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Implementation of the VGSSM in the Maghreb region


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The 5th NENA Soil Partnership meeting
01 Apr 2019 - 02 Apr 2019
Cairo, Egypt
Rafla Attia for item 8

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Implementation of the VGSSM in the Maghreb region

  1. 1. Implementation of the VGSSM in the Maghreb region By Ms. Rafla Attia
  2. 2. -The Magreb region is located in North Africa and includes 5 countries Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Mauritanie -The description as arid countries can be explained by the extent of the arid and Saharan zones which cover more than 70 % of the land. -Soils of the Magreb region are highly vulnerable to degradation, and future food security will depend on sustainable agricultural measures.
  3. 3. The climate in this region reflects the influences of the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Sahara in the centre south. Factoring in this variety of climatic influences :Many countries have invested substantially in water storage infrastructure and the extension of their irrigation systems. Currently new concepts are appearing in Global Regional National scale with the aim of promoting sustainable management of land and water
  4. 4. Magreb regions are characterized by 3 bio-geo-climatic zoning features: - The north from humid to semi-arid has forest and pastoral ecosystems and agro-systems based mainly on field crops, arboriculture and irrigated perimeters. - Atlas mountain forms a barrier between the Mediterranean coast and the Sahara.
  5. 5. La forêt dense est en bon état. protégée un groupement à base de Pin d'Alep + maquis vigoureux. Le taux de recouvrement est d'environ 90 %. Maquis dégradé surface claire sevevent impluvium de concentration des eaux pluviales. différentes formes d'érosion Le couvert végétal broutée est de 30 %. La présence d’espèce sont indicatrices de la dégradation des terres et de la présence d'azote nitrique d'origine animal. Les labours à effets destructifs sur les sol intensification ds les PI menacé par la salure secondaire et l'hydromorphie tomporaire en saison humide Exposition des racines d’oliviers ss l’effet érosion TRANSECT De El Gabeul – PPI Lakhmes Siliana Vue d’ensemble du site
  6. 6. The semi-arid and arid area contains pastoral ecosystems and arboriculture (olive growing) and irrigated perimeters. Cereal farming, only succeeds during the good rainy years. Dry arboriculture. Steppes and rangelands are well represented in the region. They are mainly found, dispersed in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. the steppe, a zone suited to agropastoralism,
  7. 7. Desert, arid and semi-arid zones cover a large part of the countries along the southern fringes of the Mediterranean The oases is affected by : Greater water needs for the crops due to the continuous lowering of the static water level , increased water salinity loss of plant biodiversity, soil impoverishment and salinisation,attacks on palm trees; The factors cause loss of profitability and abandonment of the oasis system, leading to its internal desertification.
  8. 8. Hence, territorial differences (geographic location, ethnic groups, sociospatial organisation, management methods, etc.) require that zones be treated, in a manner compatible with their specific historical, cultural and spatial characteristics The association between water and soil resources, land use and land-use techniques is expressed spatially by homogeneous agro-ecological regions. The fight against land degradation and drought is therefore significant challenges
  9. 9. Countries Soil Erosion Soil Salinization Drought, Rainfaill climate change Fertility Depletion/Soil Organic Matter (SOM) Soil Pollution Algeria Water erosion affects 45% of northern areas due to: overgrazing, forest fire and unsuitable farming practices Affects nearly 1 Million ha. (10-15% of arable land) 21% over-cultivation - Egypt Affects 29% of farmland in the Nile Valley of Egypt (world soil 405) Yield reduction due to salinization amounts to 25% Note: has led to a complete loss of productivity and abandoned agricultural lands in several countries. - - - Morocco > 3 000 ton/km2 /year - - Decrease in soil nutrient content leading to the large use of fertilizers; / SOC loss is between 15 to 30% under agricultural system by decade (mainly in irrigated soils) - Tunisia 8.5 million ha, affected by medium to high erosion. Erosion rate 3.5t/HA/an 1.506 spreading water’s structure, 1.532.863 ha of a managed watersheds (terraces, tabia, basins, etc), 77 033 ha treated in soft techniques (ploughing in level lines, bands or rotating crops). - 10%soils affected by salinity in Tunisia 1500000 ha irrigated perimeters is 450000ha, salinity affects 100000ha -Soil contents in organic matter are less than 2% with some exceptions from the fertile soils of the North West where values higher than 3% - - urgency must be adopted surrounding soil health investments in the NENA , Magreb regions, due to an impending number of threats to regional crop yields.
  10. 10. To fight against land degradation, and preserve food security, good agricultural practices should be adopted, to ensure ecosystem sustainability Prioritization and coordination according to the types of problems encountered and the Agro- systemic context. This assessment should allow the different chronological evolutions of the landscapes and target the direct causes. The main objective is to draw up an intervention plan. -make an evolution of landscape mosaics (land use, forms of degradation, soil properties) - draw a panel of scenarios of evolution and application of good agricultural practices -identify the best performing scenarios (production of agricultural biomass, water saving, preservation of soil resources) - Integration of good soil management practices and capacity building
