LARC 12/03 ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE TO REDUCE THE VULNERABILITY OF COMMUNITIES AND THE AGRICULTURELIVESTOCK, FISHERIES AND FORESTRY SECTORS
VULNERABILITY “The degree to which a system or society is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes”. MITIGATION Interventions reducing the sources or enhancing the sinks of greenhouse , gases. ADAPTATION Adjustments to current or expected climate change variability and changing average climate conditions.Source: FAO,2011
Threats and impacts in the Subregion: Vulnerability Assessment CARIBBEAN: TROPICAL STORMS AND HURRICANES -Rising sea levels; -Coastal erosion; -Limited land resources; -Hydrology and scarce Water Resources; -Decrease in fishery resources. CENTRAL AMERICA: FEQUENCY OF EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS -Excessive rains in the Caribbean coast and drought in the Pacific coast; -High vulnerability to extreme weather events (high proportion of subsistence farming on hillsides). ANDEAN REGION: THE EL NIÑO PHENOMENON SOUTHERN CONE: DROUGHT -Drought; -Increment of average temperature ; -Biodiversity loss; -Longer period of crop growth (due to higher -Frost; temperatures); -Glacier retreat affecting future water -Extensive natural ecosystems and the impact supply. of climate variability on natural resources.
Vulnerability to Climate Change: Agroclimatic risk Fuente: Maplecroft, 2012
Global level Food Security and Global Warming DOUBLE CHALLENGEIncrease production to Addressing the impacts of climatemeet food demand of a growing changepopulation (9.1 billion in 2050) MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
Main areas of action for adaptation promoted by FAO Key topics for Adaptation to Climate Change Data and Knowledge on Disaster Riskimpacts, vulnerabilities and Management adaptation assessment Institution, Policies and Technologies, pract Financing to stengthen ices and processes the capacity of adaptation for adaptation Sustainable and Climate-Smart Management of land, water and biodiversity
POLICY AGENDAS OF REGIONAL ORGANISMSCentral American Agriculture Council (CAC);Southern Agriculture Council (CAS);Climate Change Working Group in the policies network in CAS (REDPA);The Andean Community and its Andean Strategy for Climate Change (EACC), withincludes specific actions for agriculture;Latin American and Caribbean Initiative for Sustainable Development (ILAC);The Mesoamerican Biological Corridor;The Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC);The Latin American Carbon Programme (PLAC).
XXIII REGIONAL CONFERENCETopics of Action in the RegionMitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change
1. REGIONAL COOPERATION TO ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGECooperation and Knowledge Sharing on Climate Change among the LAC countries • Promote regional meetings to define common positions on Food Production and Climate Change. • Develop a Knowledge Sharing Platform for the agricultural, livestock, fisheries and forestry sectors. • Seize the opportunity of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio + 20, 20-22 June 2012).
2. GOVERNANCE AND INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING TO MEET THE CHALLENGES OF CLIMATE CHANGEImprove capacities to develop policy options and technical solutions • Encourage capacity building to develop frameworks and sectoral plans on climate change mitigation and adaptation; • Support the economic and social assessment of the impacts of climate variability and climate change on agriculture, livestock, fisheries and forestry; • Implement a Financing Platform which includes a wide range of options, beyond the purely climate change financing; • Design Research and Innovation Programmes on climate change adaptation for agriculture, forestry, livestock and fisheries.
3. PROMOTE CLIMATE SMART AGRICULTURE Agriculture that sustainably increases productivity, resilience (adaptation), reduces/removesGHGs (mitigation), and enhances achievement of national food security and development goals. Rescue and implement field practices for the sustainable intensification while being climate-smart • Promote sustainable practices for the use and management of natural resources and reduce climate risk. Examples: Alternative sources of water for irrigation (reuse and harvesting) Agroforestry systems. • Ensure greater energy efficiency and reduce emissions of GHG in the agricultural sectors.
IN SHORT, IN THE REGION, WE SHOULD…Promote regional cooperation to Strengthenaddress Climate governance and Change institutional Agriculture as a whole capacities to meet must undertake a significant the challenges of transformation to meet the Climate Change challenges of Food Security demands and Climate Change impacts. Promote Climate Smart Agriculture