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THE STATUS OF APPLICATION, CAPACITIES AND THE ENABLING ENVIRONMENT FOR
AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGIES IN THE ASIA PACIFIC RE...
SCOPE OF STUDY
 Scope, Objectives as Defined in ToR
 An objective, evidence-based, stock-taking exercise regarding the
c...
SCOPE OF STUDY
 Coverage- Low-Tech, Medium-Tech &High-Tech applications
as indicated in ToR
 ‘low-tech’ (such as develop...
TECHNOLOGY GRADIENT
Source: Teng (2015); P. 306
TECHNOLOGY GRADIENT & RELEVANCE
 The Gradient is illustrative and not exhaustive
 It captures range of technologies in a...
STATE OF APPLICATION
BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN CROPS
26
18
17
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Tissue Culture Biofetilizers Biopesticide
Countries
Applica...
GM CROPS AREA UNDER CULTIVATION
Country GM Crops Acreage (Million hectares) Quantity Value (US $)
Australia Cotton and can...
40
34
25
24
10
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Virus
Resistance
Insect
Resistance
Fungal
Resistance
Abiotic Stress
Tolerance
A...
BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN CROPS
17
12
6
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Marker Assisted
Selection
Genome
Mapping
Gene Editi...
SIGNIFICANT APPLICATIONS IN LIVESTOCK
SECTOR
26
20 19
7
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Countries Out of 43
countries…
•. Field AI
prog...
13
12 12
11
10
8
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Livestock Vaccines (r-DNA based) in
Asia-Pacific Region
Countries
Diseases
Note: The f...
DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS IN FORESTRY
20
15 15
12
9
1
0
5
10
15
20
25
No. of
Countries
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES FOR APPLICATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FISHERIES &
AQUACULTURE
 Trait improvement using M...
STATE OF CAPACITY
CROPS
 Public sector: CSIRO, CAS, ICAR, CGIAR, ABRI
 Private sector: Monsanto, Forage genetics International, DuPont
(Pi...
CAPACITY IN DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS
 Biopesticides, Biofertilizers and Tissue Culture
 In many LDCs and island states the...
 Genomic Applications and Capacities
 Genomic Editing and Mapping – 6 countries
 The technology is yet to be establishe...
LIVESTOCK
 The State of Capacity in animal Biotechnology in the
region is highly diverse.
 The region is found to be inv...
FORESTRY
 Among 43 countries, the level of capacities in terms of the
available infrastructure for teaching, training and...
FISHERIES / AQUACULTURE
 The State of Capacity in agricultural biotechnology in the
Fisheries /Aquaculture sector of the ...
STATE OF ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
 Enabling Environment (EE)means the overall milieu
for applying agri-biotech including policies,
inc...
CROPS REGULATION-RATIFICATION OF CPB,
BIOSAFETY AND LABELLING
33
10
0
10
20
30
40
Party to CPB Non-Party
CPB membership
12...
EE FOR CROPS
 Countries like Vietnam, Myanmar have gone in a
big way to promote crop biotechnology. There is
new dynamism...
LIVE STOCK
 The countries that encourage the biotechnology in
this sector have policies and frameworks to support
growth ...
FORESTRY
 Many of the countries do have Forest Policy or Forest
Plan that provide for scope of application of forest
biot...
FISHERIES & AQUACULTURE
 The countries that encourage the sector have
appropriate laws and regulations to enable good
pro...
KEY FINDINGS -I
 Agricultural Biotechnologies are widely applied in the region in
all the four sectors
 Low and Medium a...
KEY FINDINGS-II
 Addressing needs in capacity is necessary for effective
utilization of agricultural biotechnologies in a...
THANKS
 Presented by Krishna Ravi Srinivas PhD on behalf
of research team from RIS
 Email ravisrinivas@ris.org.in
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The status of application, capacities and the enabling environment for agricultural biotechnologies in the asia pacific region. presentation of preliminary findings

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The status of application, capacities and the enabling environment for agricultural biotechnologies in the asia pacific region. presentation of preliminary findings

  1. 1. THE STATUS OF APPLICATION, CAPACITIES AND THE ENABLING ENVIRONMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGIES IN THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION PRESENTATION OF SOME PRELIMINARY FINDINGS
  2. 2. SCOPE OF STUDY  Scope, Objectives as Defined in ToR  An objective, evidence-based, stock-taking exercise regarding the current status of agricultural biotechnologies in the region  Sectors: Crop, Livestock, Forestry and Fisheries & Aquaculture  Categories: Applications, Capacities and Enabling Environment  Geographical Coverage: 43 countries  Asia (27): Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, DPR Korea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, The Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor- Leste, Uzbekistan and Viet Nam.  Pacific (16) : Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu.
