Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Agricultural participation, farm typologies and sustainable rural livelihood framework (Jean-Michel Sourisseau, CIRAD)


Published on

Expert consultation on methodology for an information system on rural livelihoods and Sustainable Development Goals indicators on smallholder productivity and income

7 - 8 December, FAO headquarters

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Agricultural participation, farm typologies and sustainable rural livelihood framework (Jean-Michel Sourisseau, CIRAD)

  1. 1. Agricultural participation, farm typologies and sustainable rural livelihood framework CIRAD’s contribution
  2. 2. SDG 2016: What should be the role of agriculture in this context?  Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere  Goal 1: Eradicate extreme and reduce by half poverty  Goal 1.3: Social protection  Goal 1.4: Access to basic services  Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture  Goal 2.1 & 2.2: Food access and nutritional outcomes (undernourishment, food insecurity, stunting and malnutrition)  Goal 2.3: Small holders labor productivity and production, resilient agriculture practises  Goal 2.5 Genetic diversity (cultivated plants, domesticated animals and associated wild)  Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls  Goal 5a: Women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land, financial services, inheritance and natural resources  In the current context agriculture is at the core of a polarized debate we can present through two main narratives
  3. 3. Narrative of market oriented agricultural systems  Agriculture is an economic activity as any other economic activity  Markets are the key driver and the agricultural sector will transform accordingly through dedicated policies enhancing its productivity  The consequence is a normative development pathway:  an strong increase in labor productivity and a sharp decrease in the labour force in agriculture  a shift towards specialised farming systems and production structures’ concentration  more and more integrated and international markets of inputs (including services) and products  the fading of the family nature of the farm, replaced by a diversity of arrangements  The development of combination of investments (capital) and hired labour
  4. 4. Narrative of resilient agro-food systems  Agriculture is a mode of living (“mode de vie”, Mauss)  Farming systems are diversified  Production is not a mere commodity sold in an undefined market:  self-consumption,  interpersonal exchanges and social capital  ecological services  Agriculture is most often combined with off-farm and non-farm activities and migrations  The consequences for agriculture contribution to SDGs  A sharp attention to labour and decent jobs creation in a wide diversity of farms models  A need for opening the vision to entire food systems  A need for cross-cutting analysis and policies
  5. 5. Challenge: combining narratives & visions  Globally, the situation is a strong process of market integration  But for most agricultural sectors, market integration works poorly  But in most of developing countries (in SSA and South Asia), the demographic and employment challenge requires others options  But even in developed and industrialized countries, the unsustainability of concentrated agricultures and food systems requires to rethink alternative models  Everywhere, reshaping sustainable ways of farming is high on the agenda  The shift will require:  a new approach to agricultural labour  a deep rethinking of the processing side  more attention to decentralized agri-food businesses
  6. 6. Experience only illuminates the past pathways  Modernization needs a deep rethinking to avoid dead-ends
  7. 7. Agricultural activity vs agriculture as a profession  In many situations / countries (even in developed countries):  pluriactivity is the norm and not an exception  Pluriactivity exists at individual and household level  As a consequence:  The issue of threshold is not so important when considering agriculture as an activity  Threshold are not relevant when tackling globally food and nutrition security  Considering agriculture as an activity is in line with SDG n°2, 1.3 and 5A  If agriculture has a role to play in meeting SDG, all kind of agricultural activity has to be part of the picture, either in rural, peri-urban or urban settings  30% incomes to define a farmer make sense for designing market oriented agriculture policies… not for measuring agriculture activity contribution to SDGs
  8. 8. Farms typologies: the type of labor as a key discriminating factor Corporate forms Family business forms Family forms
  9. 9. The rationale for choosing labour  To be able to count family farms and others  Analytical definition which leaves the political and policy choice to the policy makers: we just argue that it is important to count for an accurate weighing of the different categories  Labour is the main « engine » of farming at world level: it deserves more attention in the official data sets (2/3 of farms in a world remain manual, less than 3% are motorized)  Labour is especially important to understand family farms functionnings  Social protection issues and policy linkages  Human capital as an investment
  10. 10. Exploring family farms diversity with alternative criteria
  11. 11. Exploring family farms diversity with alternative criteria  A need for local/national typologies, but with relevant and mesurable criteria  A need for indicators and criteria allowing scalling-up to regional and international level
  12. 12. The SRL framework  Compatible with family farms understanding  Useful because it allows considering agriculture and non- agricultural activities  It includes the « organisational and institutional dimension »: that can influence the capabilities of each individual member of the HH and of the HH as a whole  It clearly separates « assets » and outcomes  Regarding RuLIS proposal, the categories can be expanded to include collective or public goods / services available in the environment  A suggestion is to revisit the original SRL framework…
  13. 13. The SRL framework