CYBERCITIZENS, CULTURE AND PUBLIC GOODS, • “Network society is provoking drama=c changes in several aspects of our daily life as cultural traits, business and the more disparages spheres of privacy and social life. We must aZend both to freedom of access and to new service genera=on because of the peculiar form public goods are rising in the Net. To supersede individual capability limita=ons and to diﬀuse digital and cultural gaps, electronic government could be a cultural decisive tool in this phase of cibersociety enhancement. Technologies enhanced the human capabili=es, as well as with the social ac=ons and its framework, including cultural produc=on and management. Technologies are also transforming the genera=on, reproduc=on and transmission of (social) knowledge.” (J. Francisco Álvarez, Arbor, 2009)
A recurrent idea Mano Marks´ Blog Thursday, June 2, 2011 Working with People “The Humani=es are tradi=onally a lonely profession. While in the hard sciences its not uncommon to see a long list of names on papers, in Humani=es professions theres liZle reward for mul=ple people working on a project. Tenure was based on ar=cles you wrote, sole project work. One of the reasons I love digital humani=es work is that people are coming together, breaking the restric=ve bonds of solitary work” Mano Marks, Geo Developer Advocate at Google hZp://randommarkers.blogspot.com/2011/06/working-‐with-‐people.html
The social turn in humani=es is knocking at the door and it will remain here forever! @thatcampMadrid 21-‐22th november 2011 Good News for Humani=es, if ….
Monitoring trends, promo=ng and strengthening coopera=ve research • Networks and open systems of knowledge management. • Best tradi=ons of archival and documentary prac=ces. • Future research model is based on coopera=on and build on networks and open systems of knowledge management. • DIGITAL HUMANITIES MANIFESTO
DIGITAL HUMANITIES MANIFESTO • hZp://tcp.hypotheses.org/411
Let´s see an example Granada 150 years ago • Not only new direc=ons in humani=es, not only some paradigma=c change. We are living in a more radical change. • A new era in humani=es research is coming, but what does it mean? • New tools, new collec=ons, new data: a huge and enormous set of data anybody never thought before are now at our ﬁnger=ps. • The online accessibility to a large number of documents in real =me is drama=cally changing our research experience. Thus, let’s see a simple but not trivial example: – Whilst I was preparing this lecture I asked me: What had happened at the University of Granada 150 years ago? What documents could I obtain from my desk work?
new 150 years ago at capabili=es the University of Granada Open access Public goods Now it´s possible with the support of Google, UCM and HathiTrust collec=on
A Survey of Digital Humani=es Centers in the United States. 2008 «Digital humani,es implies humani,es-‐based research, teaching, and intellectual engagement conducted with digital technologies and resources. The use of these technologies may be prosaic (e.g., using new media to conduct humani=es research or enhance teaching) or transforma=ve (e.g., developing wholly new products and processes that transform exis=ng knowledge and create new scholarship)». Diane M. Zorich. November 2008 A very useful work but the coopera=on perspec=ve must be reforced
SOME OBSTACLES TO INNOVATION IN HUMANITIES • COPYRIGHT: A university that goes too far could end up facing a copyright-‐infringement lawsuit. • The 8.7-‐million-‐volume library pools digital copies of texts that Google scanned from universi=es. John P. Wilkin, its execu=ve director, es=mates that HathiTrust may contain 2.5 million orphan works. HathiTrust publishes the full text of works in the public domain, but not of those that are orphaned. May 29, 2011 • Out of Fear, Colleges Lock Books and Images Away From Scholars • Marc Parry Chronicle of Higher Educa=on"
What revolu=on? Technological is over • “Using informa=on technology to illuminate the human record, and bringing an understanding of the human record to bear on the development and use of informa=on technology”. Susan Schreibman, Ray Siemens, and John Unsworth Introduc=on to Digital Humani=es p.16 • “Today, one hears less and less of it, perhaps because (as Ess notes) the revolu=on has succeeded: in almost all their poten=al, no longer seem revolu=onary at all” p.17 •
Sociotecnical revolu=on is happening • My thesis is that nowadays other revolu=on is happening: the socio technical revolu=on in humani=es, facilitated by the presence of ICT. It´s no a material or physical tool. Instead, it is at the very social structure that is rising as a basic turn in humani=es prac=ces and in e-‐science in general. • Openness, accessibility, how informa=on is used and selected: a new curator, not only new sosware for seman=c webs, now the SOCIAL WEB and its uses are transforming the prac=ce of humani=es.
