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Exploiting salt affected soils and poor quality waters for food security in India

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Fifth Asian Soil Partnership workshop
26 February - 1 March 2019, New Delhi, India
Parbodh C. Sharma, ICAR - Central Soil Salinity Research Insititute, Karnal

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Exploiting salt affected soils and poor quality waters for food security in India

  1. 1. Exploiting Salt Affected Soils and Poor Quality Waters for Food Security in India Parbodh Chander Sharma Director ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal
  2. 2. Extent and distribution of salt affected soils in India Source: www.cssri.org • Globally, 810 million ha salt affected – (sodicity 434 m ha), salinity (376 m ha) • India- 6.73 m ha salt affected (sodic-3.77 m ha, saline 2.96 m ha) • 16.25 m ha by 2050 • 32-84% of ground water used for irrigation is either saline or brackish • 10 million ha of land lost each year because of salinity caused by irrigation (George E. Brown Jr. Salinity Lab, 2006)
  3. 3. State Saline Sodic Total Andhra Pradesh 77598 196609 274207 Andaman & Nicobar Island 77000 0 77000 Bihar 47301 105852 153153 Gujarat 1680570 541430 2222000 Haryana 49157 183399 232556 Karnataka 1893 148136 150029 Kerala 20000 0 20000 Madhya Pradesh 0 139720 139720 Maharashtra 184089 422670 606759 Orissa 147138 0 147138 Punjab 0 151717 151717 Rajasthan 195571 179371 374942 Tamil Nadu 13231 354784 368015 Uttar Pradesh 21989 1346971 1368960 West Bengal 441272 0 441272 Total 2956809 3770659 6727468 Projections by 2030 : 11.25 million ha State wise Area of Salt Affected Soils of India
  4. 4. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Haryana Bihar other States 7.55 2.11 0.60 0.50 0.42 Milliontonnes 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 8075 5150 655 506 264 106 259 ₹ Crores a) Annual production losses b) Annual monetary losses 11.18 million tonnes foodgrain loss and ₹ 15,000 crores economic loss State-wise Losses due to Alkalinity Source: CSSRI Tech. Bulletin, 5/2015 Contd…
  5. 5. ₹ Millions a) Annual production losses b) Annual monetary losses 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 2.70 0.92 0.89 0.40 0.20 0.17 0.14 0.12 0.10 Milliontonnes 5.66 million tonnes food grain loss ₹ 8,000 crores economic loss State-wise Losses due to Salinity Source: CSSRI Tech. Bulletin, 5/2015 Contd…
  6. 6. Increase of Area under SAS in last 20 Years Salt Affected Soils in Haryana in 1996: 2.3 lakh ha 2016: 3.1 lakh ha Haryana (1996) Haryana (2016) Saline: 0.5 lakh ha, Sodic : 1.8 lakh ha Saline : 1.4 lakh ha, Sodic : 1.7 lakh ha
  7. 7. Deterioration in Groundwater Quality 1975-79 2012-16Agra District (Inland) Prakasam (Coastal) Contd…
  8. 8. Distribution of salt affected soils in Haryana Sr. No. District Source Saline Soil (ha) Alakli Soil (ha) Total (ha) 1. Ambala Mandal et al. 2010 842 4222 5064 2. Bhiwani Sethi et al 2012 3005 12953 15958 3. Fatehabad CSSRI (2014-15) 4414 7200 11614 4. Faridabad CSSRI (2014-15) 7244 1393 8637 5. Gurgaon CSSRI (2014-15) 9314 0 9314 6. Hisar Mandal et al. 2010 33375 870 34245 7. Kaithal CSSRI (2013-14) 871 9812 10683 8. Karnal NRSA 2014 21 19162 19183 9. Kurukshetra NRSA 2014 0 15873 15873 10. Jind Sethi et al 2012 3170 8635 11805 11. Jhajjar Sethi et al 2012 33784 7762 41546 12. Mewat CSSRI (2014-15) 7532 1302 8834 13. Panipat NRSA 2014 0 7514 7514 14. Palwal CSSRI (2014-15) 5590 4443 10033 15. Rewari CSSRI (2014-15) 7293 0 7293 16. Rohtak Sethi et al 2012 21999 10634 32633 17. Sirsa Mandal et al. 2010 0 30311 30311 18. Sonepat NRSA 2014 6600 28477 35077 Total 145054 170563 315617
  9. 9. Sources of Salts in Soils Weathering of Minerals Saline and Shallow water table Flooding/ seepage Impeded Drainage conditions
  10. 10. Environmental Impact of Salinity Crumbling Buildings Patchy growth of crops Total loss of vegetation Complete failure of crops
  11. 11. Alkali Soils Barren alkali soils Black coloration due to dispersed organic matter Cracking and surface crusting of illitic soils
  12. 12. •In India, the coastal ecosystem covers an area of 10.78 m ha along 7517 km long coastline. •In coastal area 3.1 m ha is salt affected. •This region is traditionally disadvantaged and backward with low livelihood security of the people. Coastal salt affected area
