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Implementation of the VGSSM in the Islamic Republic of Iran

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The 5th NENA Soil Partnership meeting
01 Apr 2019 - 02 Apr 2019
Cairo, Egypt
Bahram Taheri

Published in: Education
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Implementation of the VGSSM in the Islamic Republic of Iran

  1. 1. Implementation of the VGSSM in the Islamic Republic of Iran
  2. 2. SSM is associated with the following characteristics: 1.Minimal rates of soil erosion by water and wind; 2.The soil structure is not degraded (e.g. soil compaction) and provides a stable physical context for movement of air, water, and heat, as well as root growth; 3.Sufficient surface cover (e.g. from growing plants, plant residues, etc.) is present to protect the soil; 4.The soil organic matter is stable or increasing and ideally close to the optimal level for the local environment; 5.Availability and flows of nutrients are appropriate to maintain or improve soil fertility and productivity, and to reduce their losses to the environment; 6.Soil salinization, sodification and alkalinization are minimal; 7.Water (e.g. from precipitation and supplementary water resources such as irrigation) is efficiently infiltrated and stored to meet the requirements of plants and ensure the drainage of any excess; 8.Contaminants are below toxic levels, i.e. those which would cause harm to plants, animals, humans and the environment; 9.Soil biodiversity provides a full range of biological functions;
  3. 3. General Information of Iran The Land and the People • Total area ~1648000 Km2 • Situated in arid and semi arid regions • Average annual precipitation of ~250 mm • Total population ~80million (as of 2015) of which 32% live in rural areas
  4. 4. 1.Minimal rates of soil erosion by water and wind; Watershed area in the territory of water erosion: 125 m ha Water erosion average: 16.7 ton/ha/year economical losses from soil erosion: >10 billion dollars/year 0.84 2.73 4.91 6.1 16.7 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Europe Australia North America Asia Iran Comparing soil erosion Iran and world Tons per hectare Europe Australia North America Asia Iran
  5. 5. Sensitive class of formations to Erosion
  6. 6. Percentage of rock resistances to erosion in the country Resistant Semi-resistant Low to Unclaimed
  7. 7. Erosion Types Map
  8. 8. Origin with high intensity Origin with moderate intensity Origin with Low intensity Transition with high intensity Transition moderate intensity Transition low intensity Sedimentation high intensity Sedimentation moderate intensity sedimentation low intensity Regions affected by wind erosion
  9. 9. Flood Risk Atlas(Hazard and intensity) in 2 and 4 degree basins of Iran
  10. 10.  Spatial Distribution of Soil Conservation and watershed management  Studies 35 m/ ha Implementations 27 m/ha Mitigation And Implementation
  11. 11. Biological measures like seedling and plantation of crops Bio mechanical measures on hillside Mortar stone structures and sapling planting Small chek dam
  12. 12. Flood control & sediment trap by stony check dam Structures for flood control in forest watersheds (limber Collection dams) in Mazandaran and Golestan Provinces
  13. 13. Flood spreading and Recharge water tables Small earthdam
  14. 14.  Application of the results obtained from the successful implementation of international projects In Iran (Sustainable Management of Land and Water Resources (Hableh Roud), The Middle East and North Africa Regional Program for Integrated Sustainable Development (MENARID)  Developing the IWM Model in the 33 Pilots basins in Iran based on the Lessons learned and achievements of successful projects in Iran and also the comparative study with same projects in the other countries  Obtaining License for the Establishment of the International Center for Integrated Watershed Management in Arid and Semi-arid Areas in Iran at the Thirteenth UNESCO Summit  Programming THE NATIONAL MEGA PROJECT ON THE INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT Develop the IWM model with social participation and organizational cohesion
  15. 15. Setting up local development offices to Public Participation in watershed management Kamkoueiyeh Village-Yazd Province Setting up job creation project with aim of Protection of biological resources Rural packaging industry Medicinal Plants
  16. 16. Flood spreading stations No : 37 Data Duration : 8 years Flood event : 53 Infiltration vol. : 216 MCM Infiltration per Hectares : 1000 m3 Monitoring & Evaluation stations No: 14 Station Characters: Measuring soil and water parameters Watershed management and flood spreading monitoring Climate monitoring equipment Monitoring And Evaluation
  17. 17. Suggestions The issues for collaboration with GSP Planning and participation  for Monitoring And Evaluation of soil Erosion & Soil conservation (methods & equipments)  for Upscaling Best Practices  Economic costs of soil erosion (direct and indirect impacts)
  18. 18. 2. The soil structure is not degraded (e.g. soil compaction) and provides a stable physical context for movement of air, water, and heat, as well as root growth
  19. 19. Soil Physical Degradation in Iran Soil physical degradations include: 1. Soil Compaction & Plowpan in Agricultural Soils 2. Soil Compaction in Rangelands and Pastures 3. Crust & Soil Surface Sealing (surface crust)
  20. 20. Soil Physical Degradation in Iran 1. Soil Compaction & Plowpans (Agricultural Soils) Traffic-induced compaction & Plow induced hardpans • About 8 million ha of arable lands in Iran are under intensive machinery operations (irrigated lands). • Since 1921 which the first tractor was imported, the numbers of tractors has been increased to about 200000. • Wheat-corn rotation in irrigated lands is common in many places!
  21. 21. Soil Physical Degradation in Iran 1. Soil Compaction & Plow pans (Agricultural Soils) Resistance (M pa) Soildepth(cm) 35302520151050 0 1 2 3 4 Compacted soil Uncompacted soil Azadegan (2008), 12 wheat field, Pakdasht, south-west of Tehran Based on the results of “Soil Quality and Nutrient Cycling Assessment” Project (SWRI, not published): • At least 10 percent of agricultural soils have the problem of soil compaction!
