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Field Evaluation of two- wheeled based tractors
in KENYA
Hawassa - Ethiopia
9-13 February 2015
Presentation Outline
1. Objective 1 outline and Progress to-date
2. Field evaluations
3. General observations of the equip...
Progress Summary
No Output/Activities Milestones Outputs
Output
1.1
Most promising 2WT- based technologies identified and ...
Progress Summary
No Output/Activities Milestones Outputs
Output
1.2.
Best bet 2WT-based technologies evaluated on-station ...
Progress Summary
No Output/Activities Milestones Outputs
Output
1.3.
Best bet 2WT-based technologies evaluated on-station ...
Progress Summary
No Output/Activities Milestones Outputs
Output
1.4.
Exploration of short term incentives and long-term im...
Field evaluations of equipment
Methodology
● Researcher managed trials – 3 replicates of each treatment on
randomized bloc...
On-farm operations
● What they liked about the equipment/machine
● What they didn’t like
● Ancillary equipment they would ...
Figure 1: Field layout showing treatments layout in Ngushishi, Laikipia – LR2014
3 1 2
T6 T7 T4
T3 T4 T6
T5 T2 T1
T1 T3 T2...
Data collected
● Cover (Measured using transect method)
● Depth of seed placement
● Time taken to cover each plot
● Fuel u...
General observations
Features considered to be desirable:
● Configuration of soil engaging tools must allow for satisfacto...
Features considered to be desirable
● Reliable operating mechanism under adverse conditions.
● Requirement for seat or ope...
Results and discussions
Fitarelli two-raw
Configuration:
● Trailing – Two sets of double disc openers -14 inch diameter
● Cast iron angled press w...
Fitarelli single row
Configuration.
● Mounted single row; swiveling 15 inch coulter, steel
gauge/drive wheel.
Row spacing;...
2BFG-100 Rotary tillage seed drill
Configuration:
● Mounted 100cm rotary tillage seed drill. It can be set up as
100% till...
2BFG-100
● No pressing system for newly planted seeds in the
seed row.
● Short life of tiller blades and tiller lugs in st...
Morrison CA Seeder-1000
● Configuration: single angled row cleaner-coulter-tine-
press wheel semi-mounted.
● Row spacing: ...
National Agro – No-till planter
Configuration:
● Seed/fertilizer box and tines to add-on to existing
rotavator.
Row spacin...
● It is difficult to change for road
transport or variation for depth as
wheel support shafts easily jams
inside the holdi...
Gongli Africa
● Configuration: Coulter-tine-press wheel on rigid three row tool
bar.
● Row spacing: 2 rows from 25cm to 85...
T6(Fitare
lli 2-row)
T5(Fitarelli
single row)
T3(2BFG-
100)
T4(Morrison
CA seeder-
1000)
T2(National
Agro)
T1(Gongli
Afric...
T6(Fitare
lli 2-row)
T5(Fitarelli
single row)
T3(2BFG-
100)
T4(Morrison
CA seeder-
1000)
T2(National
Agro)
T1(Gongli
Afric...
Feedback from on-farm evaluations
We are yet to do comprehensive on-farm evaluations but preliminary
investigations indica...
Challenges
● Record keeping hard for most operators
● Unsecured trial sites (external/internal interference)
● Availabilit...
Conclusions
● While further evaluations and adaptations should continue, it is
possible to make some choices at this point...
ASANTE SANA
Field evaluation of two wheel based tractors in Kenya
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Field evaluation of two wheel based tractors in Kenya

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Farmers' participation in evaluation of two- wheeled based tractors in Kenya

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Field evaluation of two wheel based tractors in Kenya

  1. 1. Field Evaluation of two- wheeled based tractors in KENYA Hawassa - Ethiopia 9-13 February 2015
  2. 2. Presentation Outline 1. Objective 1 outline and Progress to-date 2. Field evaluations 3. General observations of the equipment 4. Tes Results 5. Challenges 6. Conclusions
  3. 3. Progress Summary No Output/Activities Milestones Outputs Output 1.1 Most promising 2WT- based technologies identified and acquired 1.1.1 Biophysical and socio- economic site characterization (desk study) Site-specific report detailing biophysical (e.g. major soil types, main crops) and socioeconomic (e.g labour availability, cultural setting, proportion of women-headed households) context Completed and report submitted 1.1.2 Focus group discussion in each innovation platform on the current knowledge and skills on 2WT-based technologies Report on the current knowledge and skills on 2WT- based technologies in each innovation platform Completed 1.1.3 Farm survey with focus on farm power and drudgery, disaggregated by gender Baseline report for each site Cross-site database available through the knowledge platform Completed and report submitted 1.1.4 Inventory and characterization of most promising 2WT-based technologies available in each Country-specific report Report submitted
