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Risk factor Cryptosporidium

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ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSFERS OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM
OOCYSTS IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS OF HAITI
BALTHAZARD-ACCOU, Ketty1, PATRICE, Agnamey2, CLERVIL, Elmyre1, and EMMANUEL,
Evens1, (1) Universite Quisqueya, 218, Avenue Jean Paul II, Haut de Turgeau, Port-au-
Prince, HT6114, Haiti, kettybal@gmail.com, (2) Universite Picardie Jules Verne, Faculté de
médecine et CHU d’Amiens, Amiens, 80054, France

Cryptosporidium are protozoan parasites that infect the intestines of many vertebrates,
including humans. They cause cryptosporidiosis; one of the main traits of chronic diarrhea in
immunocompromised patients infected with HIV and acute diarrhea in young children. In Haiti,
the intestinal cryptosporidiosis is caused by at least three species: Cryptosporidium hominis,
C. parvum and C. felis wich are responsible for 17% of acute diarrhea in children less than 2
years and 30% of chronic diarrhea in patients infected with HIV. Transmission of Cryptosporidium
oocysts is often caused by the ingestion of contaminated food or water. In previous studies,
Cryptosporidium oocysts have been detected in surface water and groundwater from three
major cities of Haiti: Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitian and Les Cayes. Significant concentrations
from 4 to 1274 oocysts in 100 liters of filtered water were determined in Port-au-Prince; in the
city of Cap-Haitian 741 to 6088 and concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 oocysts have been
obtained in groundwater from Les Cayes. Results indicate that water resources in Haiti are widely
contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocysts. Therefore, they may constitute potential sources of
biological risk particularly for human health. Since Cryptosporidium oocysts are biological colloids,
it is important to analyze the different risk factors associated with transfers of Cryptosporidium
oocysts in aquatic ecosystems of Haiti.

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Risk factor Cryptosporidium

  1. 1. 62nd Annual Meeting of the Southeastern San Juan, Porto Rico, USA, March 20 – 21 2013 Ketty Balthazard-Accou*, Patrice Agnamey, Elmyre Clervil, Evens Emmanuel Laboratoire de Qualité de l’Eau et de l’Environnement Université Quisqueya 218, Avenue Jean Paul II, Haut de Tugeau, Port-au-Prince, Haiti Email: kettybal@gmail.com
  2. 2. Cryptosporidium in Haiti Cryptosporidiosis is responsible for 17.5% of acute diarrhea in children less than 2 years-old 30% of chronic diarrhoeas in patientsdiarrhoeas in patients infected by HIV In Port-au-Prince, Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in surface water and in public water supplies
  3. 3. Global view on sanitation in Haiti Feco-oral
  4. 4. Port-au-Prince groundwater are exposed to latrine effluents, septic tanks and urban wastewater Since limestone is the main geological factor of Haiti, and all the cities have the same urban characteristics: groundwater of Research considerations characteristics: groundwater of Les Cayes, and Cap-Haitian are also contaminated by Cryptosporidium
  5. 5. Analyze the different risk factors associated with transfers of Cryptosporidium oocysts in groundwater from three important cities of Haiti: Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitian and Purpose of this work of Haiti: Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitian and les Cayes
  6. 6. Framework of health risk assessment (NRC, 1983)
  7. 7. Risks factors A risk factor is an element belonging to an individual or originating from an environment liable to cause an illness, trauma or another negative impact on the development of the human organism (Fougeyrollas et al, 1998).(Fougeyrollas et al, 1998).
  8. 8. Conceptual model TransferTarget Management of urban sanitation services (wastewater, human excreta and animal) Soil Groundwater TargetEffects C.h. : Human consumers (cryptosporidiosis: acute diarrhea and chronic abdominal pain, fever and myalgia; …) C.h. Groundwater Tap water
  9. 9. Studies sites Materials and methods
  10. 10. Les Cayes,South County’s chief city Map of the hydrological south west region of Haiti
  11. 11. Port-au-Prince, the national capital of the Republic of Haiti Map of the hydrological center south region of Haiti
  12. 12. Map of Cap-Haïtian water cathment North County’s chief city
  13. 13. Sampling points The water samples were collected from the 21 sites in the conditions defined by standard AFNOR-NFT 90-455 of July 2001. Water samples were taken in December 2009, October 2010 and January 2011.October 2010 and January 2011. The sampling points were chosen according to the water supply points of the population (reservoir, drilling, spring, surface and groundwater).
  14. 14. Filtration of the samples In the field Water filtration using Envirochek® cartridgescartridges At the laboratory immunomagnetic separation (IMS) immunofluorescence essay (FA).
  15. 15. Table 1: Results of Cryptosporidium oocysts detection
  16. 16. Conclusion and Perspectives • The contamination of untreated public water supplies used for human consumption in the cities of Port-au- Prince, Cap-Haitian and Les Cayes by Cryptosporidium is a significant environmental and public health concerns. • Since groundwater is contaminated by• Since groundwater is contaminated by Cryptosporidium, it seems interesting to study the hydrodynamic and transfer mechanisms governing the presence of these protozoan in saturated zone. • In order to develop appropriate treatments, it should be necessary to study the efficiency of some materials (activated carbon, zeolite, and quartz) in oocysts adsorption.
  17. 17. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTIONFOR YOUR ATTENTION

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