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Saudi arabia's food security policy and nutrition

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Panos Konandreas, Trade Policy Plus
Expert consultation on trade and nutrition
15-16 November 2016, FAO Headquarters, Rome
http://www.fao.org/economic/est/est-events-new/tradenutrition/en/

Published in: Education

Saudi arabia's food security policy and nutrition

  1. 1. Saudi Arabia’s food security policy and nutrition Expert Consultation on trade and nutrition 15-16 November 2016 FAO, Rome Panos Konandreas Trade Policy Plus pkonandreas@yahoo.com
  2. 2. Saudi Arabia’s food security policy and nutrition Particularities in KSA demographics The food secure situation in the KSA Factors contributing to KSA food security The extent of malnutrition in the KSA KSA food security policy policy options to secure access to food supplies gross inadequacies in public policy on food utilization and healthy diets/lifestyles Overall conclusions
  3. 3. 3 KSA population: high growth, urban & concentrated 0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000 7000000 8000000 Overall: 71% in four admin areas non-Saudis: 85% in four admin areas Saudi Total non-Saudi Total Population growth rate 2.55% per annum
  4. 4. 4 Ethnic & gender characteristics • 1 non-Saudi (n-S) for 2 Saudis (S) • 80 female for 100 male • 94 S-female for 100 S-male • 58 n-S-female for 100 n-S-male • 2m more during Hajj pilgrimage
  5. 5. 5 Impressive gains in food availability since the 1970s 1961-63 1971-73 1981-83 1991-93 2001-03 2009-11 Cereals 1227 1015 1300 1392 1484 1462 Veg Oils 61 111 347 366 392 401 Sugar 77 160 362 273 302 321 Meat 54 62 204 180 202 231 Fruits 176 189 248 204 225 202 Milk 53 73 153 116 151 121 Vegetables 27 61 74 88 69 66 Pulses 22 26 32 26 35 47 Animal fats 16 21 50 31 37 47 Miscellaneous 0 3 14 6 13 29 Starchy Roots 3 5 17 24 31 24 Spices 4 9 17 16 19 23 Stimulants 2 4 11 10 11 21 Eggs 2 6 25 19 18 18 Fish 7 8 17 10 13 15 Oilcrops 18 22 27 19 13 13 Offals 4 4 8 11 12 12 Treenuts 1 1 6 6 7 10 Grand Total 1754 1780 2912 2798 3034 3063 1961-63 1971-73 1981-83 1991-93 2001-03 2009-11 Cereals 33.2 27.3 34.1 38.8 40.0 38.8 Meat 3.4 4.4 15.9 15.1 17.9 21.1 Milk 2.8 4.5 10.6 6.4 8.6 7.0 Pulses 1.4 1.7 2.1 1.7 2.2 3.1 Vegetables 1.0 1.9 3.2 3.8 2.9 2.7 Miscellaneous 0.7 1.1 1.7 1.7 1.8 2.6 Fish 1.2 1.3 2.4 1.4 2.1 2.2 Fruits 1.8 1.9 2.8 2.2 2.5 2.1 Offals 0.6 0.7 1.1 1.5 1.7 1.7 Eggs 0.1 0.4 1.9 1.5 1.3 1.4 Stimulants 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.8 Spices 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.7 Grand Total 46.6 45.8 77.2 74.9 82.0 84.2
  6. 6. 6 Large gains for meat, dairy, sugar and oils
  7. 7. 1990-92 2014-16 1990-92 2014-16 World 113 123 113 111 Dev'd 131 136 98 101 Dev'g 108 120 119 114 NE in Asia 123 124 104 110 KSA 128 137 100 100 Region KSA over regional averages (%) Supply adequacy (%) KSA aggregate food availability (DES) well above requirements for an active and healthy life KSA variability due to influx of migrants
  8. 8. 8 Under-nourishment comparable to Dev’d 1990-92 2014-16 1990-92 2014-16 World 26 17 26 30 Dev'd 5 5 132 100 Dev'g 32 20 21 26 NE in Asia 16 18 40 28 KSA 7 5 100 100 Inadequacy (%) KSA over regional averages (%)Region
  9. 9. Oil revenues key to KSA food security
  10. 10. Co-movement of monthly food and oil prices
  11. 11. Generous food subsidies http://www.focus-economics.com/regions/middle-east- and-north-africa My back of envelope calculations Wheat 1 billion Barley 1.2 b Maize 0.3 b TOTAL above 2.5 b Other products: Dairy Poultry Plus other indirect subsidies that benefit meat and dairy sectors: • 2.5% GDP KSA Electricity subsidy • 6.5% GDP KSA Diesel and gasoline