  4. 4. Progress Summary No Output/Activities Milestones Outputs Output 1.2. Best bet 2WT-based technologies evaluated on-station and on-station component technology research 1.2.1 Training of researcher teams in the calibration, operation, repair and maintenance of 2WT and ancillary equipment Research teams trained Training conducted 18 participants drawn from Laikipia/Meru/Bungom a/Kakamega 1.2.2 Development of protocols for on-station testing On-station evaluation protocols Protocols developed 1.2.3 Researcher-managed field evaluation of most- promising 2WT-based technologies Technical report on the comparative performance (e.g. field capacity, ease of operation, fuel consumption) of the equipment and on their adaptation to suit local circumstances; and recommendations for on- farm evaluation. Both on-station and on-farm trials started. Two seasons of testing done so far. See results elsewhere
  5. 5. Progress Summary No Output/Activities Milestones Outputs Output 1.3. Best bet 2WT-based technologies evaluated on-station and on-station component technology research 1.3.1 Identification of at least five farm-sites per innovation platforms for participatory evaluation of 2WT-based technologies Farm-sites identified and characterized Sites identified based on number of equipment on trial 1.3.2 Development of protocols for on-station testing On-farm evaluation protocols Protocols developed 1.3.3 Training of innovation platform members on basic calibration, operations and maintenance of tractors and ancillary equipment Innovation platform members trained Training conducted 1.3.4 Participatory evaluation and adaptation of best bet 2WT- based technologies Technical report on the performance of the best bet technologies (e.g. range of crops that can be successfully sown, residue handling capacity, performance under a range of typical soil textures, moisture contents and bulk densities) Ongoing
  6. 6. Progress Summary No Output/Activities Milestones Outputs Output 1.4. Exploration of short term incentives and long-term impact of 2WT-based technologies on farmer livelihoods through farm bio-economic models. 1.4.1 Development of farm typology, based on farm power availability and constraints Prototype farms for simulation Pending 1.4.2 Selection (or development) of a farm-scale model, calibration and validation Model ready for simulation, for each farm type Pending 1.4.3 Identification of realistic scenarios of change in available farm power and simulation of these scenarios Outputs of simulation runs (e.g. expected labour input, cash flow) of various realistic modelling scenarios (incorporating adoption rate of different 2WT-based technologies) Pending 1.4.4 Participatory workshops discussing simulation outputs within each innovation platform Workshop report for each innovation platform Pending
  7. 7. Field evaluations of equipment Methodology ● Researcher managed trials – 3 replicates of each treatment on randomized block design ● Each equipment calibrated to deliver plant population of approximately 40,000 plants per hectare ● Variable row spacing based on equipment capability but plant population maintained ● Diammonium phosphate fertilizer applied at the rate of 50kg/ha ● Topdressing with urea at the rate of 100kg/ha (hand application) applied approximately 4 weeks after plant emergency
  8. 8. On-farm operations ● What they liked about the equipment/machine ● What they didn’t like ● Ancillary equipment they would like to be availed with the 2WT ● Handling and operation
  9. 9. Figure 1: Field layout showing treatments layout in Ngushishi, Laikipia – LR2014 3 1 2 T6 T7 T4 T3 T4 T6 T5 T2 T1 T1 T3 T2 T4 T1 T5 T7 T6 T3 T2 T5 T7 Treatments: T1- Gongli Africa; T2 - National Zero-Till; T3 - 2BFG-100; T4 – Morrison CA seeder; T5 - Fitarelli single row; T6 - Fitarelli two row; T7 – Conventional
  10. 10. Data collected ● Cover (Measured using transect method) ● Depth of seed placement ● Time taken to cover each plot ● Fuel used ● Germination count ● Plant height Other ● Input associated data (e.g. weeding, planting etc) ● Breakages ● Repairs undertaken and costs incurred
  11. 11. General observations Features considered to be desirable: ● Configuration of soil engaging tools must allow for satisfactory operation in both high residue and low residue conditions. ● Seed metering system needs to be able to reliably deliver single seeds for row crops, as well as continuous distribution metering for close drilled crops. There must be a system of gear changes or suchlike to allow easy adjustment for changes in plant population or seed rate. ● Convenient fertilizer metering system with a system of gear changes or suchlike to allow easy adjustment for changes in fertilizer rate. ● Adjustment available for depth of planting from wet to marginally dry conditions. ● Suitable easy adjustment of row spacing to allow for row width of 50-90 cm (row crops) ● Robust construction.
  12. 12. Features considered to be desirable ● Reliable operating mechanism under adverse conditions. ● Requirement for seat or operator stand. ● Provision of convenient adjustment to allow quick travel between distant fields or adjacent farms. ● Mechanical (or other) lift system for effortless raising and lowering of the soil engaging tools when turning during sowing. ● Convenient steering and short turning circle. ● Appropriate operator position when unit is operating ( whether walking or riding) ● Provision for press wheels or alternative in-row soil firming and/or covering devices. ● Ground following ability in undulating soils ● Quick coupling/attachment to the 2WT to reduce time spent in setting up for operation ● Affordable price.