  22. 22. Soil Physical Degradation in Iran 1. Soil Compaction & Plow pans (Agricultural Soils) Based on personal communication with our colleagues doing filed soil survey: • Powpans has been recognized in many cases in the surveyed agricultural fields • But there is no analysis and it has not been documented yet! One of our priority in Iran for SSM is to document soil compaction and plowpan!
  23. 23. Soil compaction by grazing livestock The total number of livestock's (2017) is 73.6 million. • Sheep: 46.6 million • Goat: 18.5 million • Cow: 8.1 million • Buffalo: 215000 • Camel: 184000 2. Soil Compaction in Rangelands and Pastures This is 2.2 times of the rangelands grazing capacity! About 70 percent of livestock’s production is based on rangeland/pasture grazing! • It is likely to have soil compaction in rangeland! • But there is no national information in this case!
  24. 24. Soil Physical Degradation in Iran 3. Soil surface crust & structural crust •Soil aggregate breakdown during rainfall events will result in formation of surface sealing (surface crust) • This crust affects many soil behaviors like infiltration and aeration which are critical for soil quality
  25. 25. Soil Physical Degradation in Iran 3. Mud flow 3. Soil surface crust & structural crust
  26. 26. Spatial distribution of soil physical sampling points (nearly 41000 sample) OC Texture EC SAR Bulk density FC PWP 40280 36639 10253 1607 1500 745 700
  27. 27. Soil erosion Watershed area under water erosion: 125 m ha Water erosion average is BLM: 16.7 ton/ha/year Economical impacts from soil erosion: >10 billion dollars/year The lowest estimation of average soil erosion in Iran: 6 t/ha/y (Arabkhedri, based on suspended sediment measurements) Considering the tolerable soil loss in Iran which is based on soil formation and is < 0.5 t/ha/y in average, the soil erosion rate is at leased 12 times of tolerable! The total area of Gully erosion in 20 provinces is: 1.19 Mh (Soufi) More than 10000 landslides has been detected! Conclusion:
  28. 28. 1. Monitoring and documentation of soil physical degradation (compaction, crust and plowpan); soil water balance 2. Soil Biodiversity The issues for collaboration with GSP
  29. 29. 3.Sufficient surface cover (e.g. from growing plants, plant residues, etc.) is present to protect the soil
  30. 30. Vegetation and Land Cover
  31. 31. Land Use Type
  32. 32. Biological measures like seedling and plantation of crops Bio mechanical measures on hillside Mortar stone structures and sapling planting Small chek dam
  33. 33. 4.The soil organic matter is stable or increasing and ideally close to the optimal level for the local environment;
  34. 34. Range of organic carbon content in agricultural soils of Iran 21.6% 40.0% 24.4% 14.0% Very low <0.5% Low 0.5-1% Medium 1-1.5% Optimum >1.5% In 23700 soil samples Balali et al. (2014) SOC in >60 percent of soils is <1%
  35. 35. Changes of soil Organic carbon in several regions Region Number of Sample SOC (1966) * Number of Sample SOC (2017) ** Gilan 231 3.63 1162 2.10 Mazandaran 188 2.29 1904 1.90 Golestan 85 1.97 2730 1.30 Central Fars 570 1.06 540 0.9 Isfehan 111 1.01 1056 0.50 Urmia 171 0.97 1953 1.20 Qazvin 122 0.58 184 0.70 Khorasan 387 0.98 325 0.7 *FAO report (1966) ** Soil nutrient databank (2017)
  36. 36. Three major reasons for lack of OC in soils of Iran • Climatic condition  With the exception of north and some western regions of the country, there is not enough capacity to the accumulation of organic carbon in soil because of the dry and semi-dry condition. • Undeveloped soils (Entisol, Inceptisol and Aridisol)  Unsuitability of soil quality (shallow depth, salinity and alkalinity, water logging, low fertility of soils) affects the growth and development of plants and afterwards the low amount of SOC storage • Improper soil and crop management  Limited use of organic fertilizers,  Burning crop residues,  Inappropriate crop rotation and cropping system (e.g. monoculture),  Land use change (23 to 58 percent drop in SOC content because of the rangeland change to dry farming in western regions of Iran),  Irregular and deep tillage
  37. 37. y = -0.014x2 + 0.496x + 1.949 R ² = 0.64, P <0.01 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 WheatYield(tha-1) SOC Content (g kg-1) 286 (kg ha -1) increase in wheat yield per 1 (g kg-1) increase in soil organic carbon (202 field survey) Keshavarz et al. (2013) Soil organic carbon effects on wheat production sustainability
  38. 38. 4312/4/2018 Digital Soil Mapping Observation Points 4201
  39. 39. ‫رورد‬ ‫می‬ ‫انتظار‬: ÷‫یک‬ ‫سال‬ ‫دو‬ ‫هر‬ ‫نقشه‬ ‫این‬ ‫خاک‬ ‫آلی‬ ‫کربن‬ ‫نقشه‬ ‫تهیه‬ ‫اتمام‬ ‫از‬ ‫س‬‫بار‬ ‫گردد‬ ‫رسانی‬ ‫بروز‬.
  40. 40. 5.Availability and flows of nutrients are appropriate to maintain or improve soil fertility and productivity, and to reduce their losses to the environment;
  41. 41. ‫ایران‬ ‫کشور‬ ‫در‬...‫و‬ ‫دولتی‬ ‫آزمایشگاه‬....‫آزمایشگاه‬ ‫آزمایشگ‬ ‫این‬ ‫در‬ ‫که‬ ‫است‬ ‫شده‬ ‫تاسیس‬ ‫تاکنون‬ ‫خصوصی‬‫اهها‬ ‫زراعی‬ ‫و‬ ‫باغی‬ ‫محصوالت‬ ‫برای‬ ‫غذایی‬ ‫عناصر‬ ‫بحرانی‬ ‫حد‬ ‫است‬ ‫شده‬ ‫تهیه‬.‫ازمایش‬ ‫این‬ ‫نیاز‬ ‫رسانی‬ ‫بروز‬ ‫و‬ ‫تجهیز‬‫گاهها‬ ‫باشد‬ ‫می‬ ‫انتظار‬ ‫مورد‬.‫براسا‬ ‫باید‬ ‫کوددهی‬ ‫میزان‬ ‫چراکه‬‫س‬ ‫پذیرد‬ ‫صورت‬ ‫خاک‬ ‫واقعی‬ ‫نیاز‬.
