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  1. GREEN BUILDINGS: An Approach towards Pollution Prevention Gopal Pareek Department of Civil Engineering Air Pollution Research Group
  2. Introduction  Since the Industrial Revolution the world has witnessed  incalculable technological achievements  population growth  corresponding increases in resource use  “Side effects” of all the activities and achievements include:  pollution, landfills at capacity, toxic waste, global warming, resource and ozone depletion, and deforestation  All these efforts are straining the limits of the Earth’s “carrying capacity”— its ability to provide the resources required to sustain life while retaining the capacity to regenerate and remain viable.
  3. Construction Population Vegetation Air Quality Climate Transportation Watersheds 1/6 of the world’s freshwater withdrawals 1/4 of world’s wood harvest 2/5 of world’s material & energy flows Building Industry- Facts
  4. 50 40 40 35 30 25 16 0 10 20 30 40 50 Percentage Ozone depleting CFCs in Use Municipal Solid Waste to Landfills Global Energy Use Global CO2 Emissions Raw Materials Consumption Timber Harvest Fresh Water Withdrawals Environmental and Economic Impacts of Buildings Compiled from:Worldwatch Paper #124
  5. Building Industry in US  Represents more than 50 percent of the nation’s wealth  New construction and renovation activity amounts to approximately $800 billion  Represents 13 percent of the GDP  Employs over ten million people  C&D debris comprise approximately 15 to 30 percent of all waste disposed of in landfills The resources required to create, operate, and replenish this level of infrastructure and income are enormous, but diminishing To remain competitive and continue to expand and produce profits in the future, the building industry has to address the Environmental and Economic consequences of its actions
  6. Sustainability SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (The Brundtland Commission,1987) SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS A “Cradle-to-Cradle” Approach
  7. Working Principles
  8. Application of Sustainability Pre-Design On-Site Design Construction O&M Material Selection Building Program Project Budget Team Selection Partnering Project Schedule Laws, Codes & Standards Research Site Selection Site Analysis & Assessment Site Development & Layout Watershed Management & Conservation Site Material & Equipment Environmentally Conscious Construction Preservation of Features & Vegetation Waste Mgmt IAQ Issues Source Control Practices Passive Solar Design Materials & Specification Indoor Air Quality Maintenance Plans Indoor Quality Energy Efficiency Resource Efficiency Renovation Housekeeping & Custodial Practices
  9. Application of Sustainability – A Superior Technology
  10. Effect of Sustainability
  11. Best Building Form Solar & Energy Efficient Design Improved Indoor Air Quality Usage of Green Materials Proper Mechanical Systems Efficient Lighting Proper Testing & Maintenance Advanced Features of a Sustainable Building
  12. Green Materials  Materials, production, use and disposal must be safe for the planet. Most of the materials have specific range of conditions in which they best work  Sustainable building materials have the following features: • Durable and easily maintained • Less processing required • Low odor • Low emitting • Cost-effective • Aesthetic
  13. Economics of Green Buildings  Reduction in lighting energy requirements by at least 50 percent  Cut heating and cooling energy consumption by 60 percent  Reduced water consumption by up to 30 percent or more  Lower building operating expenses through reduced utility and waste disposal costs  Lower on-going building maintenance costs, ranging from salaries to supplies  Increase worker productivity by six to 16 percent  Higher property values and potentially lower lenders’ credit risk  Higher building net income  New economic development opportunities
  14. Benefits of Sustainable Construction Sustainable construction makes wise use of all the natural resources and a 50% reduction in energy use Improves occupant health, comfort, productivity, reduces pollution and landfill waste that are not easily quantified A sustainable building may cost more up front, but saves through lower operating costs over the life of the building Building is designed as one system rather than a collection of stand-alone systems with the help of the integrated system approach
  15. •Further research •Successful examples of Sustainable buildings •Newer, efficient and healthier technologies •Availability of computer software programs to identify and evaluate options for a building project •Governmental support •An active participation from every sector of the society Future of Sustainable Buildings
  16. Case Study- The Dalles Middle School (Oregon) (Source: Problem:  Poorly built middle school in a landslide area  In 1955, to meet the sudden influx of students, temporary facilities were constructed with an expectant life of 20 years, but were used for 45 years  By 2000, the State Fire Marshall closed down the facility with the decision to build a new school
  17. Building Design  Heating and cooling are a large part of the energy use of a school building  The high temperature ground water from the landslide area was used to provide both heating and cooling using geothermal principles  It is one of the first schools in the nation that is heated and cooled with the very ground water that caused the landslides
  18. Lighting  Daylighting & Skylighting- Incorporated lots of natural light to reduce the need for electric lighting and the associated increase in the air conditioning load  Energy efficient fluorescent T5s installed
  19. Natural Ventilation  Operable windows pull fresh air into one side of the classroom, while ventilation stacks pull the air out on the opposite side of the classroom  At extreme temperatures, automatic backup mechanical ventilation systems used
  20. Application of Concepts of Sustainability  Use of paints and sealers with low or no-volatile organic compounds (VOCs)  Reclaimed ground water to irrigate the ball fields.  Exterior lighting directed downward to reduce night light pollution  Mechanically zoned science classrooms to avoid exposure to hazardous chemicals  Stained the concrete walls to blend with the colors of the natural landscape  Use of ceiling tiles produced from 75 percent
  21. Results  High performance school building emerged that will prevent pollution, save energy, natural resources and money  60 percent cost reduction in energy expected  Students performed better with the skylights and windows that bring natural, non-glare light inside the classroom  Improved Indoor Air Quality and occupant comfort due to no-VOC emissions from building materials