  13. 13. Results and discussions
  14. 14. Fitarelli two-raw Configuration: ● Trailing – Two sets of double disc openers -14 inch diameter ● Cast iron angled press wheels which also act as depth control wheels. Row spacing 60-90 cm. Seed metering system. Horizontal flat plate -3 speeds of rotation. Fertilizer metering system. Vertical notched gear system –Speed of rotation fixed. Adjustment by insertion or removal of alternative notched gears. General comments: ● Seed placement and cover satisfactory in soft soils. ● Disc penetration is poor in hard soils. ● Extra weight is sometimes required for adequate penetration. ● The manual lift system is arduous and can be tiring. ● Seeds sometimes get stuck in seed plate cells with uneven seed samples and the horizontal plate metering. ● Possibility of fertilizer leakage around joints if not assembled properly. ● Large turning circle compared to other seeders. ● There is limited ground following ability, although the disc openers are in line with the wheels. ● Steel press wheels may pick up wet soil in some situations. ● Alternative press wheel configuration may be required in some soils, ● Price –Approx. (ex works) $US2900.
  15. 15. Fitarelli single row Configuration. ● Mounted single row; swiveling 15 inch coulter, steel gauge/drive wheel. Row spacing; as required Seed metering system. ● Horizontal flat plate -3 speeds of rotation. Fertilizer metering system. ● Vertical notched gear system –Speed of rotation fixed. General comments: ● Operator stand provided (in newer models) ● Extra weight necessary in majority of conditions. ● Machine may tilt to one side because of the single side gauge wheel. ● Steel press/drive wheel is barely satisfactorily. (A rubber wheel would be superior). ● General seed placement is good. ● Possibility of seeds being stuck in seed plate cells with uneven seed samples and the horizontal plate metering. ● Steel drive/press wheel may skid if frictional pressure in seed metering plates occur due to ill-fitting plates or stuck seeds. ● Fertilizer may leak around joints if not assembled properly. ● Struts provided to rear of implement are a good feature. ● Price –Approx. (ex works) $US850
  16. 16. 2BFG-100 Rotary tillage seed drill Configuration: ● Mounted 100cm rotary tillage seed drill. It can be set up as 100% tillage unit, or in strip till mode. Row spacing: ● Up to six rows can be planted spaced at 20cm to one meter. Maximum row width for wide rows – 85cm. Seed metering system. ● Fluted roller with adjustable quadrant. Dual range fluted roller arrangement also available. Fertilizer metering system. ● Fluted roller with adjustable quadrant. General comments: ● Overall light weight construction. ● Poor clutch system on the seed and fertilizer drives. ● Standard fluted roller seed meter unsuitable for spaced plants. ● Dual range fluted roller satisfactory. ● Furrow opener for seed and the mounting for same flimsy. ● Insufficient depth adjustment for the furrow opener. ● Potential for poor planting depth and/or breakage of components in adverse situations.
  17. 17. 2BFG-100 ● No pressing system for newly planted seeds in the seed row. ● Short life of tiller blades and tiller lugs in stony soils. ● Excessive vibration of tiller shaft in some situations when strip tilling due to tiller blade arrangement. ● Residue can wrap around tiller shaft in some circumstances, eventually causing blockages. ● Operator seat and depth/transport wheel available as an option ● Rear roller (press roller?) fails to rotate under certain soil/field conditions due to its small diameter. A larger diameter roller would be desirable. ● Rotovator blades sometimes kicks soil to the operator ● Price –Approx. $US600 ex-works
  18. 18. Morrison CA Seeder-1000 ● Configuration: single angled row cleaner-coulter-tine- press wheel semi-mounted. ● Row spacing: as required ● Seed metering system. Dual range fluted roller. - adjustable ● Fertilizer metering system. Fluted roller - adjustable ● General Comments. ● Good seeding depth adjustment and placement ● If single angled row residue cleaner is used it causes seeder to pull to one side. ● Coulter exerts too little pressure to properly cut some residue. ● Coulter drives seed and fertilizer meters by Vee belt, and is easily plugged when operating in wet conditions (soil clogs up Vee belt pulley pushing belt off the groove) ● No struts provided to attach seeder to tractor handlebars. It is difficult to lift on turns with current attachment system. Semi-swinging drawbar makes machine difficult to turn sharply. ● Dual range seed meter satisfactory for maize. ● Fertiliser metering satisfactory. ● Seed and fertilizer delivery tubes need to be length adjustable. The tubes are not long enough when tine set to deep planting. ● Extra weight necessary when operator not riding ● Operators stand good. ● Price. $US1800 (ex works) ●