  42. 42. Passing the low of “Permission for establishing private soil & plant labs” in the parliament in 1992 4/15/2019 47
  43. 43. Zone Nutrients (critical level mg/kg) P (<15) K (<200) Fe (7.5) Zn (<1.0) Mn (<6.0) Cu (<1.0) Central 68.1* 17.9 61.3 59.2 17.9 18.3 Caspian Sea Coastline 61.2 48.6 16 59.8 36.4 6.6 North West 77.3 12.5 79.1 76.2 32.4 22.9 Central Zagros 72.9 17.5 76.4 75.7 41.5 33 Khuzestan 88.1 59.9 79.8 62.8 83.5 47.6 North Dry 69 40 45.9 39.9 29.3 22 South Zagros 61.1 26.6 48.7 77.2 17.8 24.7 South Coast 85.2 74.4 100 34.8 17.4 95.7 South Dry 74.5 48 75.5 70.3 31.9 38.4 Khorasan 73.7 25.1 85.3 65.7 23.3 39.9 Average 72.1 30.3 67.6 71.6 37.6 30.5 Distribution of nutrient deficit in soils of different AEZ * Percentage of soil samples
  44. 44. • Period 1. (1957-1984) With the establishment of the Department of Soil genesis and Soil Fertility in 1339 and in cooperation with FAO. The most important goal of soil fertility research was the development of chemical fertilizer use. • Period 2. (1985-1995) With the expanding the establishment of soil and plant analysis laboratory, research on site specific nutrient management was developed • Period 3. (1996-2010) Research continued with the aim of diversifying fertilizer use and balanced plant nutrition • Period 4. (2011-to now) Integrated nutrient management was considered as the main strategy in research with a holistic and participatory approach. Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Research Over Time
  45. 45. Integrated soil fertility and plant nutrition management (Appling chemical, organic and/or biological fertilizers to meet the plant nutrient needs and embracing to the climate, environment and Socio-economic condition •Compost/manure •Green manure •Organic matter •Biological fixation •Chemical fertilizers •Residual effect of nutrient •Expected yield •Nutrient uptake •Variety selection (Germplost) •Cropping pattern •Water management •Management of pests, diseases and weeds •Reducing erosion •pH balance •Reducing nutrient loss •Increasing nutrient availability •Soil texture •pH •Soil salinity •Soil dryness •Soil Organic matter •Leaching •Erosion •Nutrient availability Environment, Economy and Social situation
  46. 46. IPN and ISFM is dependent on biological processes, compatible with germplasms, soil and climatic conditions, strengthening soil biological activity by optimizing the nutrient cycle to minimize the use of external inputs and maximizing the nutrient use efficiency
  47. 47. Main Research Priorities 1) Monitoring the fertility of the soil in time and space, updating and completion of soil fertility information bank 2) Using remote and proximal sensing for diagnosis nutritional disorders of plants 3) Determining suitable multiple criteria indices for interpreting soil analysis data 4) Nutrient cycling, nutrient budgeting 5) Estimating the capacity of soils in reserving organic carbon, achieving the optimum and desirable amount of organic carbon in soil to obtain sustainable soil fertility and good soil ecological services 6) Study the impact of different soil fertility and crop management on SOC storage and dynamics 7) Nutrient management in conservation agriculture 8) Evaluation of various soil fertility and plant nutrition management (Integrated soil fertility, site-specific nutrient, spoon feeding, …) to sustain different cropping systems 9) Optimizing soil fertility and plant nutrition management to produce healthy food, mitigate and adapt to climate change
  48. 48. 6.Soil salinization, sodification and alkalinization are minimal;
  49. 49. ‫خاك‬ ‫شوري‬ ‫نقشه‬ ‫تهیه‬
  50. 50. 6.Soil salinization, sodification and alkalinization are minimal;
  51. 51. Area, salinity levels and distribution of agricultural land in the province, which only have a limitation of salinity and soil alkalinity Area% Area(ha) provinces limitation classes 7.5 320355 Provinces- group 1 A IIA 20 859940 provinces- group 2 A IIIA 57 2435460 provinces- group3 A VA 15.5 662375 Provinces- group 4 A VIA 100 4278130 All provinces total
  52. 52. Primary salinity: most of salt-affected land has a natural origin. Salts formed by weathering of rocks or natural external inputs. Secondary Salinization: close to 20% of salt-affected lands, have a "man-made" origin. Human activity refer to agricultural practices and in particular to irrigation. Source of salt and Salinization in Iran Gholestan province
  53. 53. Source of salt in Iran’s soil 1. Natural causes -Geological conditions : A large part of country is composed of salt formation and is actually the main source of salt in the plain. - Climatic factors ( evaporation ,wind …). -Transfer of salt from catchment or salty area to cropping fields- Stream salinity causing salinization of surface water resources.
  54. 54. 2. human-induced causes oOver exploitation of groundwater oPoor subsurface drainage system oDrainage water :Spreading drainage water in agricultural lands oprogressing of saline water toward agricultural land oUsing saline water to irrigate agricultural land. oOver irrigation oDeficit irrigation oOvergrazing oimproper land leveling.
