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Agricultural participation, farm typologies and sustainable rural livelihood framework (Jean-Michel Sourisseau, CIRAD)

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Expert consultation on methodology for an information system on rural livelihoods and Sustainable Development Goals indicators on smallholder productivity and income

7 - 8 December, FAO headquarters

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Agricultural participation, farm typologies and sustainable rural livelihood framework (Jean-Michel Sourisseau, CIRAD)

  1. 1. Agricultural participation, farm typologies and sustainable rural livelihood framework CIRAD’s contribution
  2. 2. SDG 2016: What should be the role of agriculture in this context?  Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere  Goal 1: Eradicate extreme and reduce by half poverty  Goal 1.3: Social protection  Goal 1.4: Access to basic services  Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture  Goal 2.1 & 2.2: Food access and nutritional outcomes (undernourishment, food insecurity, stunting and malnutrition)  Goal 2.3: Small holders labor productivity and production, resilient agriculture practises  Goal 2.5 Genetic diversity (cultivated plants, domesticated animals and associated wild)  Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls  Goal 5a: Women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land, financial services, inheritance and natural resources  In the current context agriculture is at the core of a polarized debate we can present through two main narratives
  3. 3. Narrative of market oriented agricultural systems  Agriculture is an economic activity as any other economic activity  Markets are the key driver and the agricultural sector will transform accordingly through dedicated policies enhancing its productivity  The consequence is a normative development pathway:  an strong increase in labor productivity and a sharp decrease in the labour force in agriculture  a shift towards specialised farming systems and production structures’ concentration  more and more integrated and international markets of inputs (including services) and products  the fading of the family nature of the farm, replaced by a diversity of arrangements  The development of combination of investments (capital) and hired labour
  4. 4. Narrative of resilient agro-food systems  Agriculture is a mode of living (“mode de vie”, Mauss)  Farming systems are diversified  Production is not a mere commodity sold in an undefined market:  self-consumption,  interpersonal exchanges and social capital  ecological services  Agriculture is most often combined with off-farm and non-farm activities and migrations  The consequences for agriculture contribution to SDGs  A sharp attention to labour and decent jobs creation in a wide diversity of farms models  A need for opening the vision to entire food systems  A need for cross-cutting analysis and policies
  5. 5. Challenge: combining narratives & visions  Globally, the situation is a strong process of market integration  But for most agricultural sectors, market integration works poorly  But in most of developing countries (in SSA and South Asia), the demographic and employment challenge requires others options  But even in developed and industrialized countries, the unsustainability of concentrated agricultures and food systems requires to rethink alternative models  Everywhere, reshaping sustainable ways of farming is high on the agenda  The shift will require:  a new approach to agricultural labour  a deep rethinking of the processing side  more attention to decentralized agri-food businesses
  6. 6. Experience only illuminates the past pathways  Modernization needs a deep rethinking to avoid dead-ends
  7. 7. Agricultural activity vs agriculture as a profession  In many situations / countries (even in developed countries):  pluriactivity is the norm and not an exception  Pluriactivity exists at individual and household level  As a consequence:  The issue of threshold is not so important when considering agriculture as an activity  Threshold are not relevant when tackling globally food and nutrition security  Considering agriculture as an activity is in line with SDG n°2, 1.3 and 5A  If agriculture has a role to play in meeting SDG, all kind of agricultural activity has to be part of the picture, either in rural, peri-urban or urban settings  30% incomes to define a farmer make sense for designing market oriented agriculture policies… not for measuring agriculture activity contribution to SDGs
  8. 8. Farms typologies: the type of labor as a key discriminating factor Corporate forms Family business forms Family forms
  9. 9. The rationale for choosing labour  To be able to count family farms and others  Analytical definition which leaves the political and policy choice to the policy makers: we just argue that it is important to count for an accurate weighing of the different categories  Labour is the main « engine » of farming at world level: it deserves more attention in the official data sets (2/3 of farms in a world remain manual, less than 3% are motorized)  Labour is especially important to understand family farms functionnings  Social protection issues and policy linkages  Human capital as an investment
  10. 10. Exploring family farms diversity with alternative criteria
  11. 11. Exploring family farms diversity with alternative criteria  A need for local/national typologies, but with relevant and mesurable criteria  A need for indicators and criteria allowing scalling-up to regional and international level
  12. 12. The SRL framework  Compatible with family farms understanding  Useful because it allows considering agriculture and non- agricultural activities  It includes the « organisational and institutional dimension »: that can influence the capabilities of each individual member of the HH and of the HH as a whole  It clearly separates « assets » and outcomes  Regarding RuLIS proposal, the categories can be expanded to include collective or public goods / services available in the environment  A suggestion is to revisit the original SRL framework…
  13. 13. The SRL framework

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