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Effect of local market access on diets consumption and nutitional indicators in ethiopia

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Effect of local market access on diets consumption and nutitional indicators in ethiopia

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Bart Minten, IFPRI
Expert consultation on trade and nutrition
15-16 November 2016, FAO Headquarters, Rome
http://www.fao.org/economic/est/est-events-new/tradenutrition/en/

Bart Minten, IFPRI
Expert consultation on trade and nutrition
15-16 November 2016, FAO Headquarters, Rome
http://www.fao.org/economic/est/est-events-new/tradenutrition/en/

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Effect of local market access on diets consumption and nutitional indicators in ethiopia

  1. 1. ETHIOPIAN DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH INSTITUTE Rural roads, welfare and nutrition David Stifel (Lafayette College) and Bart Minten (IFPRI) 1
  2. 2. Background • Average calorie consumption 9% higher in last decade • Poverty declined from 55% to 33% (1.9 USD per day) • Stunting of children reduced from 57% to 40% (2000 – 2014) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 2000 2005 2011 Kcal/day/adultequivalent cereals non-cereals
  3. 3. 3 Background • Important changes in Ethiopia in market access during that period 1996/1997 2010/2011
  4. 4. 4 The Question: What are the impacts of improved market access on household well-being and nutrition? To what can we attribute these impacts?
  5. 5. 5 Data • Sample area selected purposefully o Homogeneous region o Except for transport costs o Without a road • Households’ circumstances differ because of different transport costs… …not because of land characteristics, etc.
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. 7 Market Access – Transport Costs • Donkey costs (Birr/kg) o Cost of renting donkey o Weight donkey can carry • Economic transport costs o Include the opportunity cost of time
  8. 8. 8 Household Per Capita Consumption & Market Access 0 500 1000150020002500 Birr/person 0 20 40 60 80 Transport Cost (Birr/kg) Per Capita Household Consumption Food Non-Food
  9. 9. 9 Food Security 0 .1.2.3 Least Remote Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Most Remote Worry Not Enough Food in Past 30 Days 1-2 Times 3-10 Times 10+ Times
  10. 10. 10 Food Security 0 .1.2.3 Least Remote Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Most Remote Ate Fewer Meals in Past 30 Days 1-2 Times 3-10 Times 10+ Times 0 .1.2.3 PercentofHouseholds Least Remote Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Most Remote Ate Smaller Meals in Past 30 Days 1-2 Times 3-10 Times 10+ Times
  11. 11. 11 Dietary Diversity 0123456 0 20 40 60 80 Transport Cost (Birr/kg) All Household Members Chldren under age 5 Average Number of Food Groups in Household Diet
  12. 12. 12 Child Stunting-6-2 026 0 20 40 60 80 Transport Costs (Birr/Quintal) bandwidth = .8 Stunting: HAZ < -2 • 36 percent stunted • Statistically not different by remoteness
  13. 13. 13 What can explain the relationship between market access and wellbeing? 1. Agricultural Production 2. Terms of trade o Marketed surplus o Purchased consumption items
  14. 14. 14 Value of HH Agric Production 0 200040006000 Birr 0 20 40 60 80 Transport Cost (Birr/kg) Total Production Cereals Oilseeds Vegetables Despite similarities in land productivity…
  15. 15. 15 Household Marketed Surplus 0 200040006000 Birr 0 20 40 60 80 Transport Cost (Birr/kg) Total Production Marketed Surplus Own Consumption
  16. 16. 16 Household Food Consumption & Market Access 0 500 1000150020002500 Birr/person 0 20 40 60 80 Transport Cost (Birr/kg) Per Capita Food Consumption Purchased Own-Consumption
  17. 17. 17 Household Food Purchases 0 10002000300040005000 Birr 0 20 40 60 80 Transport Cost (Birr/kg) Total Food Purchases Meat Beverages Cereals Spices (incl salt & sugar)
  18. 18. 18 Nutrition knowledge and its impact on children’s dietary diversity
  19. 19. 19 Conclusions Households with greater market access have… • Greater consumption • More food security • Greater dietary diversity
  20. 20. 20 Conclusions These differences may be attributed to… • Greater agricultural production • Improved terms of trade that result in increased… o Marketed agricultural surplus o Purchased consumption goods
  21. 21. 21 Conclusions • But, no discernable effects on nutrition outcomes • Why? o Number of food groups low for all households o Food consumption alone is not enough to affect nutrition outcomes o Limited access to clean water, sanitation & healthcare throughout the survey area o Knowledge on nutrition impact, but more impact if closer to market

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