  55. 55. o Implementing subsurface drainage system to manage water table and control salinity level in order to improve agricultural area (640000 ha)- leaching and drainage a. o Installing an interceptor drainage system to protect agricultural area and prevent movement of salinity toward cropped land Activities and schemes ( projects)
  56. 56. o Improvement and reclamation of saline and sodic soils (Chemical Methods) o Reducing salinity level using Biological Methods via growing plants on area(crop-based management a.) o Providing a database for saline soil resources o implementation of The training programs
  57. 57. Improvement of agricultural lands with implementing modernization schemes in northern and southern Iran more than 550 hectares during 5 past year 1700) ha) Management of saline drainage water to prevent entering within agricultural land Cultivation of tolerant plants to salinity in area that are sensitive to erosion. In the central region and southern Iran Salinity control in northern and southern (Khuzestan) Iran gholestan qazvin khuzestan
  58. 58. ‫با‬ ‫آمدن‬ ‫کنار‬ ‫شوری‬ ‫شوری‬ ‫مدیریت‬ ‫پایش‬‫شوری‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫در‬ ‫و‬ ‫منطقه‬ ‫حوضه‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫در‬ ‫دشت‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫در‬ ‫مزرعه‬
  59. 59. ‫شرایط‬ ‫در‬ ‫گندم‬ ‫تولید‬ ‫سازي‬ ‫بهینه‬ ‫شور‬. ‫اراضي‬ ‫در‬ ‫آب‬ ‫مصرف‬ ‫كارائي‬ ‫بهبود‬ ‫كرخه‬ ‫رودخانه‬ ‫حوضه‬ ‫دست‬ ‫پایین‬ (‫پروژه‬CP.) ‫كشاورزي‬ ‫اراضي‬ ‫شوري‬ ‫وضعیت‬ ‫ارزیابي‬ ‫خوزستان‬ ‫استان‬ ‫در‬(‫با‬ ‫مشترك‬IWMI .) ‫اي‬ ‫علوفه‬ ‫شورپسند‬ ‫گیاهان‬ ‫تولید‬ (‫با‬ ‫مشترك‬ICBA.) ‫باغات‬ ‫در‬ ‫آب‬ ‫مصرف‬ ‫بهینه‬ ‫استفاده‬ ‫اردكان‬ ‫شمال‬ ‫پسته‬(‫با‬ ‫مشترك‬ ‫دانشگاه‬DAVIS.) ‫خاص‬ ‫هاي‬‫پروژه‬
  60. 60. ‫مناطق‬ ‫در‬ ‫شورورزی‬ ‫های‬ ‫سیستم‬ ‫توسعه‬ ‫استفاده‬ ‫قابل‬ ‫غیر‬ ‫شور‬ ‫آب‬ ‫منابع‬ ‫با‬ ‫رایج‬ ‫زراعی‬ ‫محصوالت‬ ‫برای‬ ‫کینوا‬‫پانیکوم‬ ‫سالیکور‬ ‫نیا‬ ‫آتریپلک‬ ‫س‬
  61. 61. Suggestions: Approaches used to improve salt-prone soils 1. Conservation, reclamation and optimal utilization from agricultural soil resources based on the sustainable development. 2. Reduce salinity level and prevent saline land . 3. protecting agricultural area from progressing salinity 4. development of subsurface drainage system to manage groundwater table and control salinity level 5. Collaboration with research center in research projects to find proper solution 6.Providing a road map to mange and control soil salinity.
  62. 62. 7.Water (e.g. from precipitation and supplementary water sources such as irrigation) is efficiently infiltrated and stored to meet the requirements of plants and ensure the drainage of any excess;
  63. 63. The project was launched in the year 75 as the project of the province's agricultural development capability in seven areas of studies and research, natural resources and watershed management, infrastructure engineering services and land preparation and development of horticulture, livestock and aquaculture, agricultural mechanization, conversion and complementary industries, systems And operating organizations, with a total of 2,146 billion USD, were set up by national experts.
  64. 64. ‫ها‬ ‫برنامه‬: ‫آبیاری‬ ‫راندمان‬ ‫افزایش‬ ‫کشاورزی‬ ‫آب‬ ‫مصرف‬ ‫کاهش‬ ‫آبیاری‬ ‫کانالهای‬ ‫بهسازی‬ ‫زراعی‬ ‫به‬(‫کشت‬ ‫الگوی‬ ‫تغییر‬) ‫نژادی‬ ‫به‬ ‫آب‬ ‫حسابداری‬ ‫خاک‬ ‫و‬ ‫آب‬ ‫منابع‬ ‫جامع‬ ‫مدیریت‬ ‫کشاورزی‬ ‫خاک‬ ‫و‬ ‫آب‬ ‫بهروری‬ ‫افزایش‬ ‫آبیاری‬ ‫نوین‬ ‫های‬ ‫سامانه‬ ‫توسعه‬ ‫گیاهان‬ ‫آب‬ ‫مصرف‬ ‫گیری‬ ‫اندازه‬ ‫گیاهان‬ ‫آبی‬ ‫نیاز‬ ‫محاسبه‬ ‫ظرفیتها‬: ‫کشاورزی‬ ‫آب‬ ‫کانالهای‬ ‫سازی‬ ‫بهینه‬ ‫آبیاری‬ ‫نوین‬ ‫های‬ ‫سامانه‬ ‫توسعه‬
  65. 65. 8.Contaminants are below toxic levels, i.e. those which would cause harm to plants, animals, humans and the environment;
  66. 66. ‫در‬‫ایران‬‫بعلت‬‫پائین‬‫بودن‬‫سطح‬‫ایستابی‬‫سفره‬‫های‬‫آبهای‬‫ز‬‫یر‬ ‫زمینی‬‫و‬‫همچنین‬‫پاک‬‫بودن‬‫این‬‫آبها‬‫آلودگی‬‫چندانی‬‫مشاهده‬‫ن‬‫می‬ ‫گردد‬‫و‬‫تنها‬‫به‬‫شکا‬‫پراکنده‬‫و‬‫نقطه‬‫ایی‬‫در‬‫برخی‬‫ار‬‫مناطق‬‫ب‬‫ر‬ ‫اساس‬‫صنایع‬‫موجود‬‫نظیر‬،‫مس‬،‫آهن‬،‫روی‬‫قلع‬،‫باتری‬‫سازی‬‫و‬ ‫تاسسیسات‬‫نفتی‬‫به‬‫شکل‬‫موردی‬‫دیده‬‫می‬‫شود‬.