  3. 3. SCOPE OF STUDY  Coverage- Low-Tech, Medium-Tech &High-Tech applications as indicated in ToR  ‘low-tech’ (such as development and use of biofertilisers or biopesticides in crops/trees; artificial insemination in livestock; use of polyploidy in farmed fish; development and use of probiotics in livestock/fish feed; fermentation and use of bioreactors in food processing); ‘medium-tech’ (such as use of PCR-based disease diagnostic tools or DNA marker-assisted selection – in the crop, livestock, forestry or fisheries/aquaculture sectors; embryo transfer in livestock; use of tissue culture-based techniques in crops/trees); and ‘high- tech’ (such as gene editing techniques; genome sequencing; genetic engineering; cloning of livestock).  Sources : Secondary Data, Survey of Literature, Comments/Opinions of Experts, Datasets/bases, Information from contact points in different countries & data from FAO
  4. 4. TECHNOLOGY GRADIENT Source: Teng (2015); P. 306
  5. 5. TECHNOLOGY GRADIENT & RELEVANCE  The Gradient is illustrative and not exhaustive  It captures range of technologies in all four sectors  Cost need not increase with complexity . It may decrease or become affordable  In recent years technologies like genome sequencing& genome editing have opened up new avenues but technologies like biofertilizers, tissue culture and biopesticides are still relevant  Relevance rather than complexity or state of technology is more important for harnessing biotechnologies in agriculture
  6. 6. STATE OF APPLICATION
  7. 7. BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN CROPS 26 18 17 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Tissue Culture Biofetilizers Biopesticide Countries Applications
  8. 8. GM CROPS AREA UNDER CULTIVATION Country GM Crops Acreage (Million hectares) Quantity Value (US $) Australia Cotton and canola 0.852 (2016) 4.2 million bales (2016), not available for canola 73 million (2015) Bangladesh Brinjal 0.0007 (2016) n/a China Cotton, papaya, poplar 2.8 1.0 billion (2015) India Cotton 11.2 (2016) (96% of area under cotton cultivation) 35 million bales (2016) 1.3 billion (2015) Pakistan Cotton 2.9 (2016) 398 million (2015) Philippines Maize 0.812 82 million (2015) Vietnam Maize 0.035 n/a Myanmar Cotton .30 (93% of area under cotton cultivation)
  9. 9. 40 34 25 24 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Virus Resistance Insect Resistance Fungal Resistance Abiotic Stress Tolerance Altered Fruit Ripening Distribution of GM Crops Traits EventsinGMcrops Traits Other significant traits include Bacterial Resistance (9); Herbicide tolerance (8); Modified Oil Composition (7) and others.
  10. 10. BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN CROPS 17 12 6 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Marker Assisted Selection Genome Mapping Gene Editing Countries Applications
  11. 11. SIGNIFICANT APPLICATIONS IN LIVESTOCK SECTOR 26 20 19 7 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Countries Out of 43 countries… •. Field AI programmes are available in most countries. •Cloning in India is applied to maintain pedigree buffalo stocks •Other technologies are at research stage.
  12. 12. 13 12 12 11 10 8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Livestock Vaccines (r-DNA based) in Asia-Pacific Region Countries Diseases Note: The figure illustrates the status of adoption of vaccines in 43 countries
  13. 13. DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS IN FORESTRY 20 15 15 12 9 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 No. of Countries
  14. 14. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES FOR APPLICATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FISHERIES & AQUACULTURE  Trait improvement using Marker Assisted selection for breeding in commercial finfish breeds  Suitable molecular diagnostic tools to track the diseases in brood stocks • Genomic techniques to improve rohu breeding stock • Genome analysis of Trachinotus blochii and T.ovatus (Golden Pompano) • Gene sequencing of Labeo rohita and Clarius batrachus • Snakehead mackerel • Whole genome sequencing of the commercially important and endangered fish, Asian Arowna (Scleropages formosus) & genomic analysis for high performance Hapuku, Kingfish, and Abalone brood stock • Advancements in genomics of aquaculture pathogens
  15. 15. STATE OF CAPACITY
  16. 16. CROPS  Public sector: CSIRO, CAS, ICAR, CGIAR, ABRI  Private sector: Monsanto, Forage genetics International, DuPont (Pioneer Hi-bred International Inc.), Florigene Pty Ltd., Dow Agroscience LLC, Syngenta  Some of the countries have biotech specific courses, curricula and academic training in universities and colleges  Evidences of increase in higher education (Ph.D, M.Sc., M.Tech) in Agricultural biotechnology  Public Research Institutions and Organisations in various countries have undertaken agricultural biotech research  Infrastructure and capacity building is growing significantly in some of the countries.  However, many countries are making efforts to achieve adequate capacity for agriculture biotechnology
  17. 17. CAPACITY IN DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS  Biopesticides, Biofertilizers and Tissue Culture  In many LDCs and island states the capacity at present is limited to application of very basic tools of biotechnology.  Capacity in the private sector aims to engage productively in these technologies and invest in R&D.  Public sector capacity in this is well developed but that is limited to few countries . In some countries, universities and other research centers have the capacity but that has to be expanded significantly.
