Exhibitionist #03 Alberto Cairo

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8 maggio 2013. Terzo incontro del ciclo Exhibitionist organizzato da Fondazione Fiera Milano @ Auditorium, Museo della Scienza e della Tecnologia, Milano. Alberto Cairo, professore della University of Miami, ci ha parlato di Infografica, l'arte di visualizzare informazioni

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Exhibitionist #03 Alberto Cairo

  1. 1. VISUALIZINGINFORMATIONThe six ideas at the coreof my design philosophyAlberto CairoUniversity of Miamiwww.thefunctionalart.comTwitter: @albertocairo
  2. 2. Even if I have experience doing and teaching infographics, I got worried...
  3. 3. WHAT AM IGOING TOTEACH THESEFOLKS INMILAN????????
  4. 4. Leonardo is everywhere!!!
  5. 5. Density Design - Politecnico di Milano
  6. 6. Giorgia Luppi - Accurat (Published in La Lettura, Corriere de la Sera)
  7. 7. Francesco Franchi
  8. 8. But after seeing all thesevery complex-lookingexamples, here’s whatperhaps I can teach:If you are not a designer,don’t be scared.Anybodycan learn to create(or at least plan for)information graphics
  9. 9. IDEA 1Information visualization doesn’tdepend on software, but on thinkingand planning, above all
  10. 10. Unemployment Rate (%)*CurrentHistorical maximum*WARNING: I made up the data for this graphic!Date RateHistorical minimumDate Rate
  11. 11. Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Wash. D.C. Florida0%3%6%9%12%15%October 2011 Historical Maximum Historical MinimumUnemployment Rate (%)*FUENTE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics*WARNING: I made up the data for this graphic!
  12. 12. IDEA 2Information graphics are not justart, but a form of communicationthat should respect journalisticstandards
  13. 13. Fernando Baptista - National Geographic Magazine
  14. 14. IDEA 3An infographic is a tool forunderstanding that can revealhidden truths
  15. 15. Graphics and glasses:With no glasses, the world is noise;with glasses, chaos becomes signal
  16. 16. http://revistaepoca.globo.com/diagrama/noticia/2011/09/confira-media-e-o-ranking-das-escolas-na-prova-do-enem-2010.html
  17. 17. IDEA 4Infographics are first aboutstructure and storytelling
  18. 18. AVERAGE +9.4%DIAGRAMNEWS IN PERSPECTIVEHow Brazil can take advantageof a future with fewer childrenper couple.Brazil’sDemographicOpportunityAlberto Cairo, Francine Lima,Marco Vergotti20001950250 million people2010 190,732,694169.799.170APRRACDFPAAMTOMTGOMSSCSEMARNROCEALESPBPIPESPPRMGRJBARS648,553425,398707,1252,469,4897,443,9043,350,7731,373,5512,954,6255,849,1052,404,2566,178,6032,036,2776,424,3403,121,4511,535,6258,180,0873,093,9943,392,7753,753,6333,086,4488,541,25039,924,09110,266,73719,159,26015,180,63613,633,96910,576,758477,032324,397557,5262,051,1466,192,3072,812,5571,157,0982,504,3535,003,2282,078,0015,356,3601,784,4755,651,4752,776,7821,379,7877,430,6612,822,6213,097,2323,443,8252,843,2787,918,34437,032,4039,563,45817,891,49414,391,28213,070,25010,187,798Change36.0%31.1%26.8%20.4%19.1%18.7%18.0%16.9%15.7%15.4%14.1%13.7%12.4%11.3%10.1%9.6%9.5%9.0%8.6%7.9%7.8%7.4%7.1%5.5%4.3%3.8%20.2%BRAZIL’S POPULATION IS BIGGER2000 2010—BUT THE FERTILITY RATE IS MUCH LOWER THAN EXPECTED AS A CONSEQUENCE, POPULATION WILL STOP GROWING—2030 2040 20501250—AND IT WILL BECOME OLDERForecast for 20502005Men Women2 1 0 1 275 years50302065Belowaverage12 34-9,4%-0,1%+9.4%+0.1%BelowAboveAverage12345678NIGERIACHINAÁfricaEuropeBRAZILAustraliaAsiaLatin AmericaNorth AmericaMillions of people per age groupNo dataavailableYearsPOPULATION CHANGEPRELIMINARY DATA FROM THE 2010 CENSUScreate an interesting picture of the changesthat the Brazilian population has gone throughin the past ten years. Brazil’s populationgrew, on average, 10% between 2000 and2010, but the fertility rate is below 2.1 childrenper woman, the minimum to keep apopulation from shrinking. According toCésar Marques, a demographer from theUniversity of Campinas, the main challengeBrazil will face in the future is how to maintaina healthy Social Security system if thenumber of older and retired people willlikely be much larger than it is today.Read on to learn about all the variables at playin this story.