Sensors Expo 2013: Condition Based Maintenance, Evigia Systems


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High level overview of Condition-Based Maintenance, Machine Health Monitoring and Prognostic Maintenance. Presented at Sensors Expo, 2013 by Dr. Navid Yazdi

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Sensors Expo 2013: Condition Based Maintenance, Evigia Systems

  1. 1. Integrated Wireless Multi-Sensor System for Machine Health and Condition-Based Maintenance Dr. Navid Yazdi CEO, Evigia Systems, Inc.
  2. 2. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) Reactive maintenance Preventive Maintenance Degradation / Alarm-Based Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Maintenance Strategies CBM utilizes information about the present degradation in conditions and performance, and their projected evolution to minimize the downtime.
  3. 3. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Condition Based Maintenance • CBM Goals:  Automated Fault Diagnosis & Fault Isolation  Determine Remaining Useful Life of the system  Enhance predictability and productivity  Improve operation profitability sensors Feature Extraction Classification Diagnostics Prognostics Actionable Information CBM System Components & Information Flow
  4. 4. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Machine Prognosis Approaches • Model-Driven – Employ the system physics model or simulations under normal & degraded conditions • Data-Driven – Pattern recognition & machine learning applied to monitored system data – Detect changes, devise trajectory and estimate RUL • Hybrid Prognosis Accuracy Increase # of Sensors & Types Sensor Data Fusion Customized Data Processing
  5. 5. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Advanced CBM – Benefits • Improved reliability & safety • Reduced downtime • Synchronized maintenance • Near-optimal parts logistics • Reduced life-cycle costs • Increased profitability
  6. 6. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Advanced CBM – Challenges • Cost!! – Adding embedded sensors, wiring, instrumentation – Customization of algorithms • Sensors disruption of process or affect performance • CBM sensors reliability – Accuracy over long-term – Additional failure points & maintenance Operations apply preventive, CBM , and reactive maintenance Wireless multi-sensor nodes shift balance to CBM across a larger set
  7. 7. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Wireless Multi-Sensor Node • Flexible and cost effective network • Distributed & large-scale sensing • Less disruptive and easier to embed • Retrofit existing equipment • Reduced size, weight, power and cost • Energy harvesting combined with improved sensor node energy efficiency • Improved link reliability in industrial environments – ISO18000-7 low-data rate apps with robust link and low interference – Variations of IEEE 802.15.4 PHY including ISA100.11, WirelessHART Millimeter scale energy harvester Courtesy: Univ Michigan-E. Aktakka, K. Najafi Evigia RFID-pressure-temperature sensor
  8. 8. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems CBM Sensors Gather high-reliability & accurate in-situ information Sensor Functions Environment Structural characteristics Dynamics Performance Monitoring Oil quality & corrosion Sense Parameters Temperature, vibration, shock, pressure, acoustic levels, strain, stress, voltage, current, humidity levels, contaminant concentration, usage frequency, usage severity, usage time, power, heat dissipation, corrosion, oil quality Sensor Data Features Magnitude, variation, peak level, and rate of change Sensor Precision Initial specs, calibration, low-drift, multi- sensor data fusion
  9. 9. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems CBM Sensor Example: Chilled-Water System Source: Secy. to CME/WCR/JBP, 2006 - Parameter Purpose Water Flow Rate Chiller water flow Diff. Temperature Heat transfer, tube fouling Diff. Pressure across Pump & Evaporator Track pump performance, Chiller tube conditions Motor Current Motor conditions Vibrations Condition of pump & structures Oil condition & wear particle analysis Lubricant, gears, Thermography scan Motor control & electronics Wall-thickness ultrasound Corrosion & erosion check Eddy current test Locate leaking tubes Airborne ultrasonic Air leak
  10. 10. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems CH 53-K Chopper CBM • NAVAIR state-of-the-art heavy lift chopper by Sikorsky (UT) • Increased complexity while require increased reliability and longer maintenance cycle • Light-weight and efficient (Low SWaP+C) • CBM Requirements: – Local & global structural damage detection – Loads monitoring – Environmental monitoring – Fleet Management
  11. 11. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Multi-Sensor Node: Baseline Technology • 10’s-100’s discrete components including sensors assembled at board level – Larger size (inches) – Higher Cost ($10’s-100’s) – Larger power dissipation & shorter battery life ( months)
  12. 12. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Requirements and Challenges • Embedded multi-sensors and equipment condition monitoring – 5-10x smaller size & cost • Multiple sensors – Strain, Temperature, Vibration, Shock/Mechanical sensors, Humidity • Size < 0.5 cubic inches • Weight < 0.5oz • Energy efficient < 300μW • Cost $5-20 • Standard based rugged wireless data link
