The next part of the report is about the Greek Ideal of Beauty
4th century ideal of Beauty -later parts of 5th century, art mastery by artists; art consciousness by ordinary people -people wanted less ideal subjects and more on the natural and graceful
Praxiteles was a pupil of Phidias and he is said to be as one of the greatest sculptors of Classical Greece since his teacher, Phidias, was one of the greatest sculptors himself. Due to that, he became the Chief sculptor of in the Greek society during the 4th century BC.
Hermes was said to be teasing the infant Dionysus by keeping a grape fruit away from the baby Dionysus, which we all know to be as the God of Wine.Which makes him more human… and more like a father playing with his son.
It is said that all other Venus or Aphrodite sculptures are derivations of “Venus de Medici” and that “Venus de Medici” served as the inspiration or basis for them.
“Venus de Milo” “Bedevere Apollo”both of which not Praxiteles but are attributed to his school of art or “Art style”
Erechtheus-mythological king who was said to be the inventor of the four wheeled chariotPoseidon- God of the SeaAthena- God of WisdomSaid to have been never completed- Said by people who studied the building due to its irregular design -the diagram is just a probable blue print of the intended design -those highlighted in black are the ones that were actually completed -dotted lines were just probable designs for the building
Caryatids- Sculptures of female figures that serve as columns or supports for structures
TheErechtheum is also said to be as one of the best examples of buildings featuring the Ionic order.
Found on the Ballustrade in the temple -Ballustrade is a “railing”
Lysippus is the personal sculptor of Alexander the great.He was noted for being the one who greatly emphasized the expression and animation of the faces of his works, thus “bringing them to life”
The next part of this report would discuss about the Greek Music.
Greek music carried two meanings.
Major branched to different parts and so did the minor scale.
This is the composition of the old notation system in ancient Greece.
The second meaning discusses the Music and Poetry of the Greeks.Their poetry, for them, were somehow similar to songs.When you read a poem, you would always notice that there would be a rhythm that it would follow
A type of lyre
An example of which is Oedipus Rex
Much like a dialogue
-Chanted in slow, rhythmic, steps to bring out the meaning of the words and express gestures and attitudesEthos- involves evocation of the people’s emotions using music
As we said earlier, music and poetry comes hand in hand on Greek tragediesProbably even fought in theBattle of Salamis- decisive sea battle that greatly devastated the Persian navyThis explains why Aeschylus was so nationalistic and was inspired by his nation’s might in his mind and spirit.
Usually included characters that are willing to do things in spite of the threat of death in his playsDue to him probably being a warrior, it reflected on the way he wrote. This shows us how outside influences can affect an artist’s work.
Tragedy is always a fall… From good to evil… From high position to low position…Catharsis-making characters, or even the audience, experience the emotions in order for them to cleanse their bodies of emotions such as fear, sadness, and the likes.
During his time, Athens was very powerful, imperial, and tyrannical contrary to the way of writing of SophoclesEthos was again used in his plays
Reason over Passion“Passion makes us do unreasonable things”
In contrast to tragedies that were all heavy and brimming with sadness and other emotions, Comedies were the opposite which were lighter and happier in aura. Sometimes, they make fun of well known public figures or other ideasComedy-starts in suffering to relief
Greek art (discussed as of august 14)
ART HISTORY“THE GREEKS” “ Art is the desire of a man to express himself, to record the reactions of his personality to the world he lives in. ~Amy Lowell”
DIFFERENT PHASES OF ANCIENT GREEK ART Mycenaean art (1550 to 1200 BC ) - The latter learned a few thing, including how to build gates and tombs. - Mycenaean were awesome goldsmiths and potters. - They raised pottery from merely functional to beautifully decorative, and segued right out of the Bronze Age into their own insatiable appetite for gold.
Proto-Geometric (1025 - 900 BC) - decorated with simple shapes, black bands and wavy lines. - both technique in creating, and shapes of pots were being refined.
Geometric Art (900 - 700 BC) - Pottery decoration moved beyond simple shapes to also include animals and humans. - use of simple geometric shapes.
Archaic Art (700 - 480 BC) - best known for the beginnings of realistic depictions of humans. - limestone kouros (male) and kore (female) statues were created - always showing young, nude, smiling persons.