  67. 67. Article 50 [Preservation of the Environment] In the Islamic Republic, The preservation of the environment, in which the present as well as the future generations have a right to flourishing social existence, is regarded as a public duty in the Islamic Republic. Economic and other activities that inevitably involve pollution of the environment or cause irreparable damage to it are therefore forbidden. . Article 50, Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran
  68. 68. 76 Overview of existing environmental management legislation in Iran Main emphasisYearName of legislation National level Legal framework for waste management2004Waste Management Law Air pollution control (Stationary sources)2017Clean Air Act Prohibits water pollution1994The Amendment of Water Pollution Prevention Guideline Punishment for polluting environment1996Islamic Penal Code of Iran Prohibits environmental pollution1974The Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (EPEA) Conducting an EIA for solid waste management projects 2017Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines and Framework Solid waste disposal1955Municipality law Disposal of hazardous waste, Recycling Implementation of WML, Revitalization of landfill 2003Vision 2025 International level Transboundary movement and management of hazardous and other wastes 1994Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste and Their Disposal Protect human health and the environment from Persistent Organic Pollutants 2001The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants Local level Municipal Waste Management2009Tehran’s Integrated Waste Management Plan Guidelines for Calculating urban Waste Management Fees
  69. 69. Executive bylaws Waste Management in Iran 77  The WML is supplemented by executive bylaws that contain specific provisions for the various types of waste with respect to waste generation avoidance, reduction, recycling, and disposal as well as collection and transport that include:  Medical waste management  Agricultural Waste Management  Industrial Waste Management Regulation  Waste landfils  Electrical and Electronic Waste Management  PCB ( polychlorinated biphenyls) Waste Management (POPs), Stockholm Convention  Waste Incineration
  70. 70. • Development of National Soil Pollution Atlas has been started in 13 provinces among 30, • In this projects, the major hotspots (contaminated lands) and also the main sources of contamination would be identified and prioritized for remediation act. • Also, based on this project a master plan would be defined to control, reduce, and prevent the pollution and to implement the structural or non-structural means of pollution control. • Soil Reclamation and Its Monitoring • Monitoring the Prevention of pollution • Soil Health Indicators, Including Soil Biodiversity (Needs to be linked to VGSSM and WSC) • Organizational Integration in Policy Development, Implementation and monitoring 1- Projects of Soil Pollution Prevention projects
  71. 71. 1- Soil Pollution Atlas GIS based studies  Fate and transport studies Soil pollutant impact assessment on water resources and Identifying and determining high risk regions based on pollution potential, land use and soil sensitivity of the region Identifying pollution trends based on possible future pollution source and the national 5-year development plans
  72. 72. Produce Zoning Maps Produce Sensitivity and Risk Maps Monitoring plans ……….. Create Geo-database Sampling pattern Sampling& preparation Deliver to laboratory Quality and Control Collect all Information, Maps, and Satellite Images Field Visits, Preparation, and Completion of Pollution Forms Produce GIS maps and attributes Work Plan Classification based on the use intensity of soil Analysis Result Discussion and Analysis 1- Soil Pollution Atlas
  73. 73. 1- Soil Pollution Atlas
  74. 74. 2- Contamination potentioal maps based on pollutant sources Agricultural pollution map • For mapping of agricultural contamination, the ratio of fertilizer and pesticide consumption to agricultural land in each basin was used. Industrial pollution map • Industrial pollution assessment maps based on the total amount of industrial wastewater parameters of the area, the number of industrial towns of the area, the number of industrial units and the number of employees of the area took place.
  75. 75. Contamination maps based on pollutant sources Urban pollution map • To produce a map of urban pollution, the average annual production of municipal waste was compared to the area of the basin. Total pollution map (based on pollutant sources)
  76. 76. 84 3- Iranian Soil Standard and its guidelines
  77. 77. 4-Site selection for Hazardous waste disposal Department of the Environment (DOE) of Iran Embarked on site selection projects for Hazardous Waste Treatment Center (HWTC) for each of the provinces across the country, within the past three years.