  13. 13. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Solution • Chip-scale multi-sensor prognostic sensor system – Integration of energy efficient sensors and electronics on chip – Mass-volume manufacturing technologies Sensor Interface & Control Circuitry Digital Interface Bus Digital Memory SPI/I2C Serial Interface Sensor Event Management & Real-Time Clock IC-MEMS Micropackaged Prognostic Sensor Chip Shock/Acceleration Sensor Strain Sensor Vibration Sensor Temperature Sensor Low-powerICs MEMS Sensors Wafer-Level Micropackaging
  14. 14. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Features, Advantages, Benefits Feature Advantage Benefit Multiple sensors (Strain, Vibration, Temperature, Shock) Multiple condition parameters Provide full suite of parameters Compact size (<0.5 cubic inches) Reduces size by 10x Enable embedding of the prognostic sensor in equipment Light weight (< 0.5 ounces) Reduces weight by 10x Enable embedding of the prognostic sensor in equipment Energy-efficient (20-300 micro watts average depending on mode of operation) Reduces power draw Extend module power up option, Extend battery life Manageable cost ($5 to $20, vary by sensor mix) Reducing cost by 10-50x Cost savings; Broaden usage in submodules and systems Optional Wireless link compatible with the DoD infrastructure Ease of integration in military systems Leverage from the installed infrastructure; Reduce the installation and operation costs
  15. 15. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Prognostic Sensor Microsystem Temperature Sensor Wired Serial Data Interface Humidity Sensor Strain Sensor Vibration Sensor Event-Management And Logic Control Memory M U X Shock Sensor Capacitance Readout and ADC Wireless Data Link Prognostic Sensor Module Prognostic Chip PMSC-A Flash Card Memory 1Gb+ • Strain-Vibration-Shock-Temperature sensors with wireless data link • Target military rotary wing aircraft (CH-53), and other defense and industrial equipment prognostics applications
  16. 16. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Multi-Sensor Wafer Shock Sensor Strain Sensor Vibration Sensor
  17. 17. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Sensor Specifications Sensor Range Resolution Accuracy Strain 1-1000µε 1µε 1% of full-scale Vibration ±10g 50mg 2% of full-scale Shock/Impact 50g-800g depends on the array design 5% of shock switch threshold Temperature -55 ºC to 85ºC 0.1 ºC 0.5ºC Humidity 0% to 100% RH 0.1%RH 3%RH
  18. 18. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Prognostic Sensor ASIC Evigia Multi-Sensor Prognostics ASIC
  19. 19. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Specifications Sensor Sensor types supported Low bandwidth: temperature, strain, shock; High-bandwidth: Vibration Sensor integration 4 shock, 1 strain, 1 vibration, temperature External Sensor Support 11 shock, 1 strain, 2 vibration Memory Internal EEPROM Size 16 kbit (167 to 375 low-bandwidth sensor events) External Flash Supported 2 Gbits (> 44 million low-bandwidth sensor events, 134 million vibration sensor samples [70 minutes total]) External Flash Interface Serial (SPI) , 2 master SPI flash memory interfaces Timing Input Clocks 32kHz RTC Length 17 years RTC Resolution 30 bits Performance ADC Resolution 11-bit Sampling rate Low-power mode: 0.125Sec-4hrs Vibration Active: Up to 10kSPS Digital Interface Communications Interface 4-wire SPI slave Supply Voltage 2.5V - 3.3V Current Low-power mode (@3.3V): <30µA Instantaneous Sensors , On-Chip NVM <320µA Instantaneous , Average : 1 sample per minute: <2µA Vibration Active: <100µA not including external flash memory Battery Life [500mAHr cell] >25 years in low-power mode , 1 Samp/min (not including self-discharge)
  20. 20. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Development and Deployment • Energy-efficient integrated strain sensor, vibration sensor, and 3-axis mechanical shock sensor are complete • Manufacturing process being qualified (MRL4) • Sensor & electronics IC rev 1 (TRL5) • Single chip sensor-electronics Q1’14 (TRL 6) • Module with wireless link Q2’14 (TRL6)
  21. 21. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems CBM Case Study: Army TACOM Condition Based Maintenance Plus, Return on Investment Analysis Ken Fischer (01/12/11) US Army RDECOM-TARDEC • Army TACOM Life Cycle Management Center is responsible for the sustainment of all ground vehicle platforms and supporting equipment. • CBM+ Initiative to transition military from traditional reactionary and time-based preventative maintenance to deliver maintenance only upon evidence of need (CBM). • CBM+ potential savings in: – Reduction in direct costs of part replacement and associated maintenance labor costs – Reduction in inspection times, reduced logistic down times, and ability to change the level of repair for diagnosable failure modes – Reduction in maintenance costs due to reduced mean time to repair (MTTR) – Reduced mean logistics down time (MLDT) due to improved forecasting and advanced reporting of impending failures – Savings from logistics efficiencies as repair parts are better staged where most needed. HEMTT Heavy Transport Introduced 1982 13,000 Vehicles currently in service Operations & Support (O&S) costs account for 60% – 80% of the total lifetime cost for military platforms.