Welcome to the Shared Digital Future HathiTrust is a bold idea with big plans TOOLS and RESOURCES for a new era in humani,es HathiTrust is a partnership of major research ins=tu=ons and libraries working to ensure that the cultural record is preserved and accessible long into the future. There are more than ﬁsy partners in HathiTrust, and membership is open to ins=tu=ons worldwide. • hZp://www.hathitrust.org/about Currently Digi,zed 8,771,712 total volumes ; 4, 789,293 book =tles, 212,672 serial =tles 3,070,099,200 pages 393 terabytes 2,382,779 volumes (~27% of total) in the public domain View visualiza=ons of HathiTrust: hZp://www.hathitrust.org/print/220
Good news Yale University May 11, 2011 • hZp://opac.yale.edu/news/ar=cle.aspx?id=8544 New Haven, Conn.— Scholars, ar=sts and other individuals around the world will enjoy free access to online images of millions of objects housed in Yale’s museums, archives, and libraries thanks to a new “Open Access” policy that the University announced today. Yale is the ﬁrst Ivy League university to make its collec=ons accessible in this fashion. Jon Butler Ac=ng University Librarian Yale University
Network Society: new capabili=es • As works in these collec=ons become digi=zed, the museums and libraries will make those images that are in the public domain freely accessible. In a departure from established conven=on, no license will be required for the transmission of the images and no limita=ons will be imposed on their use. The result is that scholars, ar=sts, students, and ci=zens the world over will be able to use these collec=ons for study, publica=on, teaching and inspira=on. • (Yale, 10 May 2011)
Globaliza=on and scholarship coopera=on • "Sharing our ar=s=c resources more fully across Yale and well beyond its campus is a top priority," asserts Jock Reynolds, the Henry J. Heinz II Director of the Yale University Art Gallery. • "Through this new university policy, scholars, ar=sts, teachers, and students worldwide will now be able to more fully engage our collec=ons for ac=ve learning and use in publica=ons, classrooms, and crea=ve projects without incurring any fees whatsoever, elimina=ng what has previously been for many a daun=ng ﬁnancial hurdle." • "High costs of reproduc=on rights have tradi=onally limited the ability of scholars, especially ones early in their careers, to publish richly illustrated books and ar=cles in the history of art, architecture, and material and visual culture”, according to Mariët Westermann, vice president of the Andrew W. Mellon Founda=on. "Yales new policy provides an important model to follow."
Execu=ve Summary A report prepared for UNESCO’s Division for Freedom of Expression, Democracy and Peace • -‐-‐-‐ it is more apparent how freedom can be eroded uninten=onally as various actors strategically pursue their own diverse array of objec=ves. The ﬁndings reinforce the signiﬁcance of concerns over freedom of expression and connec=on, while acknowledging countervailing trends and the open future of technology, policy and prac=ce. Freedom of expression is not an inevitable outcome of technological innova=on. It can be diminished or reinforced by the design of technologies, policies and prac=ces – some=mes far removed from freedom of expression. This synthesis points out the need to focus systema=c research on this wider ecology shaping the future of expression in the digital age.
• In front of the research in solitude or the archivist in The Name of the Rose… • The co-‐building.
The we-‐genera=on. Further than nerds or techies A peculiar experience to reﬂect on na=ve digital. “There used to be a =me when we would be called ’nerds‘ or ’techies‘. Strange people with a near-‐obsessive compulsion to embrace new technology, and who’d rather communicate with their friends online than oﬄine. People for whom the Internet itself was the ul=mate source of informa=on for solving any kind of problem whatsoever. However, society is now slowly coming to terms with the fact that a whole genera=on is growing up that has only ever known the ’digital age‘, and has therefore en=rely accepted the digital way of doing things. We call ourselves the Digital Na=ve genera=on.” we: DIGITAL_NATIVES by Jonathan Imme 2008 Coopera=ve enterprise Stephen Downes Art MindKiss and we-‐genera=on
HYBRID DAYS hybrid |ˈhīˌbrid| a thing made by combining two diﬀerent elements; a mixture: the ﬁnal text is a hybrid of the stage play and the ﬁlm. • Biology the oﬀspring of two plants or animals of diﬀerent species or varie=es, such as a mule (a hybrid of a donkey and a horse) or a hybrid of wheat and rye. This open event is about Hybrid Environments where science, society and technology enhancing human capabili=es because the digital is mel=ng with the physical world as a new layer that increases the physical world possibili=es. The digital is not isolated from the physical environment.
