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From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling
Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel,
West Africa
        Shu...
Land Degradation in Sahel, West Africa
2
* Land degradation in the Sahel
  r apid population increase
  low technology in ...
Downward Spiral
land degradation
hunger and poverty
armed conflict (farmers and herders)
terrorism (Boko Haram)
mass emigr...
Research village
Annual precipitation 445mm 4
Strong wind and
rainfall :
loss of topsoil and
exposure of sedimentary
layers
= Land degradation
Plant biomass is decrease...
Soil type: Arenosol [FAO 1971]
sandy soil, poor soil nutrition
mainly with quartz.
This soil type spreads over Sahel
from ...
People collect the waste
from their house yards.
Anti-desertification methods (2):
waste input
on the degraded land
The wa...
They deposit urban waste on the degraded land of crop fields.
They pile the organic matter,
metal and plastic wastes
to ca...
Chemical property of field, degraded land and urban waste
pH
Total
N
Total
C C/N
Exchange Cation
cmol(+)/kg P
H2
O N( % ) ...
PLOT2 :  5kg/m2
PLOT3 :  10kg/m2
PLOT4 :  20kg/m2
PLOT5 :  45kg/m2
On site Experiment
I made on site experimental plots an...
PLOT 2 :  5kg/m2
PLOT 3 :  10kg/m2
PLOT 4 :  20kg/m2
PLOT 5 :  45kg/m2
Aug, 2010
(2nd
year)
11
PLOT 4   A new termite mound
(Nov. 2009)
Growing termite mound (Aug. 2010)
Restarting biological process
After urban waste...
PLOT 4 :  20kg/m2
PLOT 5 :  45kg/m2
Sep, 2018
(10th year)
Based on my plant growth observations, the critical amount
of ur...
■   the heaps of urban waste on the ground
1. catchment of the wind-blown sand and organic matter
Eight Effects of urban w...
■   biological activities of termite
2 . Termite bring up the small grain of clay and silt. They mixed
up
sand, silt and c...
■   improving the soil chemical property
5. Urban waste are alkaline and neutralize the soil acidity of the
degraded land
...
Social Experiment: October 2011
Urban waste input
17
18
In 2011, with the cooperation of local residents, I piled 150 tons
(6cm thickness) of urban waste on a 50 × 50-m fenced...
19
Put soil and sand slightly on the urban waste  
1cm thick sand on the urban waste
We herded livestock onto the
rehabilitated land, and they
fed on the grass within the
fenced area.
We continued to keep th...
We found 13 tree species
germinating from the livestock
dung and shrubs growing
within the fenced area.
They are useful tr...
Seventh year (Sep 2018 ): Herders enjoy conversation in
the tree shade during their livestock grazing.
22
23
Expanding the sites
Carrying urban waste
from capital city,
Niamey
dump car   20 ton / time
tractor    3.5ton / time
20...
Cleaning the city,
Hotel waterCollecting urban waste
1.1 million population
(Niamey, 2015)
Waste at urban center
24
25
greening the land.
(Minimizing the urban waste, maximizing the land resource)
26
Cleaning the city, greening the land
I aim to counter the popular belief that urban waste and
livestock are destroying ...
27
28
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From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 1 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 2 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 3 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 4 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 5 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 6 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 7 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 8 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 9 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 10 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 11 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 12 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 13 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 14 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 15 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 16 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 17 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 18 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 19 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 20 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 21 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 22 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 23 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 24 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 25 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 26 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 27 From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa Slide 28
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Mr Shuichi Oyama, Kyoto University, Japan. Global Symposium on Soil Erosion (GSER19), 15 - 17 May 2019 at FAO HQ.

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From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa

  1. 1. From Soil Erosion to Soil Accumulation: Recycling Urban Organic Waste to the Eroded Land in Sahel, West Africa         Shuichi Oyama               (Kyoto University)             Hitomi Kirikoshi               (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)             Ibrahim Mammam (Direction de la Meteorologie Nationale du Niger) 1
  2. 2. Land Degradation in Sahel, West Africa 2 * Land degradation in the Sahel   r apid population increase   low technology in agriculture   overgrazing     (Ayatunde 2000, Mortimore and Turner 2005, Tschakert 2007) * Continuous cultivation and overgrazing water and wind erosion
  3. 3. Downward Spiral land degradation hunger and poverty armed conflict (farmers and herders) terrorism (Boko Haram) mass emigration from West Africa to Europe 3
  4. 4. Research village Annual precipitation 445mm 4
  5. 5. Strong wind and rainfall : loss of topsoil and exposure of sedimentary layers = Land degradation Plant biomass is decreased and termite mounds are diminished because of a food shortage for termites. Previous ground level 5
  6. 6. Soil type: Arenosol [FAO 1971] sandy soil, poor soil nutrition mainly with quartz. This soil type spreads over Sahel from Mali to Lake Chad through Niger   6
  7. 7. People collect the waste from their house yards. Anti-desertification methods (2): waste input on the degraded land The waste includes l ivestock dung, plant residue,worn-out clothes and sandals etc. 7
  8. 8. They deposit urban waste on the degraded land of crop fields. They pile the organic matter, metal and plastic wastes to catch the blown sand. Blown sand 8
  9. 9. Chemical property of field, degraded land and urban waste pH Total N Total C C/N Exchange Cation cmol(+)/kg P H2 O N( % ) C( % ) Na K Ca (mg/kg) Rural Area pearl millet field (kasa) 6.4 0.01 0.12 12 0.01 0.04 0.4 8 degraded land ( foko ) 4.4 0.01 0.09 9 0.02 0.12 0.2 7 Urban Area Urban waste (jibuji) 7.4 0.17 2.27 13 0.75 0.31 37.4 365 Soil type kasa shows weak acidity and abundant soil nutrients. Nutrition accumulated in urban waste. In comparison with most fertile crop fields, urban waste contained 17 times of nitrogen, 8 times of potassium and 9 times of calcium, 46 times of phosphate 9
  10. 10. PLOT2 :  5kg/m2 PLOT3 :  10kg/m2 PLOT4 :  20kg/m2 PLOT5 :  45kg/m2 On site Experiment I made on site experimental plots and scattered the urban waste (2008). We continue to monitor the condition of soil and plant growth. 10
  11. 11. PLOT 2 :  5kg/m2 PLOT 3 :  10kg/m2 PLOT 4 :  20kg/m2 PLOT 5 :  45kg/m2 Aug, 2010 (2nd year) 11
  12. 12. PLOT 4   A new termite mound (Nov. 2009) Growing termite mound (Aug. 2010) Restarting biological process After urban waste input, we could see the termite activities on plot 2 through plot 5 and a termite mound had grown in plot 4. 12
  13. 13. PLOT 4 :  20kg/m2 PLOT 5 :  45kg/m2 Sep, 2018 (10th year) Based on my plant growth observations, the critical amount of urban waste for land restoration was at least 20 kg/m2 , 2 cm thick on the ground. My results indicated that Hausa practices helps to generate grassland and prevent soil erosion. 13
  14. 14. ■   the heaps of urban waste on the ground 1. catchment of the wind-blown sand and organic matter Eight Effects of urban waste input for land restoration 14
  15. 15. ■   biological activities of termite 2 . Termite bring up the small grain of clay and silt. They mixed up sand, silt and clay for improving the soil property.          3 . Termite drill the tunnels into the cemented ground and improve 15
  16. 16. ■   improving the soil chemical property 5. Urban waste are alkaline and neutralize the soil acidity of the degraded land 6. adding the nutrition of N, K, P and other nutrients ■   seed contained and germination 7. seed germination from urban waste and growth of useful plants ■ 8. plastic bags prevent water evaporation (suitable for termite) 16
  17. 17. Social Experiment: October 2011 Urban waste input 17
  18. 18. 18 In 2011, with the cooperation of local residents, I piled 150 tons (6cm thickness) of urban waste on a 50 × 50-m fenced plot of degraded land.
  19. 19. 19 Put soil and sand slightly on the urban waste   1cm thick sand on the urban waste
  20. 20. We herded livestock onto the rehabilitated land, and they fed on the grass within the fenced area. We continued to keep the animals within the fence even after all of the grass was consumed. The livestock dung maintained the soil quality. 20
  21. 21. We found 13 tree species germinating from the livestock dung and shrubs growing within the fenced area. They are useful tree species (livestock fodder, cooking dishes, famine relief foodstuff etc) ( a ) ( b ) ( c ) ( e ) ( d ) ( f ) (a) Balanites aegyptiaca (b) Borassus aethiopium (c) Piliostigma reticulatum (d) Zizyphus mauritiana (e) Adansonia digitata (baobab) (f) Faidaherbia albida Livestock can induce the land restoration suitable for pastoral camps. 21 Baobab tree
  22. 22. Seventh year (Sep 2018 ): Herders enjoy conversation in the tree shade during their livestock grazing. 22
  23. 23. 23 Expanding the sites Carrying urban waste from capital city, Niamey dump car   20 ton / time tractor    3.5ton / time 2015 Oct-2018 Sep three years 34 sites, 10.0 hectares 2,303 ton urban wastes
  24. 24. Cleaning the city, Hotel waterCollecting urban waste 1.1 million population (Niamey, 2015) Waste at urban center 24
  25. 25. 25 greening the land. (Minimizing the urban waste, maximizing the land resource)
  26. 26. 26 Cleaning the city, greening the land I aim to counter the popular belief that urban waste and livestock are destroying the land. In densely populated areas of Sahel, I propose that urban waste and livestock can instead be used to restore the degraded land. (City concentrates nutrition.) 2012 Feb 2018 Sep
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. 28

Mr Shuichi Oyama, Kyoto University, Japan. Global Symposium on Soil Erosion (GSER19), 15 - 17 May 2019 at FAO HQ.

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