  19. 19. National Agro – No-till planter Configuration: ● Seed/fertilizer box and tines to add-on to existing rotavator. Row spacing: ● Up to 4 rows – maximum width 60 cm (depending on rotavator width) Seed metering system: ● Inclined plate with various alternative plates available. Fertilizer metering system: ● Fluted roller-adjustable General comments: ● Very difficult to fit to existing tractor/rotavator unit. ● Extremely poor operation of controls. Tractor controls fouled by seed boxes. Operator cannot properly walk behind seeder and requires outstretched arms to reach handlebars. ● Seeds from some samples sometimes catch in cells in inclined plate meters. ● No alternative sprockets supplied to change seed rate. ● Too heavy and unwieldy. ● Side rear support wheels too small and fails to rotate in certain soil conditions
  20. 20. ● It is difficult to change for road transport or variation for depth as wheel support shafts easily jams inside the holding tubes. ● Floating side drive wheel has too little range of movement for uneven soils. ● No pressing system for newly planted seeds. ● Short life of tiller blades and tiller lugs in stony soils. ● Residue can wrap around tiller shaft in some circumstances, eventually causing blockages. ● Price: $US1100 (ex works)
  21. 21. Gongli Africa ● Configuration: Coulter-tine-press wheel on rigid three row tool bar. ● Row spacing: 2 rows from 25cm to 85cm spacing. ● Seed metering: Vertical 18 spoon singulating seed meter (Chinese)-adjustable ● Fertilizer metering: Fluted roller.-adjustable ● Comments: ● Poor residue handing ability in standard configuration in high residue conditions. ● Better residue handling when optional cutting coulters fitted. ● Range of adjustment for planting depth and row spacing excellent. ● Seed placement good on level soils. ● Uneven planting depth in undulating soils. ● Excellent metering of maize with vertical spoon seed meters. ● Installation and separation of implement from the tractor requires partial assembly and disassembly of major components. ● An operator platform is supplied in standard configuration. ● Press wheel operation good. ● Some traction difficulty when operator is standing on rear platform when planting. Further work needed with weight distribution to overcome this deficiency ● Price: $US800 (estimate only)
  22. 22. T6(Fitare lli 2-row) T5(Fitarelli single row) T3(2BFG- 100) T4(Morrison CA seeder- 1000) T2(National Agro) T1(Gongli Africa+) Work rates (Hrs/ha) 4.1 4.9 7.2 12.2 9.8 11.6 5.5 15 9.9 11 - 10 7.0 10.0 11.1 15.7 6.85 7.8 6.1 17.6 4.25 - 6.7 - 7.1 10.5 10.3 10.95 9.6 5.5 Fuel consumption Litres/ha 9.5 5.5 12 5.6 5.07 10.5 - 16.7 6.2 8.5 - 8.9 7.8 8.5 10 7.2 8.7 9.5 - 12.8 5.65 - 6.7 8.15 10.76 7.87 8.4 10.3 6.2 Depth (cm) 3-8 5-8 4-6 5-8 5-8 3-5 Equipment parameters
  23. 23. T6(Fitare lli 2-row) T5(Fitarelli single row) T3(2BFG- 100) T4(Morrison CA seeder- 1000) T2(National Agro) T1(Gongli Africa+) T7(Conventional) Laikipia (LR2014) Germination (plants/ha) 37,600 43,600 26,533 39,467 42,533 32,667 65,600 Plant height(cm) 25 30 14 26.7 15.3 15 16 Laikipia (SR 2014) Germination (Plants/ha) 38,250 39,844 *- 38,476 43,135 39,450 *- Plant height(cm) 127.0 105.5 *- 106.9 107.5 114.7 *- Bungoma (LR 2014) Germination (Plants/ha) 36,748 38,845 33,276 38,336 39,238 - 42,378 Plant height(cm) 28.3 32.7 15.5 29.2 16.9 15.7 Bungoma (SR2014) Germination (Plants/ha) 32,843 29,650 31,200 36,360 38,840 *- 46,875 Plant height(cm) 30.5 32.3 17.5 31.0 18.4 23.6 Crop parameters
  24. 24. Feedback from on-farm evaluations We are yet to do comprehensive on-farm evaluations but preliminary investigations indicate the following: ● Most sought after ancillary attachments were the trailer, sprayer and sheller ● Easy of attaching the equipment to the 2WT is very important ● Easy of operation and handling ● A seat or operator stand ● Ability to easily move from one field to another
  25. 25. Challenges ● Record keeping hard for most operators ● Unsecured trial sites (external/internal interference) ● Availability of spare parts
  26. 26. Conclusions ● While further evaluations and adaptations should continue, it is possible to make some choices at this point (from engineering context) ● Need to give feedback to manufacturers on basis of experiences gained so far.
  27. 27. ASANTE SANA

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