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Alarming loss of soil
carbon stores in the
Boreal forest zone in
Finland
Heikki Simola
Finnish Association of Nature Conse...
Starting point: Finnish IPCC reporting of the forest sector
net
sink
of
forestry
reported
at
~30 Mt
CO2-eq
0
peat soils (h...
THIS PRESENTATION:
Direct observation / chronosequence approaches
to soil carbon dynamics under human impact::
1.Forestry-...
Carbon stores of Finland
Liski et al. 2006), Liski & Westman 1997, Turunen 2008, Laturi et al 2008
peatlands
~ 6000
mill. ...
Carbon stores of Finland
Lähteet: Liski et al. 2006), Liski ja Westman 1997, Turunen 2008, Laturi et al 2008
peatbogs
~ 60...
Finnish peatlands
as C stores
and effects of
forestry drainage on
them;
Two research
approaches
Original peatland coverage:
Red = Ditch-drained
Blue and green = in natural condition
RAHESUO IN ILOMANTSI
Case A. Partially drained eccentric bog:
Rahesuo, Ilomantsi
ojitettu
luonnontilainen
Rahesuo, Ilomantsi, aerial photo, and sample pairs
from the natural and drained sides
Matching of sample pairs from undrained (left) and drained sides
Case B. Comparison of old (1980s) peat inventories
with to-day’s situation on the same sites
• 49 sites investigated by th...
Aumakankaansuo, old coring hole found by GPS!
Kaavi, Välisuo mire. Peat profile in 1982 (left), and at the same site in 2009 (right):
- compression of the peat layer: d...
Peat C balance in the 37 re-investigated mires
(loss = above, increase = below the 0-line);
shading =fertility class;
lowe...
BOLDLY EXTRAPOLATING:
average loss 160 g C m-2 yr-1
equalling 590 g CO2 m-2 yr-1
from the forestry-drained 5,7 mill hectar...
The natural C stores in Finland
Lähteet: Liski et al. 2006), Liski ja Westman 1997, Turunen 2008, Laturi et al 2008
peatbo...
Natural C reservoirs in Finland
Lähteet: Liski et al. 2006), Liski ja Westman 1997, Turunen 2008, Laturi et al 2008
suot
~...
Nature’s C stores in Finland
Lähteet: Liski et al. 2006), Liski ja Westman 1997, Turunen 2008, Laturi et al 2008
suot
~ 60...
Effects of soil tilling on the carbon store
of boreal podsol soils –
Nature reserves and adjacent
intensive forestry sites...
Fig. 1. Flow diagram of the Yasso07 model and the relative magnitudes of each mass flow between labile compund groups of
o...
4.1. Input and output information
The Yasso07-UI works with input information that is easily accessible in
practice. This ...
Critical question:
What is the real carbon balance of intensely managed
forestry land soils?
Critical question:
What is the real carbon balance of intensely managed
forest land podsol soils?
Research project:
Compar...
The Finnish experimantal settings:
1.”National park loggings”–nature reserve margins
Syöte National park …
2. Strip-felling forestry in Lapland
SOIL TREATMENT METHODS:
Deep ploughing
Harrowing/Disc trenching
Scarification
Stump removal
Fieldwork:
Sampling of the moor humus
layer with a 10 cm2 cylindrical
soil corer;
20 samples from the old-growth
forest, a...
20 samples/40
m
20 samples/40 m
NB
MB
SB
HB
Forest zones of Finland:
NB = northern boreal
MB = middle boreal
SB = southen boreal
HB = hemiboreal
Sampling ...
60
65
70
0100200300400
MB and NB sites
HB and SB siteselevation,m
60
65
70
0 100 200 300 400
M
HB
elevation, m
Nlatitude
L...
OM mass change, MB and NB sites
0 20 40 60
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
tilled
non-tilled
age, yr
OMchange,kgm-2
-1...