  13. 13. Achievements: ICAR-CSSRI Gypsum technology for alkali soils Sub surface drainage technology for saline soils Reclaimed 2.07 million ha Reclaimed 70,000 ha • Additional Food Grain Production 16 million tonnes • Employment Generation 210 million mandays • Benefitting 10 million people
  14. 14. Gypsum technology for alkali soils • Net Present worth Rs 56,000/- ha; B:C ratio 1.52 • Internal rate of return 21.40%, Pay back period 3 years Cumulative area reclaimed : 20.7 lakh ha 1st year yields 4 t rice/ 2 t wheat 3rd year yields 5 t rice/ 4 t wheat • Additional Food Grain Production 16 million tonnes • Employment Generation 310 million mandays • Benefitting 10 million people
  15. 15.  Gypsum application in upper 15 cm soil depth  Nutreint management: requires 25% more nitrogen  Low infiltration rates  High evaporation leads to secondary salinization Alkali Soils management
  16. 16. • Land Reclamation Corporations • WB & EU to fund reclamation programmes in UP & Bihar • About 2.07 million ha of alkali land reclaimed • 15-16 million tonnes of paddy-wheat/ annum • 175 million mandays generated Impacts Blooming Sodic Soils
  17. 17. Sub surface drainage technology for saline soils Cumulative Area Reclaimed 70,084 ha • Additional Food Grain Production 6 lakh tonnes • Employment Generation 12 million mandays • Cost per hectare: Rs 1.11 lakhs 25-100 % improvement in cropping intensity Yield increase of 45% in rice, 111% in wheat and 215% in cotton
  18. 18. Management of Waterlogged Saline Soils Average increase in productivity: 45% (Paddy), 111% (Wheat), 215% (Cotton) • Generation of additional mandays - 128 man-days/ha/yr • Large scale adoption of technology in Haryana, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, AP
  19. 19. Installation of Sub-surface drainage system
  20. 20. State Wise Drainage Area Covered (*Under Implementation/ Approved Projects) Average increase in productivity: 45% (Paddy), 111% (Wheat), 215% (Cotton) Irrigation
  21. 21. Resource Inventories on Poor Quality Waters  Use of PQW in some states ranges from 32-84% of total groundwater use  Saline water use 20%  Sodic water use 37%  Saline sodic water use 43%
  22. 22. • Tolerance limits defined under different agro-ecological regions • About 3.2 M ha poor quality GW, out of 13.2 M ha total GW used for crop production. • Contributed in foodgrain production of around Rs. 800 crores generating significant employment & protecting environment Management of poor quality waters
  23. 23. Fluoride toxicity symptoms in humans and animals Emerging Water Quality Problems
  24. 24. Arsenic toxicity symptoms in humans
  25. 25. Auger holes by tractor mounted augers Afforestation in sodic land using auger hole technology Alternative land use system
  26. 26. Bio-saline agro-forestry for dry regions Aegel marmelos recorded highest fruit yield (3.78, 3.52 and 3.16 t ha-1) followed by Carissa carandas and Emblica officinalis in low, alternate and high salinity irrigations, respectively. The grain yield of companion crop mustard was more (1.72, 1.68 and 1.59 tha-1) in Emblica officinalis in comparison to that in Carissa carandas and Aegel marmelos. Prosopis alba with mustard-pearlmillet, barley- pearlmillet and Aloe vera agro-forestry system; performed well with low to moderately saline water.
  27. 27. Evaluation of Cactus and Prosopis for arid biosaline agro forestry  Increase in salinity from normal to 6.1 dSm-1 reduced number of cladodes and biomass by 29/28% without fertilizer, 22/23% with NPK and ~21% with NPK + FYM  Similarly decrease in number of cladodes and biomass with increasing alkalinity from 7.2 to 9.8 was 72/69, 73/70 and 68/72%, respectively  Prosopis juliflora followed by P. alba amd P. glandulosa recorded better growth and biomass potential  Polarding improved all growth parameters in all the three species over pruning and no pruning
  28. 28. Alternative land use system 1. More than 2 tones ha-1 of fruit yield was obtained by growing aonla after 6 years and karonda after 12 years of plantation Banana is a promising crop after 5-6 years of reclamation of sodic soils. Basil and matricaria are the promising crops in reclaimed sodic soils.
