Democratic Transition

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Democratic Transition

  1. 1. Democratic Transition 1975-82
  2. 2. Transition & Consolidation <ul><li>Samuel Huntington </li></ul><ul><li>“ the third wave¨ </li></ul><ul><li>study of democratization in 1970´s </li></ul><ul><li>Standards for a Democratic Society </li></ul><ul><li>I. Universal Suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>II. Civil & Judicial rights </li></ul><ul><li>III. Free and competitive elections </li></ul>
  3. 3. Precursors to Transition <ul><li>Leftist Movements </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism- GRAPO & ETA </li></ul><ul><li>Carrero Blanco 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Change as Catalyst for change </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal´s Carnation Revolution 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>Western Democracies & Economic interests </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1975-76 <ul><li>November 20 th 1975. Death of Franco </li></ul><ul><li>Juan Carlos I- King of Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Adolfo Suarez July 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Objective: </li></ul><ul><li>Build a democratic state on Francoist Laws and Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Change: </li></ul><ul><li>From Above: Leaders and Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>From Below: Civil forces </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>1976 : Year of Strikes, Violence </li></ul><ul><li>1976: Political Reform Act </li></ul><ul><li>-included dissolution of parliament </li></ul><ul><li>-also passed in referendum </li></ul><ul><li>Year Anniversary of Franco´s death- </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nostaligicos” - Call for military to intervene </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1977 <ul><li>Legalization of Trade Unions and Communist Party </li></ul><ul><li>1 st elections in 41 years- June 16th- UCD wins </li></ul><ul><li>Moncloa Pacts-Economic pacts </li></ul><ul><li>between governmental forces and opposition </li></ul>
  7. 7. Consensus & Constitution <ul><li>Process of consensus: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pacto de Silencio” </li></ul><ul><li>Ruptura Pactada: Negotiates break with past </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution: 6 th of December 1978 -National referendum </li></ul><ul><li>PNV only political force that abstains from voting </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1979-81 <ul><li>1979: Elections post Constitution: </li></ul><ul><li>Lowered political participation </li></ul><ul><li>33% abstention compared to - 1977 22% abstention </li></ul><ul><li>1980 Autonomous community elections </li></ul><ul><li>-Basque country: PNV, HB, PSOE </li></ul><ul><li>-Catuluña: CIU, PSC-PSOE, PSUC </li></ul><ul><li>23 de Febrero 1981- Coup de État attempt </li></ul><ul><li>1982- PSOE wins absolute majority- 48% of votes </li></ul>

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