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Internationalization
I18n
Ewa Barczykowska
i18n? L10n? g11n?
• Internationalization – design so that it can be adapted
• Localization – translate and adapt designed ...
Internationalization
Internationalization – process of designing software that can be
potentially adapted to various langu...
Design aspects to consider when doing
internationalization of a product:
• User interaction (how a user will be interactin...
Design aspects to consider when doing
internationalization of a product – ctn.:
• Are icons, bitmaps, screens, dialog boxe...
Fake language testing
• Helps simulating the functionality of the product for different
language, using software translato...
Fake language testing objectives
• Software functionality is tested for European single-byte language
(Pig Latin)
• Softwa...
Localization
Localization - process of adapting computer software to different
languages and regional differences
Localization
This most time-consuming and expensive part is. Localization may
include:
• Subtitles or dubbing for video, v...
Localization – cnt.:
• Writing direction (left-to write, right-to-left), for example Arabic language is
written from right...
c
National conventions, e.g. Between US and
Europe
• Paper size
• Telephone formats
• Postal address format, postal codes
• ...
Legal compliance
• Disclaimers required
• Different consumer labelling requirements
• Regulations on encryption
• Complian...
Differences in culture:
• Local holidays
• Personal name and title conventions, honorific, prefix, suffix
• Aesthetics
• C...
Top 10 translation errors – example data
Expansion of text - English versus other
languages. How much space do we need?
Layout defect:
Name conventions defect/enhancement:
Concatenation defect:
Tooltip not translated:
Concatenation:
Translation:
Display problem/Translation:
Part of the phrase is displayed in English,
hard-coding:
Layout problem in Korean:
Translation, context related error:
Corrupted character:
Questions?
Thank you!
References:
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internationalization_and_localization
• Ibrahim Mehru, Globalization Verificat...
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Introduction to Internationalization

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Introduction to Internationalization

  1. 1. Internationalization I18n Ewa Barczykowska
  2. 2. i18n? L10n? g11n? • Internationalization – design so that it can be adapted • Localization – translate and adapt designed software to specific region or language • Globalization - (internationalization + localization)
  3. 3. Internationalization Internationalization – process of designing software that can be potentially adapted to various languages and regions without engineering changes
  4. 4. Design aspects to consider when doing internationalization of a product: • User interaction (how a user will be interacting with your product) • Currency is hard coded? • Data formats are hard-coded?(01/12/2016 or 12/01/2016?) • Fixed length GUI screens or dialog boxes, read-and-print messages? • ASCII code or character constraints? • Slang? Technical jargon? • String operations like concatenation or substring search is present? • Diagrams and images have embedded translatable text?
  5. 5. Design aspects to consider when doing internationalization of a product – ctn.: • Are icons, bitmaps, screens, dialog boxes are separated from the code and stored in resource files? • If the code uses scrolling of text – do the screens/dialogs allow for provisions for direction change in scrolling such as top to bottom, right to left, bottom to top, left to right? Arabic vs. English
  6. 6. Fake language testing • Helps simulating the functionality of the product for different language, using software translators. Pig Latin (single-byte fake language) Wide Latin (double-byte fake language) RPx mutator
  7. 7. Fake language testing objectives • Software functionality is tested for European single-byte language (Pig Latin) • Software functionality is tested for double-byte language (Wide Roman) • Ensure all strings are displayed properly on the screen • Ensure that screen width, size of pop-ups, and dialog boxes are adequate for string display with the fake languages
  8. 8. Localization Localization - process of adapting computer software to different languages and regional differences
  9. 9. Localization This most time-consuming and expensive part is. Localization may include: • Subtitles or dubbing for video, voice-over • Altering images that contain text to contain text or generic icons • Different translation length and different character size (Chinese, Korean, Japanese) can cause layout problems • Portuguese, Brazilian Portuguese • Formatting of numbers or date and time format (thousand is 1.000 or 1,000?)
  10. 10. Localization – cnt.: • Writing direction (left-to write, right-to-left), for example Arabic language is written from right to left, unlike English. Display problems might ensue • Different characters/set of letters, i.e. वह, ńźŁę, äöüß • Complex text layout where characters change shape according to context • Capitalization • Different numeral systems • Different pluralization rules may complicate programs that dynamically display numerical content • Different punctuation, e.g. “” in English and <<>> in French • Keyboard shortcuts
  11. 11. c
  12. 12. National conventions, e.g. Between US and Europe • Paper size • Telephone formats • Postal address format, postal codes • Currency symbols and their position • Systems of measurements • Battery sizes • Voltage and current standards
  13. 13. Legal compliance • Disclaimers required • Different consumer labelling requirements • Regulations on encryption • Compliance with internet censorship • Requirements for accessibility • Collecting different taxes/custom duties • Government assigned numbers have different formats
  14. 14. Differences in culture: • Local holidays • Personal name and title conventions, honorific, prefix, suffix • Aesthetics • Colour symbolism • Ethnicity, clothing and architecture of locations pictured • Local customs and conventions (taboos, blood type superstitions in Japanese culture, local religions, astrological signs)
  15. 15. Top 10 translation errors – example data
  16. 16. Expansion of text - English versus other languages. How much space do we need?
  17. 17. Layout defect:
  18. 18. Name conventions defect/enhancement:
  19. 19. Concatenation defect:
  20. 20. Tooltip not translated:
  21. 21. Concatenation:
  22. 22. Translation:
  23. 23. Display problem/Translation:
  24. 24. Part of the phrase is displayed in English, hard-coding:
  25. 25. Layout problem in Korean:
  26. 26. Translation, context related error:
  27. 27. Corrupted character:
  28. 28. Questions? Thank you!
  29. 29. References: • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internationalization_and_localization • Ibrahim Mehru, Globalization Verification Test (GVT) and IBM Pseudo Translator (RPX), IBM, Globalization Centre of Competency, Toronto, Cannada • Srinivasan Desikan, Gopalaswamy Ramesh, Software Testing Principles and Practices, Pearson, 2014, p.211-227

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