  12. 12. 12 Ave price (SR/Unit) 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Wheat flour, local, brown (Grain Silos) 1kg 2.1 3.7 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1 Rice, Maza Indian (Abu Kas) 10kg 65.5 13.1 76.7 59.6 57.9 56.9 66.5 76.6 76.2 Bread, white 4loaves 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Cattle Meat, fresh 1kg 36.3 9.1 28.1 30.7 34.7 36.5 38.5 39.1 39.2 Sheep Meat, cooled imported 1kg 37.0 7.4 27.6 33.0 35.0 37.5 39.2 39.1 39.1 Chicken, frozen imported (Doux) 900gm 11.2 8.7 10.5 9.9 11.5 11.4 12.5 11.1 10.9 Fish, fresh, (Kanaad) 1kg 43.9 13.5 32.0 36.3 40.4 42.0 44.7 48.8 53.6 Milk, fresh, local (Al Maraai) 1L 4.0 0.1 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 Yoghurt, (Al Saffi) 170gm 1.0 0.4 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Vegetable oil, (frying) Al arabi 1.8L 15.2 6.6 15.7 13.5 15.3 16.5 15.6 15.2 15.0 Sugar, soft, Al Ossra 10kg 33.7 13.7 23.4 33.1 40.8 36.3 34.0 31.0 26.9 Soft Drinks Pack 1.5 4.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 Pumpkin 1kg 5.2 12.4 4.5 4.1 4.9 5.2 5.3 5.6 6.0 Cabbage, white 1kg 3.2 13.4 3.1 2.9 2.9 3.4 3.1 3.4 3.3 Beans, green 1kg 10.4 13.4 9.1 9.4 9.3 10.4 10.2 11.3 12.1 Tomatoes, imported 1kg 5.3 23.5 4.6 4.8 4.4 5.2 6.0 5.8 5.8 Zucchini, local 1kg 5.9 18.3 5.5 5.3 5.4 5.8 5.9 6.6 6.3 Cucumbers, local 1kg 4.8 15.7 6.0 4.2 4.3 4.6 5.1 5.5 5.2 Peppers, green, local 1kg 7.6 16.0 7.1 6.5 6.3 7.2 7.9 8.7 8.8 Lettuce, local 1kg 5.6 15.3 4.9 5.0 4.9 5.7 5.9 6.0 6.2 Watermelon, local 1kg 2.3 19.1 2.2 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.6 Melon, local 1kg 4.0 17.5 4.3 3.3 3.6 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.5 Mango, Pakistani 1kg 12.2 11.3 12.1 10.9 12.1 12.5 12.6 12.6 13.4 Dates, (Maknoz, Khilas) 1kg 15.5 6.3 16.8 16.1 16.1 16.1 15.6 14.6 13.9 STDEV (% of Ave) UnitProduct Annual average price (SR/Unit) Subsidies & price controls kept most food prices stable
  13. 13. Food affordability improving
  14. 14. … but for poorest H-holds up to 40% on food
  15. 15. 15 Relatively least secure non-S f-headed H-holds
  16. 16. Also, food imports relatively more affordable
  17. 17. 17 Self-sufficiency ratios (SSRs) KSA imports about 80% of food consumed 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2013 Cereals Total 54 36 8 78 34 11 5 Meat Total 97 87 33 57 63 40 40 (Poultry) 100 47 24 54 62 43 41 Dairy Total 80 49 23 33 54 84 84 (Fresh milk) 104 112 Eggs 50 50 78 109 101 120 123 Fish 84 92 28 35 33 40 39 Pulses 33 22 21 20 9 8 8 Vegetables 91 98 60 81 81 92 83 Fruits 87 73 35 51 58 58 54 (Dates) 99 104 106 104 104 108 110 Oilcrops 40 15 2 3 7 1 1 Veg Oils 0 0 0 3 4 24 24 Sugar 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  18. 18. KSA is overall food secure but suffers from malnutrition
  19. 19. 19 Overindulgence and growing obesity Anaemia Vitamin A Iodine Stunting among children (%) Under- nourishment (%) Food inadequacy (%) Over- indulgence (%) Obesity among adults (%) 2014-16 2014-16 2014-16 2014-16 2008 World 2902 47.9 30.7 30.3 25.7 10.9 16.8 30.7 11.7 Dev'd 3408 11.8 3.9 37.7 7.2 <5.0 <5.0 45.7 22.2 Dev'g 2795 52.4 34 29.6 28.0 12.9 19.6 27.6 8.7 NEinAsia 2874 45.5 15.8 19.5 24.4 12.6 18.1 32.9 29.4 KSA 3290 33.1 3.6 23.0 9.3 <5.0 <5.0 43.9 35.2 Mostrecent observation Food availability (kcal/cap/ day) Prevalenceof deficiencies amongchildren(%) Prevalenceofmalnutrition
  20. 20. 20 Heavy toll - Causes of mortality in KSA (all deaths)
  21. 21. 21 Who are the obese? women affected more
  22. 22. 22 Who are the obese and why? Limited studies on factors contributing to obesity  Obesity ^ with age, ^ in less educated ^ with sedentary lifestyles  Higher for women of all ages  Increasingly a problem for younger ages, both boys and girls Most analyses based on either boys or girls groups. General conclusions:  Infrequent consumption of fruits and vegetables  Frequent consumption of fried foods  high prevalence of fast food (80% at least once weekly) consisting of Burgers and carbonated soft drinks. Large portions of fast food  Too much TV: > 1/3 of male and > 50% of female students >3 hours daily  Too little PA: 1/3 of boys and 100% of girls did not participate in any exercise during previous week Significant risk factor: cultural norms  prohibition of physical education in schools for girls  females are prohibited by social norms to practice physical activities in public.