(DataupdatedonNovember4,2010)The map shows the change in populationin Brazilian municipalities. Between2000 and 2010, 1,630 cities and towns,from a total of 5,506, lost population. RioGrande do Sul is the state with a the largestnumber of municipalities that lost inhabitants,due to a significant drop in fertility ratesand domestic migrationAboveaverageThe 2010 Census has revealed a 9.4%population increase between2000 and 2010. The differences betweenstates, as you can see on the charton the right, are noticeable. Most richstates, such as São Paulo and Rio, didn’tgrow as fast as the ones in the north east.Sources: IBGE, UN, World Bank, César Marques (UNICAMP)HowBrazilcantransformthepopulationchallengeintoanopportunityAs the population ages, the proportion of people of working age increases.The country will therefore have more people producing wealth (if the labormarket can absorb them) and fewer children to consume investments. It is awindow of opportunity, because in some cases the number of people ofworking age to fall back when older people are leaving the market.The population under 15 years of age is falling today. A smaller number ofstudent in public schools will facilitate the quality of teaching, if the amountinvested in education stays the same.Educational policy focused on low-income youth favors the formation of moreskilled workforce and greater social mobility.In the future, Brazil will reach the stage of Europe and Japan, which struggleto support their elders. This is why it’s so important to prepare a more balancedretirement system, which will include retirement at a later age.Each linerepresentsa countryor continentA study in 2004 estimated that in 2010, the fertility rate would be 2.4 childrenper woman, on average. But new data collected by the IBGE prove thatthe fertility rate is already 1.9, below the threshold called “replacement rate”.When the fertility rate drops below this number, the population of a countrywill eventually start to shrink and grow older.Forecasts made in 2004 anticipated that Brazil’s populationwould stop growing in 2040. But the most recent data fromthe IBGE suggests that this could happen much earler, in 2030.New populationpeak: momentwhen populationwill stop growingFormer populationpeak (calculatedin 2004)YEMENWORLDAVERAGEINDIANumber of childrenper womanReplacementlevel: average of2.1 children per womanComparing the currentpopulation pyramid with theone predicted for 2050
  19. 19. AVERAGE +9.4%DIAGRAMNEWS IN PERSPECTIVEHow Brazil can take advantageof a future with fewer childrenper couple.Brazil’sDemographicOpportunityAlberto Cairo, Francine Lima,Marco Vergotti20001950250 million people2010 190,732,694169.799.170APRRACDFPAAMTOMTGOMSSCSEMARNROCEALESPBPIPESPPRMGRJBARS648,553425,398707,1252,469,4897,443,9043,350,7731,373,5512,954,6255,849,1052,404,2566,178,6032,036,2776,424,3403,121,4511,535,6258,180,0873,093,9943,392,7753,753,6333,086,4488,541,25039,924,09110,266,73719,159,26015,180,63613,633,96910,576,758477,032324,397557,5262,051,1466,192,3072,812,5571,157,0982,504,3535,003,2282,078,0015,356,3601,784,4755,651,4752,776,7821,379,7877,430,6612,822,6213,097,2323,443,8252,843,2787,918,34437,032,4039,563,45817,891,49414,391,28213,070,25010,187,798Change36.0%31.1%26.8%20.4%19.1%18.7%18.0%16.9%15.7%15.4%14.1%13.7%12.4%11.3%10.1%9.6%9.5%9.0%8.6%7.9%7.8%7.4%7.1%5.5%4.3%3.8%20.2%BRAZIL’S POPULATION IS BIGGER2000 2010—BUT THE FERTILITY RATE IS MUCH LOWER THAN EXPECTED AS A CONSEQUENCE, POPULATION WILL STOP GROWING—2030 2040 20501250—AND IT WILL BECOME OLDERForecast for 20502005Men Women2 1 0 1 275 years50302065Belowaverage12 34-9,4%-0,1%+9.4%+0.1%BelowAboveAverage12345678NIGERIACHINAÁfricaEuropeBRAZILAustraliaAsiaLatin AmericaNorth AmericaMillions of people per age groupNo