  78. 78. • Scope of the work: In all provinces in two scales: 1:250,000 and 1:20,000 • GIS-Based with numerous layers of information including • Meteorological • Hydrological • Hydrogeological • Geological • Accessebility • EIA • Population • Land use, industrial zones, Soil maps, … 4- Site selection for Hazardous waste disposal
  79. 79. 4- Site selection for Hazardous waste disposal Study Area Tehran Located in a semi-arid area Hosting around 12 million people Different Industries Nazarabad Charmshahr Pishva Aliabad Abbasabad Kharazmi Firozkoh Parand Shamsabad Eshtehard
  80. 80. 4- Site selection for Hazardous waste disposal Layers of Information Used:  Population distribution (7 data layers)  Educational, recreational and populated centers (19 data layers)  Hydrology & Hydrogeology (19 data layers)  Geology (6 data layers)  Land-use (19 data layers)  Road and transportation line (14 data layers)  Industrial zones (14 data layers)
  81. 81. ‫ات‬‫ر‬‫انتظا‬: ‫کشور‬ ‫خاکهای‬‫الودگی‬ ‫نظر‬‫از‬‫انی‬‫ر‬‫بح‬‫نقاط‬‫افیایی‬‫ر‬‫جغ‬ ‫موقعیت‬ ‫تعین‬(‫نقشه‬ ‫تهیه‬)
  82. 82. 9.Soil biodiversity provides a full range of biological functions;
  83. 83. ‫سیستم‬‫کشاورزی‬‫ایرن‬‫به‬‫دلیل‬‫محدود‬‫بودن‬‫منابع‬‫خاک‬‫اغلب‬‫به‬ ‫صورت‬‫فشرده‬‫انجام‬‫می‬‫شود‬‫که‬‫محدودیتهای‬‫ناشی‬‫از‬‫خشکس‬‫الی‬ ‫و‬‫اقلیم‬‫حاکم‬‫بر‬‫این‬‫کشور‬‫باعث‬‫تغییرات‬‫در‬‫سطوح‬‫ماکرو‬‫و‬ ‫میکرو‬‫شده‬‫است‬.‫اقدامات‬‫انجام‬‫شده‬: ‫اخیرا‬‫تولید‬‫کودهای‬‫بیولوژیکی‬‫و‬‫اصالح‬‫کننده‬‫های‬‫خاک‬‫همر‬‫اه‬‫با‬ ‫تولید‬‫محرکهای‬‫رشد‬‫و‬‫استفاده‬‫از‬‫کودهای‬‫آلی‬‫مورد‬‫توجه‬‫قرا‬‫ر‬ ‫گرفته‬‫و‬‫افزایش‬‫کربن‬‫آلی‬‫خاکها‬‫نیز‬‫در‬‫مقررات‬‫باالدست‬‫ی‬‫نظام‬ ‫مورد‬‫توجه‬‫قرار‬‫گرفته‬‫و‬‫جزو‬‫ماموریتهای‬‫اساسی‬‫بخش‬ ‫کشاورزی‬‫می‬‫باشد‬. ‫در‬‫این‬‫راستا‬100‫حدود‬‫کارخانه‬‫تولید‬‫انواع‬‫کمپوست‬‫از‬‫بقایای‬ ‫مواد‬‫آلی‬‫اعم‬‫از‬‫کشاورزی‬‫و‬‫یا‬‫منشا‬‫حیوانی‬‫و‬‫زباله‬‫شهری‬‫در‬ ‫سطح‬‫کشورایجاد‬‫شده‬‫است‬.
  84. 84. 10.The soil management systems for producing food, feed, fuel, timber, and fibre rely on optimized and safe use of inputs; and
  85. 85. ‫ازایجاد‬‫سامانه‬‫های‬‫مدرن‬‫بهره‬‫برداری‬‫کشاورزی‬‫از‬‫جمله‬:‫ایجاد‬‫شرکتهای‬ ‫تعاونیهای‬‫تولید‬،‫کشاورزی‬‫انجمن‬‫های‬،‫آببران‬‫تشکلهای‬‫مردم‬‫نهاد‬(NGO)، ‫تجهیز‬‫و‬‫نوسازی‬،‫اراضی‬‫اصالح‬‫و‬‫بهبود‬‫خاک‬(‫زهکشی‬‫اراضی‬)، ‫کشاورزی‬‫حفاظتی‬ ‫تجهیز‬‫و‬‫نوسازی‬‫اراضی‬(‫شالیزاری‬‫و‬‫خشکه‬‫زاری‬)‫که‬‫توسط‬‫معاونت‬‫ا‬‫ب‬ ‫و‬‫خاک‬‫و‬‫شرکت‬‫جهاد‬‫نصر‬‫انجام‬‫شده‬1300‫هزار‬‫هکتار‬‫از‬‫برنامه‬‫اول‬ ‫توسعه‬1368،‫زهکشی‬‫زیرزمینی‬‫در‬‫این‬‫اراضی‬400‫هزار‬‫هکتار‬‫انجام‬ ‫شده‬‫است‬. ‫اقدامات‬‫انجام‬‫شده‬‫در‬‫زهکشی‬‫اراضی‬(640‫هزار‬‫هکتار‬)‫شامل‬: ‫کاهش‬‫سطح‬‫آب‬‫زیر‬‫زمینی‬ ‫آبشویی‬‫یا‬‫کاهش‬‫نمک‬ ‫اصالح‬‫خاکها‬ ‫در‬5÷‫ایلوت‬‫در‬‫ایران‬‫کشاورزی‬‫حفاظتی‬‫انجام‬‫شده‬‫است‬(،‫قزوین‬،‫فارس‬ ‫لرستان‬،‫خراسان‬‫رضوی‬‫و‬‫خوزستان‬‫در‬‫حدود‬2‫تا‬3‫هزار‬‫هکتار‬)
  86. 86. 94
  87. 87. 95 Location & History Soil & Water Conservation Research Center of the University of Tehran (UTSWCRC), is located in Koohin region, between the Qazvin and Rasht. The center was established since 1969, under administration of the ministry of Agriculture, and was transferred to the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran in 1999.
  88. 88. 96 Satellite image of UTSWCRC Weather stationNursery Machinery workshop Office
  89. 89. 97 Weather stationNursery Machinery workshop Office
  90. 90. 98 Some of the center activities  Changinge the pattern of spring crops to autumn planting.  Lentil seed registration named “Sabze Pardis” cultivar.  Chickpea seed registration, named “ Kahroba Pardis” cultivar.  Identification and introduction of seeds of legumes and forage crops is also on the agenda.  Construction of dry land orchards on slope area as a pilot project.