Classical Art (480 - 323 BC) - period that human statues became so heroically proportioned. - they were reflective of Greek Humanistic belief in the nobility of man - desire to look a bit like gods.
GREEK TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE temple of Athena , Greek goddess ofDoric order wisdom, on the Acropolis in Athens. The Parthenon was built in the 5th century BC, and despite the enormous damage it has sustained over the centuries, it still communicates the ideals of order and harmony for which Greek architecture is known.
Ionic order temple from the middle classical period of Greek art and architecture, built on the Acropolis of Athens between 421 and 405BC. The Erechtheum contained sanctuaries to Athena Polias, Poseidon, and Erechtheus.
Is the highest, most slender, andCorinthian most decorative among the three. It Order uses Oriental decorative elements like the acanthus leaves at the top of the column. It exaggerated sentiment and emotional extravagance of the Hellenistic Period.
Greek Music•Two Meanings:•Mathematics of Music•Music and Poetry
Mathematics of Music• Laws of Governing Vibrations of tones and their application in the seven scales used in Greek Music• Used a unique and much more complicated scale compared to the common “major” and “minor” scales used nowadays • Added sub-scales to the now common diatonic scales
Mathematics of Music• Ancient Greek Musical System
Mathematics of Music• Differences of Ancient Greek Music to Modern Music • Contained no Harmony in the modern sense • When the term Harmony is used by them, it meant “melody” • When the term “Symphony” is used, it meant two tones being heard at the same time
Music and Poetry• Musicality of Poetry • Music existed without poetry but poetry could not exist without music • Word and tone, poem and melody were created simultaneously • Melody supported and vivified the poetic text • Two-, three-, or four-beat measures of poems originated from the “iambic, trochaic, anapaestic, and dactylic” meters of Greek poetry
Music and Poetry• Singing should always be accompanied with instruments
Music and Poetry• Seven Stringed Lyre • Accompanied Lyric Poetry • Due to its restrained tone • Said to be also the instrument Apollo played • Instrument of the Apollonian cult from Delos
Music and Poetry•Cithara• Accompanied Lyric Poetry and preferred by professional players over the lyre• More sonorous than the lyre, but it is simply a type of lyre
Music and Poetry• Aulos • Has a shrill and penetrating sound • “More stirring and Passionate” • Used by the cult of Dionysus
Music and Poetry• Festival of Dionysus • Dionysus is the God of Wine, merrymaking and fertility • Plays, mostly Greek tragedies, were held inside the Theatre of Dionysus on the Southern slope of Acropolis
Music and Poetry• Highest form of Choric Poetry: • Dithyramb • Consists of : • Strophe (Turn) - first part of an ode, chanted from right to left • Antistrophe (counter turn)–response to Strophe, chanted in the opposite direction • Epode (Aftersong) – third part of an ode, completed the movement
Music and Poetry• Dithyramb was chanted by twelve singers in a chorus • Chanted in slow, rhythmic, steps • Tried to follow Ethos • Basis of the Greek Tragedies • Followed an AAB pattern
Aeschylus• Both a musician and a fighter• Lived during the time of the Persian Wars• Contributions: • Removed the restrains of the form of Dithyramb • Added another actor • Reduced the chorus to fifteen from its previously 24 member status • Made around 90 plays
Aeschylus• “Will to live in face of death” is a common underlying theme in his plays• Exalts death and suffering
Tragedy• Aristotle said: • Imitation of life situations that are serious, complete, of considerable magnitude, and couched in poetic language • Dramatic and evokes emotions such as fear, pity, and others • Should show the transition from happiness to misery of a character • Should be integrated very well that any scene cannot be removed • Emphasize Catharsis (“Purging”)
Sophocles• Wrote 123 plays (7 survived the passage of time)• Wrote famous plays that had shown warmth and human sympathy• Writer of “Oedipus Rex”
Euripides• Most modern Greek tragedy writer• Well acquainted to people’s sufferings• Critical, subversive, destructi ve• Lived during the Peloponnesian war• Portrayed the hideousness of cruelty and passion
Aristophanes• Master of Greek Comedy • Wrote 40 comedies (11 surviving) • Comedy • Mad, rollicking, vivacious, and lively • Three actors, 24 chorus (song and dance) • Included a commentary by the author halfway through the performance