  29. 29. Rice – 10 No CSR 10, CSR 13 CSR 23, CSR 27 Basmati CSR 30, CSR 36, CSR 43, CSR 46, CSR 56, CSR 60 Wheat – 5 No KRL 1-4, KRL 19 KRL 210, KRL 213 KRL 283 Mustard - 5 No CS 52, CS 54 CS 56, CS 58 CS 60 • Breeder and Certified seed during last 5 years : >70 tonnes • Estimated Area covered by CSSRI varieties : > 8 lakh ha / year • Estimated production due to CSSRI varieties : > 9 lakh tonnes/ year Rice (Coastal salinity) - 3 Sumati, Bhutnath, Amal mana Chickpea - 1 Karnal Chana 1 Crop Improvement for Salinity, Alkalinity and Waterlogging Stresses
  30. 30. EC =22 EC =25
  31. 31. The aroma of basmati rice symbolizes the emotions and exuberance of Indian heritage. Basmati rice is generally unable to grow in salt affected lands. In its context Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, developed the first ever salt tolerant basmati rice variety CSR30. It takes about 155 days for maturity. It tolerates soil sodicity up to pH2 9.5 and salinity up to 7.0 dSm-1. This variety yields app 25 q /ha under stress situation. Basmati CSR 30
  32. 32. 1. Lunishree – NRRI Cuttack 2. Jarava – DRR Hyderabad 3. Vikas – HAU Haryana 4. Vyttila 1, Vyttila 2, Vyttila 3, Vyttila4, Vyttila 5, Vyttila 6, VTL 7, VTL 8, Ezhome-1 , Ezhome-3 , Amritha – KAU, Kerala 5. Panvel 1, Panvel 2, Panvel 3,- Panvel, Maharastra 6. MCM 1, - Machallipatanam, Andhra Pradesh 7. SR26B, Sonamani - Orissa 8. PVR-1,CO 43, ASD 16, TRY 1, TRY 2 – TNAU, Tamil Nadu 9. Dandi - Gujarat 10. Usar dhan 1, Narendra Usar dhan 2, Narendra Usar dhan 3 – Uttar Pradesh Released salt tolerant rice varieties in India
  33. 33. Land shaping techniques: •Improve rainwater harvesting and drainage for enhancing productivity of low lying degraded salt affected coastal land •Integrated cultivation of crops and fishes •Cultivation of multiple and diversified crops including stress tolerant rice, horticultural crops and their improved varieties for degraded saline Farm pond technique Paddy–cum-fish under agroforestry Deep furrow high ridge Integration of stress tolerant rice in farming system
  34. 34. Land shaping techniques: Overall impacts Implemented area 370 ha House hold involved 2000 nos. Enhancement of crop intensity of mono cropped land Up to 240 % Harvest of rain water for irrigation 1304500 m3 Employment generation (man days in 4 yr) Total: 511574 (Rs. 11.26 cores) Per ha: 1280 (Rs.2,81,600) Net Income generation Rs. 2-3 lakhs ha-1 (Sundarbans) Rs. 3-3.5 lakhs ha-1 (A&N Islands) Soil salinity reduction 40-65 % C sequestration 8700 t
  35. 35. How we can sustain the productivity?  By increasing yields per hectare while addressing the issue of water, labour and energy  by designing next generation cereal systems that are highly productive, resource efficient, sustainable, and adapted to the expected changes in environmental and socioeconomic drivers.  increasing profitability by changing land uses.