  91. 91. 99 Conventional tillage (Moldboard plow) (High disturbance and horizontal displacement of soil) Tillage and cultivation in slope direction Conventional dry land farming (Runoff and Soil Erosion)
  92. 92. 100 Conservation Agriculture Systems Three principles and some complementary aspects: 1. Minimizing the soil disturbance (No-till, Min. till, ….. ), - Reducing the operation time and costs, improvement of soil quality. 2. Management of Crop residue, - Increasing SOC, Improving plant nutrition, Enhancing soil microbial activities, thermal adjustment. 3. applying of appropriate crop rotation, - Soil quality improvement and pests & weeds control, Other practices, - Mixed cropping, improved seeds, Manure & fertilizers, and other useful crop management measures.
  93. 93. 101 Conservation tillage Retention of at least 30% crop residue on soil surface Conservation tillage (Minimum Tillage) Conservation tillage equipment No tillage (Direct Seeding) No Tillage planter
  94. 94. 102
  95. 95. 103 Conservation agriculture measures have been implemented more than 8 years in UTSWCRC. Some of the significant results of the project are presented here as: 1- The effects on soil quality, 2- Economic achievements.
  96. 96. 104 Effects of pilot project on Soil Quality Improvement - Increasing the SOC content: (Improved soil quality, Carbon sequestration, and reduction of Greenhouse gases). - Improvement of soil phosphorus and potassium, (Enhanced soil fertility, and reduced fertilizer use). - Modification of soil physical properties (Hardpans removal, reducing of soil surface cracks, increased soil aggregate stability and infiltration rate, improving the soil porosity status and water holding capacity).
  97. 97. 105 Effects of pilot project on Soil Quality Improvement (Continued) - Reduction of runoff and elimination of soil erosion, - Preventing of evaporation, and soil moisture loss, and increasing the rain water productivity. - Adjustment of soil temperature in summer and winter, and providing suitable conditions for seed germination and plant establishment. - Enhancing the biological activities, and increasing nitrogen fixation by 100 percent.
  98. 98. 106 Soil Organic Carbon Percent Tillage Type Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. 0 – 10 cm 10 – 20 cm 20 – 30 cm 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2
  99. 99. 107 Infiltration Rate cm/min. Tillage Type Conv. Till Red. Till No Till Cons. Till 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0
  100. 100. 108 Aggregate stability (1-2 mm) Percent Tillage Type Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. 0 – 10 cm 10 – 20 cm 20 – 30 cm91 89 87 85 83 81 79
  101. 101. 109 Plant available water Percent Tillage Type Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. 0 – 10 cm 10 – 20 cm 20 – 30 cm 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
  102. 102. 110 Available P mg/kg Tillage Type Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. 0 – 10 cm 10 – 20 cm 20 – 30 cm 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
  103. 103. 111 Available K mg/kg Tillage Type Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. 0 – 10 cm 10 – 20 cm 20 – 30 cm600 500 400 300 200 100
  104. 104. 112 Microbial Population 106/gr.soil Tillage Type Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. 0 – 10 cm 10 – 20 cm 20 – 30 cm 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  105. 105. 113 Biomass Microbial Carbon mg/kg Tillage Type Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. 0 – 10 cm 10 – 20 cm 20 – 30 cm 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
  106. 106. 114 Microbial Respiration Rate mgco2/kgsoil.day Tillage Type Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. 0 – 10 cm 10 – 20 cm 20 – 30 cm 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0
  107. 107. 115 Dehydrogenase Enzyme Activity μgTPF/kgdrymatter.day Tillage Type Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. Conv. Red. NT Cons. 0 – 10 cm 10 – 20 cm 20 – 30 cm16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
  108. 108. 116 The economic achievement of project(cost-benefit)  Reduction of production costs ( by 35 %)  Increasing of crop production ( by 100 %)  Reducing the time of machinery operation (by 65%)  Reduction of energy consumption (by 80%)  Increasing net income of farmers (By 500 %)
  109. 109. 117 Comparison of wheat yield in different tillage systems (kg/ha) Tillage Type No Till Red. Till Cons. Till Conv. Till 347 761 720 652
  110. 110. 118 Total dry matter of Wheat (TDM) (kg/ha) Tillage Type Conv. Till Cons. Till Red. Till No Till 3150 3535 4271 2238 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0
  111. 111. 119 Gross income of wheat productionUSD/ha Tillage Type No Till Red. Till Cons. Till Conv. Till 137 288 263 237 350 315 280 245 210 175 140 105 70 35 0
  112. 112. 120 Machinery operation time (min/ha)min/ha Tillage Type Conv. Till Cons. Till Red. Till No Till 87 159149 390 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0
  113. 113. 121 Tillage cost USD/ha Tillage Type No Till Red. Till Cons. Till Conv. Till 43 1718 10 47 40 33 27 20 13 7 0
  114. 114. 122 Fuel consumption (liter/ha)(litre/ha) Tillage Type No Till Red. Till Cons. Till Conv. Till 117 22 32 13
  115. 115. 123 Wheat production costUSD/kg Tillage Type No Till Red. Till Cons. Till Conv. Till 0.30 0.10 0.110.105 0.33 0.30 0.26 0.23 0.20 0.17 0.13 0.10 0.07 0.03 0
  116. 116. 124 Net income of wheat production Tillage Type No Till Red. Till Cons. Till Conv. Till 0.10 0.28 0.250.26 0.30 0.26 0.23 0.20 0.17 0.13 0.10 0.07 0.03 0 USD/kg
  117. 117. 125 Net income of wheat productionUSD/ha Tillage Type No Till Red. Till Cons. Till Conv. Till 36 213 187 169 223 200 167 133 100 67 33 0
  118. 118. 126 Other benefits of CA pilot project o Elimination of fallow from the three year rotation system in the region, and replacing the best crop in rotation, or implementing green fallow instead of black fallow (Increased area for cultivation, by 30%) o Create favorable conditions for mechanized harvesting of some crops such as chickpea in the region, and facilitate operations. o Reducing the damages caused by frost, weeds, disease and pests. o Helping to fulfill the international obligations of the IRI in relation to environmental issues (carbon sequestration and
  119. 119. 127 An Important Note The findings of the project has been confirmed by the ministry of agriculture-Jahad, and strongly accepted by farmers in different provinces over the past few years. At past cropping year (2017-2018), in the Qazvin province, about 300 ha. of private land have been cultivated under the consultation of our research center, that had surprising results for farmers. Therefore, at current cropping year (2018-2019), more than 1500 ha. is under cultivation using conservation tillage.