-4 -2 0 2 4
-4 -2 0 2 4
OM change, kg m-2
-6 -4 -2 0 2
-6 -4 -2 0 2
OM change, kg m-2
68
66
64
62
60
Soil OM change accord...
All zones, treatments > 10 yrs
non-tilling
harrow
ed
ploughed
-2.0
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0OMchange,kgm-2
n = 27 24 24
South and North Finland,
natural (old) vs. tilled forest soils
South,old
forestsoil
South,tilled
forestsoil
N
orth,old
for...
Concluding and critical
remarks:
Proposed correction for Finnish IPCC reporting
claimed
net
sink
of
forestry
0
peat soils
mineral soils (podsols)
Wood biom...
Proposed correction
claimed
net
sink
of
forestry
0
peat soils
mineral soils (podsols)
Wood biomass
podsol, 4Tg
+
histosol
...
Proposed correction
claimed
net
sink
of
forestry
0
peat soils
mineral soils (podsols)
Wood biomass
podsol+4Tg
Histosol
+33...
Critical conclusion
The boreal ecosystems are naturally C-neutral or
slowly C sequestering systems.
The Finnish forestry m...
Alarming loss of soil carbon stores in the Boreal forest zone in Finland
Alarming loss of soil carbon stores in the Boreal forest zone in Finland
Alarming loss of soil carbon stores in the Boreal forest zone in Finland
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Alarming loss of soil carbon stores in the Boreal forest zone in Finland

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This presentation was presented during the 3 Parallel session on Theme 3.1, Managing SOC in: Soils with high SOC – peatlands, permafrost, and black soils, of the Global Symposium on Soil Organic Carbon that took place in Rome 21-23 March 2017. The presentation was made by Mr. Heikki Simola, from Finnish Association for Nature Conservation - Finland, in FAO Hq, Rome

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Alarming loss of soil carbon stores in the Boreal forest zone in Finland

  1. 1. Alarming loss of soil carbon stores in the Boreal forest zone in Finland Heikki Simola Finnish Association of Nature Conservation FANC Univ Eastern Finland UEF, Dept Env & Biol Sciences FAO, GSOC17 Rome, March 2017
  2. 2. Starting point: Finnish IPCC reporting of the forest sector net sink of forestry reported at ~30 Mt CO2-eq 0 peat soils (histosols) mineral soils (podsols) Wood biomass
  3. 3. THIS PRESENTATION: Direct observation / chronosequence approaches to soil carbon dynamics under human impact:: 1.Forestry-drained peatland soils (histosols) 2.Tilled clearcuts on mineral ground (podsols)
  4. 4. Carbon stores of Finland Liski et al. 2006), Liski & Westman 1997, Turunen 2008, Laturi et al 2008 peatlands ~ 6000 mill. t C timber ~ 800 mill. t C forest floor (on mineral soils) ~ 1300 mill. t C sedimens ~ 650 milj. t C (mill t = megaton = Tg = teragram)
  5. 5. Carbon stores of Finland Lähteet: Liski et al. 2006), Liski ja Westman 1997, Turunen 2008, Laturi et al 2008 peatbogs ~ 6000 milj. t C trees ~ 800 milj. t C Forest soil (mineral grounds) ~ 1300 milj. t C Lake sediments ~ 650 milj. t C Atmosphere above Finland < 500 milj. t C = 500 Tg (milj t = megatonni = Tg = teragramma)
  6. 6. Finnish peatlands as C stores and effects of forestry drainage on them; Two research approaches
  7. 7. Original peatland coverage: Red = Ditch-drained Blue and green = in natural condition
  8. 8. RAHESUO IN ILOMANTSI Case A. Partially drained eccentric bog:
  9. 9. Rahesuo, Ilomantsi ojitettu luonnontilainen
  10. 10. Rahesuo, Ilomantsi, aerial photo, and sample pairs from the natural and drained sides
  11. 11. Matching of sample pairs from undrained (left) and drained sides
  12. 12. Case B. Comparison of old (1980s) peat inventories with to-day’s situation on the same sites • 49 sites investigated by the Geological Survey of Finland in the 1980s • Represent the range of natural and common peatland types in each region • Selection criteria for re-sampling sites: - the precise original coring point possible to find again - about 2 m peat layer on the site - drainage ditching of the site done before the Geol Survey study New samples from precisely the original spot (GPS) - volumetric coring - entire profile analysed in 10-cm sections .. .