  18. 18.  Genomic Applications and Capacities  Genomic Editing and Mapping – 6 countries  The technology is yet to be established  Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) and Molecular Breeding  Extensively applied in various countries and wide- spread  Countries should collaborate in this and form crop specific collaborative projects
  19. 19. LIVESTOCK  The State of Capacity in animal Biotechnology in the region is highly diverse.  The region is found to be involved in marker assisted trait improvement, maintenance of common gene pool in breeding populations, genomics for integrating special traits, embryo production and transfer technology, Cloning, Genome research, Genetic Engineering, Animal health components such as disease diagnostic tools and vaccines.
  20. 20. FORESTRY  Among 43 countries, the level of capacities in terms of the available infrastructure for teaching, training and carrying- out research in the domain of forest biotechnology, was found to be varying from low to high.  Some of the countries such as China, Japan, India, New Zealand, Australia have dedicated large scale R&D institutions to undertake research on forest biotechnology.
  21. 21. FISHERIES / AQUACULTURE  The State of Capacity in agricultural biotechnology in the Fisheries /Aquaculture sector of the region is uneven.  The region is involved in marker assisted trait improvement of breed stocks of fin fishes.  The health management such as disease diagnostic tools in aquaculture is noteworthy.  The institutional infrastructure for capacity enhancement for research, education and training in fisheries and aquaculture is strong in those countries where there is sufficient emphasis on fisheries and aquaculture production.
  22. 22. STATE OF ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
  23. 23. ENABLING ENVIRONMENT  Enabling Environment (EE)means the overall milieu for applying agri-biotech including policies, incentives, regulation, collaborations and capacity building  The EE for agricultural biotechnologies is by and large positive with countries like India, South Korea, China and Malaysia giving it a thrust  In many countries the EE is part of the innovation ecosystems in agriculture and S&T  About a dozen countries have direct or implicit policies on biotechnology while many have incorporated that in policies for agricultural development
  24. 24. CROPS REGULATION-RATIFICATION OF CPB, BIOSAFETY AND LABELLING 33 10 0 10 20 30 40 Party to CPB Non-Party CPB membership 12 1 0 5 10 15 Process - Based Product - Based Regulation 9 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 Mandatory Non-Mandatory Labelling
  25. 25. EE FOR CROPS  Countries like Vietnam, Myanmar have gone in a big way to promote crop biotechnology. There is new dynamism in many countries that is reflected in policies (e.g. SriLanka, Bangladesh, Iran)  Emerging applications like genome editing pose new issues in regulation  Favorable policies in agriculture &seeds sector has opened up new opportunities while private sector seem to benefit most from this
  26. 26. LIVE STOCK  The countries that encourage the biotechnology in this sector have policies and frameworks to support growth and value addition .  As livestock is important in terms of trade and share in GDP, the enabling environment is positively impacted by this and this has resulted in support for R&D and adoption.  Capacity building and collaborations can enhance EE particularly in many countries where the potential is not harnessed fully
  27. 27. FORESTRY  Many of the countries do have Forest Policy or Forest Plan that provide for scope of application of forest biotechnology, though not explicitly.  In addition to the presence/absence of a Forest Policy, the thrust towards development and application of forest biotechnology also rests on its importance to address the domestic demand as well as trade potential  E.g. Japan has wide ranging application of forest biotechnology owing to the fact that there is a huge demand for quality timber.  Similarly, in countries like Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Australia and New Zealand, private sector is actively involved in forest biotechnology
  28. 28. FISHERIES & AQUACULTURE  The countries that encourage the sector have appropriate laws and regulations to enable good production system.  The key issues of the sector to make it sustainable are taken up through suitable institutional mechanism.  Suitable policy and administrative support has enabled foreign direct investment in aquaculture in countries of the region.
  29. 29. KEY FINDINGS -I  Agricultural Biotechnologies are widely applied in the region in all the four sectors  Low and Medium applications have been adopted in many countries and genomics oriented applications such as genome editing are getting firmly established in the region in about ten countries.  The variance among countries in terms of applications, capacity and enabling environment is significant even as there is new dynamism among selected countries in the region  The state plays a key role in promoting agricultural biotechnology and the enabling environment by and large is positive
  30. 30. KEY FINDINGS-II  Addressing needs in capacity is necessary for effective utilization of agricultural biotechnologies in all the four sectors, particularly in Least Developed Countries and Island States  There is a new dynamism in the region in agricultural biotechnologies and this can be sustained only if capacities are created and enabling environments are conducive  Most of the countries have biosafety/regulatory guidelines in operation. There are challenges in regulating new technologies/applications such as genome editing, New Plant Breeding Technologies  For fuller realization of the potential and to meet the needs of small holder farmers and to address challenges of climate change, initiatives are needed at regional and national levels.  Technology Needs Assessment combined with capacity building is necessary
  31. 31. THANKS  Presented by Krishna Ravi Srinivas PhD on behalf of research team from RIS  Email ravisrinivas@ris.org.in

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