  120. 120. 11.Soil sealing is minimized through responsible land use planning.
  121. 121. Iran Agriculture Production (million tons) Percentage Area (million ha) Physical Area __100164.8Area of the country 1048.914.7Cultivated area Source: Ministry of Agriculture, 2015 & 2016
  122. 122. Changes in Per Capita of Agricultural Lands in Iran Over Time Year Population (million people) Cultivated Area (million ha) Per Capita Land (ha) 1993 57 15.5 0.27 2003 68 17.7 0.26 2014 79 16.4 0.21 Source: Ministry of Agriculture, 2015 & 2016
  123. 123. Distribution of plot sizes: Plot Size (ha) Area (m ha) Percent Number of Farm-holders (million) Percent < 5 0.3 ~18% 2.5 ~75% 5 < 50 10.4 ~58% 0.8 ~23% 50 < 4.0 ~23% 0.1 ~1% 14.7 3.4
  124. 124. Soil Sealing & Land use change •during 40 years (1955-2001) about 190000 ha LUC due to expansion of 6 big cities! • from Mar 2006- Mar 2018 total land use change was about 136000 ha • average annual rate of LUC is about 11000 ha
  125. 125. Illegal Land Use Change • According to the articles 3 and 10 of the act, changing the land use of agricultural lands is prohibited, punishable based on verdict of courts by: • Demolition of the structures • Fines equal to 100% up to 300% of the price of land after land use change • Furthermore, people who commit illegal land use change more than once may also be subject to a maximum of 6 months of incarceration
  126. 126. Land Use Change statistics Year With Permits Illegal Count Area (ha) Count Area (ha) 1385 (Mar 2006-Mar 2007) 7272 9122 4507 1478 1386 8416 5744 5373 1517 1387 7397 5864 9305 3010 1388 8450 6346 9099 5911 1389 10032 6512 9262 2825 1390 9903 9719 7554 1627 1391 11105 7578 8827 2628 1392 11635 10671 10188 3178 1393 9715 4998 14441 7843 1394 9398 3868 30236 6760 1395 12584 5422 32080 3741 1396 (Mar 2017-Mar 2018) 14122 15197 19376 7422 Sum (Mar 2006- Mar 2018) 120029 91040 160248 45241
  127. 127. Map of Land Use Change Permits Since Mar. 2015 █ Related to Agriculture █ Not Related to Agriculture █ Not Related to Agriculture but Exempt from tariffs
  128. 128. Challenges and factors affecting land use change • Lack of spatial planning • Urbanization • Conversion of villages to cities • Expansion of village borders • Increasing interest in the ownership of country cottages and secondary residences outside city borders • Value added after land use change • The cultural viewpoint of land as commodity • Quality agricultural lands in suburban areas are not being cultivated and are threatened by urbanization.
  129. 129. ‫اقدامات‬
  130. 130. Fragmentation of agricultural lands • The law of ‘Prevention of the fragmentation of agricultural lands and determination of optimum technical/economical plot sizes’ was passed in 2008 • Plot sizes were determined by the government, based on land type (farms and orchards), farm holders (single, communities, cooperatives, companies), water resources (watered and rain-fed) and soil quality for 404 municipalities • A variety of technical, legal and financial incentives have been devised for the farm-holders who decide to consolidate their lands and increase plot sizes
  131. 131. Prevention of Land Use Change • ‘Preservation of the land use of farmlands and orchards’ act was passed by the parliament in 1995 • According to the act, changing the land use of agricultural lands outside of the borders of cities, towns and villages has been prohibited, except when deemed necessary.
  132. 132. Implemented Policies and Operations for prevention of land use change • Implementation of online services and supervision/scrutiny systems • Use of GIS and RS based systems • Detection of Land Use Change Reconnaissance Vehicles • Land Use Change Reporting System for Civilians (Phone No. 131) • Formation of ‘The National Workgroup of Preservation of Agricultural Lands’
  133. 133. Future Prospects • Formation of the Command Center for Preservation of Agricultural Lands • Satellite Based Survey of Agricultural Lands • Cadaster for Agricultural Lands (1:2000 scale) • Collecting data of farm holders by the means of questionnaires and field survey
  134. 134. Thanks for your attention
  135. 135. 12/4/2018 143 • Preparation of soil maps at national, regional and local levels. • Research on soil genesis and classification. • Establishment of national soil data base. •Application of new techniques in soil survey activities. • Contribution to soil knowledge by publishing scientific articles. •Technical supervision on soil survey activities performed by privet agencies. What we do
  136. 136. 12/4/2018 144 Area of lands covered by soil survey investigations in Iran Map scale Area ha % 000100:1 0003001 6 00050:1 00080016 75 00020:1 0003003 15 Others 0000001 4 Total 00040022 100 Soil Study and Land Classification of More Than 22 Million ha of Arable Land
  137. 137. 12/4/2018 145 Level of Details and Land Areas Covered by Soil Survey Investigations in Iran Level of details Area ha % Reconnaissance 00050012 56 Semi detail 0002509 41 detail 000650 3 Total 00040022 100
  138. 138. 14612/4/2018 Ministry of agriculture Jihad Agricultural Research Education And Extension Organization Soil and Water Research Institute Iran Soil GeoPortal  The construction of soil resource databases in addition to managing and protecting soil resources, environment and valuable soil data, provide different user needs.

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