  13. 13. Aumakankaansuo, old coring hole found by GPS!
  14. 14. Kaavi, Välisuo mire. Peat profile in 1982 (left), and at the same site in 2009 (right): - compression of the peat layer: decreased thickness, increased bulk density - considerable loss of total mass (166 kg m-2 in 1982; 125 kg m-2 in 2009) Turpeen massa: 166 kg/m Kaavi, Välisuo (ptk); turvemassat v. 1982 ja 2009 turpeen massa g/dm 3 Turpeen massa: 125 kg/m 2 2
  15. 15. Peat C balance in the 37 re-investigated mires (loss = above, increase = below the 0-line); shading =fertility class; lower panel = surface subsidence Average LOSS 160 g C m-2 yr-1 peat subsidence variable, but related to C loss
  16. 16. BOLDLY EXTRAPOLATING: average loss 160 g C m-2 yr-1 equalling 590 g CO2 m-2 yr-1 from the forestry-drained 5,7 mill hectares = total loss 9,1 Tg C yr-1 or 33 mill. tonnes CO2 per year
  17. 17. The natural C stores in Finland Lähteet: Liski et al. 2006), Liski ja Westman 1997, Turunen 2008, Laturi et al 2008 peatbogs ~ 6000 milj. t C trees ~ 800 milj. t C Forest soil (mineral grounds) ~ 1300 milj. t C Lake sediments ~ 650 milj. t C Atmosphere above Finland < 500 milj. t C = 500 Tg (milj t = megatonni = Tg = teragramma)
  18. 18. Natural C reservoirs in Finland Lähteet: Liski et al. 2006), Liski ja Westman 1997, Turunen 2008, Laturi et al 2008 suot ~ 6000 milj. t C puusto ~ 800 milj. t C metsämaa (kivennäismailla) ~ 1300 milj. t C järvisedimentit ~ 650 milj. t C Atmosphere above Finland < 500 milj. t C = 500 Tg (milj t = megatonni = Tg = teragramma) emission 9 Tg/yr = 2 % CO2 Per annum
  19. 19. Nature’s C stores in Finland Lähteet: Liski et al. 2006), Liski ja Westman 1997, Turunen 2008, Laturi et al 2008 suot ~ 6000 milj. t C puusto ~ 800 milj. t C metsämaa (kivennäismailla) ~ 1300 milj. t C järvisedimentit ~ 650 milj. t C Atmosphere above Finland < 500 milj. t C = 500 Tg (milj t = megatonni = Tg = teragramma) emission 9 Tg/v = 2 % CO2 Per annuum At an even rate the C store of drained peatlands (about 3000 Tg) would be totally evaporated in 300 years ?