dataavailableYearsPOPULATION CHANGEPRELIMINARY DATA FROM THE 2010 CENSUScreate an interesting picture of the changesthat the Brazilian population has gone throughin the past ten years. Brazil’s populationgrew, on average, 10% between 2000 and2010, but the fertility rate is below 2.1 childrenper woman, the minimum to keep apopulation from shrinking. According toCésar Marques, a demographer from theUniversity of Campinas, the main challengeBrazil will face in the future is how to maintaina healthy Social Security system if thenumber of older and retired people willlikely be much larger than it is today.Read on to learn about all the variables at playin this story.(DataupdatedonNovember4,2010)The map shows the change in populationin Brazilian municipalities. Between2000 and 2010, 1,630 cities and towns,from a total of 5,506, lost population. RioGrande do Sul is the state with a the largestnumber of municipalities that lost inhabitants,due to a significant drop in fertility ratesand domestic migrationAboveaverageThe 2010 Census has revealed a 9.4%population increase between2000 and 2010. The differences betweenstates, as you can see on the charton the right, are noticeable. Most richstates, such as São Paulo and Rio, didn’tgrow as fast as the ones in the north east.Sources: IBGE, UN, World Bank, César Marques (UNICAMP)HowBrazilcantransformthepopulationchallengeintoanopportunityAs the population ages, the proportion of people of working age increases.The country will therefore have more people producing wealth (if the labormarket can absorb them) and fewer children to consume investments. It is awindow of opportunity, because in some cases the number of people ofworking age to fall back when older people are leaving the market.The population under 15 years of age is falling today. A smaller number ofstudent in public schools will facilitate the quality of teaching, if the amountinvested in education stays the same.Educational policy focused on low-income youth favors the formation of moreskilled workforce and greater social mobility.In the future, Brazil will reach the stage of Europe and Japan, which struggleto support their elders. This is why it’s so important to prepare a more balancedretirement system, which will include retirement at a later age.Each linerepresentsa countryor continentA study in 2004 estimated that in 2010, the fertility rate would be 2.4 childrenper woman, on average. But new data collected by the IBGE prove thatthe fertility rate is already 1.9, below the threshold called “replacement rate”.When the fertility rate drops below this number, the population of a countrywill eventually start to shrink and grow older.Forecasts made in 2004 anticipated that Brazil’s populationwould stop growing in 2040. But the most recent data fromthe IBGE suggests that this could happen much earler, in 2030.New populationpeak: momentwhen populationwill stop growingFormer populationpeak (calculatedin 2004)YEMENWORLDAVERAGEINDIANumber of childrenper womanReplacementlevel: average of2.1 children per womanComparing the currentpopulation pyramid with theone predicted for 2050
  20. 20. IDEA 5Infographics canempower citizens
  21. 21. 513 representatives
  22. 22. http://revistaepoca.globo.com/diagrama/noticia/2011/10/diagrama-298-anos-de-falacao.html
  23. 23. IDEA 6We need help.There’s a wholeworld of opportunities to explore
  24. 24. The Master of Clay Takes Aim at the Fast Courts
  25. 25. Howard Brody - Penn State University
  26. 26. http:elections.nyti
  27. 27. http:elections.nyti
  28. 28. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2007/08/25/sports/tennis/20070827_NADAL_GRAPHIC.html http:elections.nyti
  29. 29. Information, research, planning, structure, and storytellingcome first. Learning the software comes laterThis matters... ...but this matters even more
  30. 30. Thank you!Alberto CairoUniversity of Miamiwww.thefunctionalart.comTwitter: @albertocairo

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