• Koppi, Bogle y LaviJ (2003) conclude their work by no=ng the importance of rewarding the produc=on work of teachers. In their opinion, to develop a formal reward system that includes the produc=on and use of open-‐ content could be the biggest poli=cal issue to develop a large scale open educa=on movement in the ﬁeld of the learning process. • Quoted by: “Impacto del Open Course Ware (OCW) en los docentes universitarios” (Universidad de Valencia, 2010) p. 42
Further e-‐learning Further Learning management systems (LMS) • MOOC (Massive open online course) v.g. is a new trend in learning that could transform the process of transmission of knowledge but also the building of new knowledge. The coopera=ve enterprise or, at least, a collec=ve enterprise is in the nucleus of this kind of ac=vi=es. • How informa=on is used and selected? This is the role of new curators. The humanist researchers could be who play this new role. We need not only some disrup=ve sosware to build well seman=c webs. It is a priority to aZend to the SOCIAL WEB and the way the very prac=ce of humani=es has been transformed.
• Two issues are nuclear in this new line: openness and accessibility • “In addi=on to char=ng areas in which past advances have been made, and in which innova=on is currently taking place, this volume reveals that digital humani=es is addressing many of the most basic research paradigms and methods in the disciplines, to focus our aZen=on on important ques=ons to be asked and answered, in addi=on to important new ways of asking and answering that are enabled by our interac=on with the computer.” p. 19 • “The process that one goes through in order to develop, apply, and compute these knowledge representa=ons is unlike anything that humani=es scholars, outside of philosophy, have ever been required to do. This method, or perhaps we should call it a heuris=c, discovers a new horizon for humani=es scholarship, a paradigm as powerful as any that has arisen in any humani=es discipline in the past – and, indeed, maybe more powerful, because the rigor it requires will bring to our aZen=on undocumented features of our own idea=on. Coupled with enormous storage capacity and computa=onal power, this heuris=c presents us with paZerns and connec=ons in the human record that we would never otherwise have found or examined.” p. 19
• “All of this means that it is now possible to store and to manipulate large quan==es of data stored in many places and accessible from remote sites, today typically at the researcher’s desk. • This newfound capacity is opening up what I osen refer to as e-‐research, a new brand of research. Whether it is manipula=ng and managing material in electronic journals or in large data bases such as StatsCan or in archives or in text materials, there is today the opportunity to ask ques=ons that were not previously possible to answer. Indeed, the ques=ons possible to address today are so far removed from earlier possibili=es that it wasn’t even possible to conceive of completely new ques=ons”. • “=tle “Mind Technologies” as it conveys a message that researchers are now challenged to do things that they never imagined before, while humani=es compu=ng does not fully capture the spirit of the new fron=ers that are now opening up.” David Stangway p. x • •
Alterna=ve Wor(l)ds: The Humani=es in 2010, Report of the Working Group on the Future of the Humani=es (SSHRC, 2001) ( YES BUT … THE OLD IDEAS SE RESISTEN A MORIR) (Technologies) present an exci=ng opportunity for scholars, teachers and students • to become informed partners and innovators. In par=cular, new technologies provide access to non-‐linear, visual methods of conveying informa=on. Judicious use of these methods can enhance the integra=on (…) leading to collabora=on between several disciplines and technical ﬁelds and bringing together academics, ar=sts, mul=media experts, informa=on technology specialists, librarians and students. • “The humani=es must con=nue to seek larger structures of sense in order to create cohesiveness and the types of ‘intellectual ﬁlters’ that are necessary to sort out knowledge from [mere] informa=on: this part of its mission remains the same.. Guided by a larger plan, they (technologies) can however work to create sense.” — Conference Delegate • Another concern is that while the new technologies can provide a very wide audience with access to a vast variety and quan=ty of sources, data and documents, this “universal ready access” also raises ques=ons about the authen=city and accuracy of texts and data. The linguis=c and textual skills of the humanist will con=nue to play as essen=al a role in the age of electronic texts as they did in the eras of hand copied manuscripts and moveable lead type.
Bibliography • Borgman, C. L. (2007). Scholarship in the digital age : informa=on, infrastructure, and the Internet. Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press. • Crane, G., A. Babeu, and D. Bamman. 2007. eScience and the Humani=es. Interna=onal Journal on Digital Libraries 7:117-‐122 • Echeverría, J. (1999). Los señores del aire: Telépolis y el tercer entorno. Barcelona, Des=no. • Echeverría, J. (2003). La revolución tecnocienŒﬁca. Madrid, Fondo de Cultura Económica de España. • Zorich, D. (2008). "A survey of digital humani=es centers in the United States." vii, 78 p.