  22. 22. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems CBM Case Study: Army TACOM Condition Based Maintenance Plus, Return on Investment Analysis Ken Fischer (01/12/11) US Army RDECOM-TARDEC • Sensor data acquisition system for engine, transmission, tires and batteries – $15k estimated per vehicle for “enabling technologies” of sensors, data acquisition/processing and infrastructure This initial TACOM CBM study identified $26M in potential cost savings (direct and avoided costs) for an analysis of 1045 vehicles • DoD is looking for COTS solutions for Wireless Diagnostic Sensors (WDS) to support this activity • Lowering the costs of the enabling sensor technologies will have a significant ROI impact when implementing a CBM initiative over a large number of vehicle systems
  23. 23. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems CBM Case Study: Army AMCOM AMCOM Condition Based Maintenance, AMC CBM Summit 7/18/08 US Army AMCOM, Gary Nenninger • CBM Digital Source Collection (DSC) system for rotor aircraft, monitors 50+ sensor inputs – UH-60, AH-64, CH-47 Aircraft outfitted with DSC sensors and communications – Monitoring rotor characteristics, engine health, drive train health, structural health and exceedance (over-temp, over-torque, etc.) conditions • Sensor weight, connectivity, and robustness are major concerns in implementation – Current CH-47 DSC sensor infrastructure is > 45 pounds
  24. 24. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems CBM Case Study: Army AMCOM AMCOM Condition Based Maintenance, AMC CBM Summit 7/18/08 US Army AMCOM, Gary Nenninger • Results of AMCOM one-year CBM implementation (350 aircraft deploying DSC system): – Significant savings of >11,000 maintenance (MMF) and ~1,300 test flight (MTF) hours – Extended component life and improved confidence in reliability – An estimated $101M in one-year direct and indirect cost savings – Improved mission readiness and hours flown, adding more available aircraft to operations 5% increase in Fully Mission Capable (FMC) status is equivalent of 1.5 more aircraft. 1,431 increased Hours Flown is equivalent of 2 additional aircraft at OPTEMPO MMH: Maintenance Man-Hours MTF: Maintenance Test Flight AMCOM One-Year CBM Implementation ~ $101M in savings from CBM trial Impact of equipping aircraft with DSCs
  25. 25. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems CBM Case Study: Army AMCOM AMCOM Condition Based Maintenance, AMC CBM Summit 7/18/08 US Army AMCOM, Gary Nenninger • True benefits: avoidance of catastrophic component failure leading to loss of life and aircraft – Impending failure of specific AH-64 rotor bearing identified via CBM data, confirmed on teardown 2 Pilots saved $16M aircraft saved
  26. 26. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Prognostics Case Study: Caterpillar Multi-sensor Equipment Health Diagnosis And Prognosis European Journal of Operational Research, 2007 • Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) study, analyzing health-state probability to predict the useful remaining life of Caterpillar hydraulic pump components. • Diagnostics is the assessment of the current and past health of a system based on observed symptoms, and prognostics is a predictive assessment of the future health • Uses novel multi-sensor fusion approach to adjust the weight or importance assigned to any sensor in the PHM analysis, yielding multi-dimensional model for PHM predictions – Temperature, vibration, oil particle count sensors Advances in networked multi- sensor technology enable corresponding advances in applications of diagnostics and prognostic health management • Multiple sensors may have cooperative, complimentary or competitive predictive qualities, PHM studies can take advantage of multi-sensor characteristics • Weighted multi-sensor fusion approach shows accuracy of PHM predictions was increased by 18.5% over single- dimensional model for Caterpillar 9J5082 Multiple hydraulic pumps and drive engine on test stand
  27. 27. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems Case Study: Nuclear Material Storage • Hazardous material transport and storage presents a significant maintenance challenge – Nuclear and radioactive materials, hazardous waste products, corrosive or toxic chemicals, volatile bulk process ingredients • CBM enabled by custom container-mounted multi-sensors to monitor transit/storage location, seal breakage, package impact, temperature, humidity, radiation levels, and presence of gases and certain biological elements Annual inspection and monitoring direct cost savings of over $2,000 per container • CBM system lowers life-cycle management costs, reduces the requirements for manned surveillance and inspection, minimizes the potential hazardous exposure for plant personnel, and extends maintenance cycles of storage and transport vessels
  28. 28. Sensors Expo 2013 Evigia Systems About Evigia Systems Contact: Dr. Navid Yazdi CEO, Evigia Systems, Inc. Twitter: @EvigiaRFID 3810 Varsity Drive Ann Arbor, MI 48108 (734) 302-1140 • Evigia Systems (Ann Arbor, MI) develops wireless sensing, identification and tracking products and integrated solutions for military, security, and commercial applications • Expertise in MEMS-based sensor development, integrated multi-sensors, robust wireless communication, ASIC design, and Active RFID systems • Focus on delivering sensing technology with smaller form factors, higher energy efficiency, increased functionality, and lower production costs