Crisis Of Restoration 1902 23 *

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Crisis Of Restoration 1902 23 *

  1. 1. Crisis of the Restoration 1902-23
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Monarchical intervention </li></ul><ul><li>-two party rotating system failing </li></ul><ul><li>-Regeneration post 1898 </li></ul><ul><li>Role of the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Role of the Military (military defense councils) </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial rebellion in Morocco 1909 </li></ul><ul><li>`Tragic week in Barcelona` </li></ul>
  3. 4. Political Forces <ul><li>Working Class movement </li></ul><ul><li>PSOE-1879 </li></ul><ul><li>PCE- 1921 </li></ul><ul><li>UGT 1888 (1920: 210,000 members) </li></ul><ul><li>Castilla, Asturias, and Basque country   </li></ul><ul><li>Anarcho-syndicalism : </li></ul><ul><li>CNT 1910 ( 1919: 700,000 members) </li></ul><ul><li>-largest workers movement </li></ul><ul><li>Cataluña, Valencia, Aragon and Andalusia </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Radical Republican Party </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative/ Populist </li></ul><ul><li>PNV- 1894 - Basques </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra-Conservative </li></ul><ul><li>Liga Regionalista 1901-Cataluña </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative and Christian Democrat </li></ul><ul><li>Partido Republicano Catalan 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Left wing & Progressive </li></ul>Republicanism & Regionalists
  5. 6. Important Issues <ul><li>Land reform & ‘Latifundios’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Caciquismo’ and Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialists and proletariat </li></ul><ul><li>Outdated political formula </li></ul>
  6. 7. Important Political Figures <ul><li>Jose Canalejas </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal-Democrat </li></ul><ul><li>- Social Reformist </li></ul><ul><li>1910-12 President of Council of Ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated by an anarchist in 1912 </li></ul><ul><li>Antonio Maura </li></ul><ul><li>-leader of Conservative party </li></ul><ul><li>-Reformer </li></ul><ul><li>1903-04 & 1907-09 </li></ul><ul><li>President of Council of Ministers </li></ul>
  7. 8. First World War 1914-19 <ul><li>Spain remains neutral but divided internally </li></ul><ul><li>vs. </li></ul><ul><li>1915-16: Entry of Portugal and Italy </li></ul><ul><li>1917: Russian Revolution </li></ul>Francophiles Germanophiles
  8. 9. Effects of the War <ul><li>Economic benefits of war: From trade deficit to profits </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven development: Bilbao & Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation and sky-rocketing prices </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialists & Workers </li></ul>
  9. 10. 1919-23 <ul><li>15 governments formed </li></ul><ul><li>Anarchist and Industrialist Militias </li></ul><ul><li>Rural unrest of landless peasants </li></ul><ul><li>1919: 403 strikes </li></ul><ul><li>1921: Moroccan Annual defeat </li></ul><ul><li>Political apathy & radicalization of poltical extremes </li></ul>

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