  36. 36. Resources status in NW India 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus Sulphur Potassium
  37. 37. Crop establishment method in different scenarios
  38. 38. Sowing of wheat in rice residue
  39. 39. Scenario 1 Scenario 4 Scenario 3 Scenario 2 Crop establishment in different scenarios
  40. 40. Precision N and water management in Rice at CSSRI- CIMMYT platform
  41. 41. Precision N and water management in Maize at CSSRI- CIMMYT platform
  42. 42. Scenario Systems Residue management Rice Wheat Productivity (Mg ha-1) Irrigation water (mm ha-1) Productivity (Mg ha-1) Irrigation water (mm ha-1) I- farmers practice Rice-wheat (CT/TPR) No residue 7.51 1890 5.47 408.7 II- partial CA based Rice-wheat- mungbean (TPR-ZT-ZT) Full (100%) rice & mungbean and anchored wheat 7.39 (-2) 1560 (- 17) 5.72 (5) 349.3 (-15) III- full CA based Rice-wheat- mungbean (ZT- ZT-ZT) Full (100%) rice and mungbean; anchored wheat 5.88 (-22) 1420 (- 25) 6.35 (16) 357.3 (-16) IV- full CA based Maize-wheat- mungbean (ZT- ZT-ZT) Maize (65%) and full mungbean and anchored wheat 8.20 (9) 110 (-88) 6.53(19) 336.7 (-18) V- full CA+ based with SSD Rice-wheat- mungbean (ZT- ZT-ZT) Full (100%) rice and mungbean; anchored wheat 6.21 (-17) 620 (-67) 6.79 (24) 187.5 (-54) VI- full CA+ based with SSD Maize-wheat- mungbean (ZT- ZT-ZT) Maize (65%) and full mungbean and anchored wheat 7.86 (5) 86 (-95) 6.76 (23) 171.6 (-58) *In parenthesis= % change from scenario 1 Yield, water use and energy input under different scenarios during 2016-17
  43. 43. Scenarios Residue load (t/ha) after six yrs Organic carbon (%) after six yrs Microbial biomass carbon (µg g-1 dry soil) Diversity Index (SW Div H) after 5 yrs Protein content (%) in wheat after 5 yrs 1 - 0.50 441 2.52 9.5 2 78.5 0.70 554 2.96 10.6 3 74.5 0.84 626 3.07 11.2 4 98.6 0.94 681 3.27 10.5 Effect of different CA based scenarios on soil properties and grain quality *Initial OC was 0.45%
  44. 44. Zero-tillage and residue retention as mulch reduce weeds and herbicide use in wheat) Conventional system (Puddled TPR fb CT wheat) CA-based system (ZT-DSR fb ZT wheat) Herbicides can be skipped in alternate year after 2 crop cycles of ZT with residue in wheat. ZT with full rice residue as mulch - Inhibit emergence - More predation - less seed production
  45. 45. Fertilizer Management Rice- after 4 years reduce the urea dose by 15-20% in Scenario 2 Wheat- after 4 year reduce the urea dose by 15-30 % in scenario 2, 3 and 4 Mungbean- No fertilizer application
  46. 46. Grain quality improved with CA ? Scenario Crop rotation Test Weight (kg/hl) Protein Content (%) Wet Gluten (%) I Rice-Wheat 72.6 9.5 21.5 II Rice-Wheat- Moongbean 77.0 10.6 (11) 23.9 III DSR-Wheat- Moongbean 74.1 11.2 (18) 25.4 IV Maize-Wheat- Moongbean 75.1 10.5 (10) 23.3 *Wheat quality measured after 6 years of continuous cultivation at RP Karnal *In parenthesis= % change from scenario 1
  47. 47. Laser land leveling Other Technologies Biodrainage Gravel 10-18 mm 1.25 m 1.25 m 1.25 mG.L. G.L. Surface channel Coarse sand Boulder 8 cm Plastic pipe Reducer 4” x 6” Reflux valve Bore well (250 mm ) Well pipe (blind PVC, 100 mm ) Gravel (10-18 mm ) Well pipe (perforated, 100 mm ) Synthetic PVC filter Well pipe (perforated, 175 mm  Working chamber 2 m  Brick masonary Pump Platform 6 m 3m 24 m 6 m 0.6 m 0.6 m 0.3 m 5 m Gravel (10-18 mm ) Gravel (5 mm ) Groundwater Recharge
  48. 48. Coastal region: Challenges for Agriculture Boro/Rabi/summer Aman/Kharif 80% fallow Fresh water scarcity & salinity Rabi rice -3 t/ha Deep water logging & drainage congestion Traditional kharif - 2 t/ha -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Waterdepth(cm) Soilsalinity(dS/m) Months Soil Salinity Water depth
  49. 49. Coastal area average rainfall is > 2000 mm
  50. 50. Multiple cropping with Deep Furrow and High Ridge LS Paddy-cum fish(kharif) & low water requiring crops (Rabi) Fish (kharif) Vegetables round the year
  51. 51. Kharif: Paddy-cum-fish Paddy (SR26 B) : 3.92 t ha-1 Indian major carps: 1.112 t ha-1
  52. 52. Management of waterlogged sodic/saline soils 2.2 million ha
  53. 53. Application and impact of CSR-BIO CSR-BIO Control Sodic soil Normal soil 35 44 20.45 25 32 21.8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Control Treated % increase Tomato Bhendi Yieldt/ 9 6 2 1.4 0 10 20 30 40 50 Treated Control Bhendi Wheat Yieldt

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