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  1. 1. Virtual Reality Training in Manufacturing: Minimizing Errors December 12th, 2016 Ezekiel Skovron, PSY 527
  2. 2. Employee Misunderstanding ● “LONDON and NEW YORK--(Marketwire - June 18, 2008) - US and UK employees are costing business $37 billion a year because they do not fully understand their jobs.” -IDC white paper, Cognisco ● “On average, businesses with 100,000 employees are each losing $62 million per year at an average of $624 per employee.” -IDC white paper, Cognisco
  3. 3. What Is Virtual Reality? Simple! A headset connected to a computer Virtual Reality is not a new concept Sensorama Telesphere Mask Uses for virtual reality Entertainment & games Science & Medicine (molecular modeling) Training
  4. 4. Use of Application Simulation 2014 vs. 2015 2014 2015
  5. 5. Training Costs per Employee for Small, Medium, and Large Companies Training Industry Report Magazine, 2015
  6. 6. Virtual Reality Training Analogy: Surgical Simulators ● Fried et al. 2005 ○ Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Simulator (ES3) and Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR) ■ Surgery requires precision and technical dexterity ■ High risk, and errors can lead to death of patient! ■ Simulator allows medical students to perform actual surgery without facing real consequences ○ Conclusion: ■ Less errors in operating room ■ Simulators were rated highly by participants
  7. 7. Importance of Training in Manufacturing ● Good Manufacturing Practice Safety Technical Ability Standards Risks of poor training More errors Production halts Product recalls
  8. 8. Purpose of Our Study ● To see if virtual reality training decreases the amount of small and large errors made on the manufacturing floor ○ If employees make less errors, we reduce the likelihood of GMP violations ○ Reduce likelihood of employee misunderstanding
  9. 9. Participants 30 participants Newly hired employees Task: Cell culture and purification Equipments (VR system) Electronic company
  10. 10. IV and DV IV: Types of training Traditional training: Computer based training (10 subjects) Lecture/demonstration (10 subjects) Virtual Reality Training DV: Performance Number of error (determined by an expert) Small error: 1
  11. 11. Schedule of Training Day 1: Safety Training/Introduction to Working on the Manufacturing Floor Day 2: Operating the centrifuge and inserting precipitate into a flask Day 3: Operating bioreactor Day 4: Operating pH machine Day 5: Do the whole task Day 6: Training on another task (shadowing) Day 7: Training on another task (shadowing) Day 8: Training on another task (shadowing) Day 9: Training on another task (shadowing) Day 12: Retention test
  12. 12. Testing Day 12: Retention test - what they have learned and remember in the first five days. Subjective Measures: Employees will fill out a questionnaire about how they felt about their type of training.
  13. 13. Results: Prediction/Analysis One way between subjects ANOVA VR > traditional methods
  14. 14. Results: Implications Possible Outcomes VR < traditional methods VR = traditional methods VR > traditional methods Skill acquisition Subjective Measure Implement any suggestions
  15. 15. Cost Initial Cost Total: $20-30k VR systems: $10-15k Programmers: $10-15k Life Cycle VR systems: $10-15k / 5 years
  16. 16. Benefit: Training 5 years (one life cycle) Training Cost $40k traditional methods $15k VR training Savings: $25k/5 years
  17. 17. Benefit: Error $624/employee 1% error reduction cost $6,400/year 5% error reduction cost $31,200/year 10% error reduction cost $62,400/year
  18. 18. Conclusion
  19. 19. Questions?