  20. 20. Effects of soil tilling on the carbon store of boreal podsol soils – Nature reserves and adjacent intensive forestry sites as test fields
  21. 21. Fig. 1. Flow diagram of the Yasso07 model and the relative magnitudes of each mass flow between labile compund groups of organic carbon and more calcitrant humus; acid hydrolysables (A), water solubles (W), ethanol solubles (E), and compounds neither soluble n... M. Tuomi, J. Rasinmäki, A. Repo, P. Vanhala, J. Liski Soil carbon model Yasso07 graphical user interface ☆ Environmental Modelling & Software, Volume 26, Issue 11, 2011, 1358–1362 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.05.009 Finnish IPCC accounting of forest soil (podsol) C balance is modelled and calculated according to Yasso07-model
  22. 22. 4.1. Input and output information The Yasso07-UI works with input information that is easily accessible in practice. This information consists of: 1) the initial state of the soil in terms of the amount of ash free organic carbon in the soil and its chemical quality in terms of AWEN fractions; 2) the climatic conditions as monthly or annual precipitation and mean monthly or annual temperature; and 3) the estimated ash free organic carbon input into the soil in non-woody and woody litter, including the estimated size distribution of the woody litter – again in terms of the AWEN chemical fractions. … The lack of accurate information on the initial state of the simulated soils is not limiting because given some constant litter input to the soil, the software can be used calculate the long-term stationary state of the soil to be used as the initial state. … … making the assumption that the litter input to the soils in terms of amount of carbon is equal to the output
  23. 23. Critical question: What is the real carbon balance of intensely managed forestry land soils?
  24. 24. Critical question: What is the real carbon balance of intensely managed forest land podsol soils? Research project: Comparison of C stores of adjacent natural and managed forest sites
  25. 25. The Finnish experimantal settings: 1.”National park loggings”–nature reserve margins
  26. 26. Syöte National park …
  27. 27. 2. Strip-felling forestry in Lapland
  28. 28. SOIL TREATMENT METHODS: Deep ploughing Harrowing/Disc trenching Scarification Stump removal
  29. 29. Fieldwork: Sampling of the moor humus layer with a 10 cm2 cylindrical soil corer; 20 samples from the old-growth forest, and 20 samples from the adjacent logging; notification of: forest type, logging age, soil treatment, regeneration (seeded/planted), dominant species, fertilization, mineral soil, charcoal in soil, sloping of ground (N, S)
  30. 30. 20 samples/40 m 20 samples/40 m
  31. 31. NB MB SB HB Forest zones of Finland: NB = northern boreal MB = middle boreal SB = southen boreal HB = hemiboreal Sampling sites
  32. 32. 60 65 70 0100200300400 MB and NB sites HB and SB siteselevation,m 60 65 70 0 100 200 300 400 M HB elevation, m Nlatitude Latitude range: 59o 57’ – 68o 25’ Elevation range: 2 – 390 m a.s.l.
  33. 33. OM mass change, MB and NB sites 0 20 40 60 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 tilled non-tilled age, yr OMchange,kgm-2 -1.52 kg OM m-2 = Average loss of organic material at tilled sites >10 yr old Middle and Northern Boreal sites
  34. 34. -4 -2 0 2 4 -4 -2 0 2 4 OM change, kg m-2 -6 -4 -2 0 2 -6 -4 -2 0 2 OM change, kg m-2 68 66 64 62 60 Soil OM change according to latitude no soil treatment Tilled sites
  35. 35. All zones, treatments > 10 yrs non-tilling harrow ed ploughed -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0OMchange,kgm-2 n = 27 24 24
  36. 36. South and North Finland, natural (old) vs. tilled forest soils South,old forestsoil South,tilled forestsoil N orth,old forestsoil N orth,tilled forestsoil 0 2 4 6 8 10 OMinsoil,kgm-2 losses: 0.8 kg OM m-2 1.5 kg OM m-2
  37. 37. Concluding and critical remarks:
  38. 38. Proposed correction for Finnish IPCC reporting claimed net sink of forestry 0 peat soils mineral soils (podsols) Wood biomass
  39. 39. Proposed correction claimed net sink of forestry 0 peat soils mineral soils (podsols) Wood biomass podsol, 4Tg + histosol 33 Tg CO2-eq
  40. 40. Proposed correction claimed net sink of forestry 0 peat soils mineral soils (podsols) Wood biomass podsol+4Tg Histosol +33 Tg
  41. 41. Critical conclusion The boreal ecosystems are naturally C-neutral or slowly C sequestering systems. The Finnish forestry management has converted our forest and mire ecosystems into a considerable net source of C into the atmosphere for at least a period of several decades.

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