  11. 11. Sustainable Soil Management The work of inter governemental panel on soil ITPS june 2018 led to To provide guidance about how the sustainability of soil management. To provide a starting point for regional and local assessments of SSM to get people (and governments) to agree on same principles and guidelines for action.
  12. 12. According to the Voluntary Guidelines for Sustainable Land Management (FAO, 2017), sustainably managed soils would have the following eleven soil conditions: 1) Minimum rates of soil erosion by water, wind and tillage; 2) non-degraded soil structure (soil compaction, for example) 3) Sufficient surface cover (plant residues, mulch, etc.) to protect the soil; 4) Stable soil organic matter reserves 5) Availability and flow of nutrients appropriate for maintaining or improving soil fertility and productivity and minimizing surface water losse (6) minimal or no acidification, salinization, sodification and alkalinization of the soil; 7) Water effectively infiltrated into the soil, stored to meet the needs of the plants and drained from the soil in case of excess soil water; 8) below toxic levels Contaminants 9) soil biodiversity has a full range of biological functions; 10) Production management systems based on optimized and safe use of all inputs, including pesticides; 11) Soil sealing minimized through responsible land use planning.
  13. 13. Stages in the Assessment of the Sustainability of Soil Management were identified : • Compilation of information on current or proposed management. • Identification of management-related threats to soil-provided ecosystem services and to soil functions and biodiversity. • Compilation of science-based information on acceptable levels of threats to soil-provided ecosystem services and to soil functions and biodiversity. • Compilation of local knowledge on acceptable levels of threats. • Linkage of current or proposed management to identified threats (e.g. effect of tillage on earthworms as developed above). • Comparison of probable effects of current or proposed management to acceptable levels of threats. • Assessment of socio-economic and cultural implications of current or proposed management measures. • Implementation of changes to management to achieve acceptable levels of threats or initiation of efforts to overcome barriers to adoption of such changes. • Recognition of achievement of sustainability. •
  14. 14. Minimize soil erosion Enhance soil organic matter content Foster soil nutrient balance and cycles Minimize soil sealing Prevent, minimize and mitigate soil salinization and alkalinization Preserve and enhance soil biodiversity Prevent and minimize soil contamination Prevent and minimize soil acidification Prevent and mitigate soil compaction Improve soil water management Sustainably managed soil will have (from VGSSM1, FAO, 2017) Possible indicators to monitor
  15. 15. -Improvement of farmers capacities in the field of soil fertility management. -The current status and challenges of soil fertility and the relevance of the topic to sustainable agriculture -Organic soil management -Valorization of organic waste by composting -Economic aspects related to the management of soil fertilization An example: the VGSSM to “Enhance soil organic matter content”
  16. 16. OM in Tunisian soils shows a steady decline: 1947 1981 1998 2002 2004 Enfida 4-2 1 0.6 0.4 0.4 bougrara 1 0.7 0.5 0.2 0.2 Tableau 1. Evolution du taux de la matière organique pour Ennfida et Bougrara( Source Institut de l’olivier) The situation is even more alarming in southern Tunisia, whose values are 0.1 and 0.05%. Inappropriate anthropogenic actions (Monoculture, the massive use of chemical fertilizers, irrigation with unconventional waters ...)
  17. 17. Organic amendments Manure Résidus Compost Engrais verts Timber
  18. 18. Training Needs / Advice to Improve Crop Selectionand fertilizers according to type of speculation
  19. 19. Field School for the seven Governorates of the Platform in collaboration DGACTA-GIZ
  20. 20. EROSION GLISSEMENT DE TERRES An example: the VGSSM to “minimize soil erosion” A cover of growing plants or other organic and non-organic residues that protects the soil surface from erosion should be maintained through implementation of appropriate measures such as mulching, minimum tillage, no-till by direct seeding minimum tillage, no-till by direct seeding mulching
  21. 21. 51 167 312 1008 1800 2630 3850 6000 9000 10000 12000 12500 13000 13500 14000 14000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 Conservation Agriculture Development Campagne Agricole SuperficieenA.C(ha)
  22. 22. measures that reduce runoff rates intercropping, agroforestry mulching, minimum tillage, spreading of the organic amendment Identify appropriate SSM practices under different land use systems
  23. 23. A better understanding of the links between the ecosystems and the livelihood in order to provide information for decision making
  24. 24. - Strategic framework approach for evaluating implementing sustainable land management - Increase theMagreb area under sustainable management - Identify regions where SSM practices are successfully implemented for up-scaling adapt them and implement at appropriate scales (cost-benefit) - Assess and address barriers to adoption (technically and politically) - Monitor SSM implementation - Capacity development to promote SSM adoption - Implementation Plan of soil restoration programplanning should consider specific problems , opportunities and priorities - integration of SLM into national strategies ,plans and budgets - Generalization of sustainable land management in livelihood programs - National and regional development To synergize all the countries • Even characters • Same issues: sustainable management of resources • Even problematic: Demographic pressures Rarity of resources vulnerability to degradation • Agriculture remains the sector that ensures food security and creates the most employment • Same goals sought Formulation effective sustainable development of regional strategies to improve natural resources management in the five countries
  25. 25. New Farmland Management and Conservation Strategy ACTA Tunisia
  26. 26. Thanks for your attention