  23. 23. 23 KSA policy options to secure access to food supplies Domestic production Investment abroad Diversification in sourcing imports Food stocks
  24. 24. 24 KSA food security policy obsessed with access to food supplies
  25. 25. 25 … obsessed with access to food supplies
  26. 26. 26 … obsessed with access to food supplies
  27. 27. Center pivot irrigation
  28. 28. 28 1987 1991 2000 2012 Agricultural Fields, Wadi As-Sirhan Basin, Saudi Arabia
  29. 29. 29 KSA expansion in irrigation, largely wheat before being phased out in 2016 (1000 Ha)
  30. 30. Investment abroad  Decision 2007 to abandon a food security policy based on autarky. Phase out local wheat production within 8 years  King Abdullah Initiative (KAI) for Agricultural Investment Abroad announced in January 2009.  KAI encourages Saudi companies to invest in farm projects abroad to improve KSA’s long-term food security while providing benefits to host country.  A government owned company: Saudi Agricultural and Livestock Investment Co. (SALIC) promoted/subsidized such investments  Commodities targeted include: wheat, barley, corn, sorghum, soybeans, rice, sugar, oil seeds, green fodder, livestock and fish  Limited success so far. Now KSA has been broadening its investment abroad strategy including: establishing long-term food trade agreements, and contract farming arrangements in target countries.
  31. 31. Diversification in sourcing imports
  32. 32. Food stocks and storage capacity
  33. 33. 33 Gross inadequacies in public policies on food utilization  Huge food waste: food is cheap and not valued  MoA recent estimate Saudis waste $35 million worth of food every day, amounting to $13 billion per year  Partly linked to non-targeted and inflexible consumption policies  Also linked to cultural factors, social traditions and extravagant celebration events  Food waste accounts for an estimated 28% of all waste: a serious environmental problem for its disposal.  Deep-rooted social constraints  Inadequate nutrition education at schools  PE is absent from curricula of girls schools, and PA not practiced  Prohibition of women for participating in physical activity in public  Limiting the role that women could play in promoting good nutrition and healthy lifestyles
  34. 34. 34 Conclusions  KSA is a food secure country  adequacy of supplies well above requirements; small share of undernourished  Transition to food security very rapid fuelled by petroleum revenues  Span of few years KSA availability increased more than what other countries achieved in decades  But KSA is malnourished  Excessive consumption of an unbalanced diet rich in meats, fatty foods and fast foods leading to obesity  A policy of cheap subsidized food contributes to excessive intake and unbalanced diets  Sedentary lifestyles and limited physical activity  Public policy is obsessed with securing access to supplies  Domestic production; investment abroad; diversification; stocks  Public policy pays much less attention to food utilization, healthy diets and lifestyles  Paradox of huge food waste in a heavily import dependent country; continuing excessive subsidization;  Lack of recognition of the importance of PE at schools and the need for nutrition education for nurturing healthy lifestyles  Continuing cultural constraints and prohibitions especially affecting women.

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