambio de Carbono
    24. 24. Sitio de Estudio Ubicación geográfica: (33°02'S 70°44'O 660 m.s.n.m), Clima Mediterráneo Suelo franco arcilloso, C:N = 12 Precipitación Media: 233 mm T° media: 15.6 Pp 2010: 132mm Pp 2011 : 103 mm
    25. 25. Eddy Covariance Adaptación de Burba and Anderson, 2010.
    26. 26. Resultados (Bravo et al., in prep)
    27. 27. Comparison between estimated (LEe) and observed (LEo) latent heat flux over a drip-irrigated Merlot vineyard. The solid line represents the 1:1 line. S. Ortega-Farias , C. Poblete-Echeverr?a , N. Brisson Parameterization of a two-layer model for estimating vineyard evapotranspiration using meteorological measurements Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Volume 150, Issue 2 2010 276 - 286 Otros Ejemplos
    28. 28. Desafíos • Nuevas Hipótesis: Cómo las fluctuaciones climáticas (Tº,pp, Rn) bajo ciertas condiciones (sequías, heladas, eventos extremos), afectan el flujo de CO2 y la fotosíntesis. (Baldocchi, 2008) • Medición de otros gases traza en la atmósfera. • Combinar métodos: LIDAR, mediciones aéreas. • Expansión de redes de medición para mediciones globales: distintos ambientes y países…

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