Historical Background Main Events and Behavioral Legacies
History Timeline
Focus on Key Concepts to explain Behavioral Legacies <ul><li>Group Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Expression </l...
Group Orientation <ul><li>Kinship </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Ie  (household) system </li></ul><ul><li...
Individual Expression <ul><li>Arts </li></ul><ul><li>Political and economic ambition </li></ul><ul><li>Private property </...
Universal Principles <ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Democ...
Historical Background I:  A Merging of Cultures Japanese family based organization Chinese bureaucratic administration Tim...
Introduction: A Merging of Cultures <ul><li>To what  extent did the Japanese adopt Chinese culture? </li></ul><ul><li>In w...
The Main Events <ul><li>The establishment of Japanese kinship organization </li></ul><ul><li>The adoption of Chinese cultu...
Behavioral Legacies <ul><li>Merging of family and bureaucratic organization </li></ul><ul><li>Figureheads and consensus ad...
The establishment of Japanese kinship organization <ul><li>Prehistoric Jomon and Yayoi cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Establis...
 
The adoption of Chinese culture and Administration <ul><li>The Buddhist vector </li></ul><ul><li>Writing, music, architect...
The rise  of the Samurai <ul><li>The breakdown of imperial administration and land control </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of t...
Genji Monogatari  vs.  Ran <ul><li>What are the values and interests of Prince Genji? Of the Women in his life? </li></ul>...
Behavioral Legacies <ul><li>Merging of family and bureaucratic organization </li></ul><ul><li>Figureheads and consensus ad...
Merging of family and bureaucratic organization <ul><li>Merging of informal and formal hierarchic organizations </li></ul>...
Figureheads and consensus administration <ul><li>Leader in name only, most decisions made by next  rank of advisors togeth...
Classical Expression <ul><li>Poetry, calligraphy, painting, perfumes, flowers, music, theatre, gardens, architecture. </li...
 
Cooperation amongst competitors: Buddhism and Shinto <ul><li>Competing for followers </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism incorporat...
 
Samurai spirit:  loyalty & self-discipline <ul><li>Samurai expected to sacrifice himself for lord in battle and obedience ...
Summing Up: A Merging of Cultures <ul><li>To what  extent did the Japanese adopt Chinese culture? </li></ul><ul><li>In wha...
Historical Background II:  Feudalism to Modernism Hierarchic organization of society 1603-1868 The spread of individualism...
Introduction <ul><li>How did Japanese society become structured in the Tokugawa period? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the co...
Main Events <ul><li>Tokugawa Period </li></ul><ul><li>Unification and centralization </li></ul><ul><li>Social stratificati...
Behavioral Legacies <ul><li>The formalization of the Ie (household system) </li></ul><ul><li>The culture of the floating w...
Unification and Centralization <ul><li>Three Generals: Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu </li></ul><ul><li...
Transportation, Alternate Residence and the Creation of a System of Cities
 
Social Stratification <ul><li>Samurai and Nobility ( Shi ) </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers ( No ) </li></ul><ul><li>Craftsmen ( ...
“The Opening of Japan” <ul><li>The degradation of the Tokugawa system </li></ul><ul><li>The Black Ships </li></ul><ul><li>...
 
The Drive for Modernization <ul><li>“Rich country, strong army” </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign delegations and expertise </li><...
Behavioral Legacies <ul><li>Tokugawa </li></ul><ul><li>The formalization of the family system to the Ie (household system)...
Formalization of the Ie (household system) <ul><li>Samurai kinship became model for family and other organizations </li></...
The culture of the floating world <ul><li>Expression in wood block printing, bunraku, kabuki, sumo, haiku, netsuke, garden...
 
 
 
 
 
Private property and individualism <ul><li>The end of formal feudal stratification </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of private ...
Nationalism <ul><li>From preservation of Shogun lineage to preservation of nation </li></ul><ul><li>The Emperor as god and...
Summing Up <ul><li>How did Japanese society become structured in the Tokugawa period? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the conf...
Historical Background III:  Authoritarianism to Democracy The military takes control 1900-1945 Democracy becomes rooted 19...
Introduction <ul><li>How authoritarian was Japan before World War II? </li></ul><ul><li>What legacies of authoritarian Jap...
Main Events <ul><li>Fragile democracy crushed by militarism </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat in World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Ame...
Behavioral Legacies <ul><li>Entrenched authoritarianism and nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Entrenched opposition to authori...
Fragile Democracy Crushed by Militarism <ul><li>The constitution and its weakness </li></ul><ul><li>The growth of party po...
 
 
Defeat in World War II <ul><li>American reaction to Japan’s expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Pearl Harbour, Hong Kong, and Sing...
 
American Occupation and Reforms <ul><li>Supreme Allied Command Pacific (SCAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Social, economic & politic...
The Political and Economic Miracles <ul><li>The solidification of democracy </li></ul><ul><li>The income doubling plan </l...
Behavioral Legacies <ul><li>Entrenched authoritarianism and nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Entrenched opposition to authori...
Entrenched Authoritarianism & Nationalism <ul><li>American preservation of wartime bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Recapture...
Entrenched Opposition to Authoritarianism & Nationalism <ul><li>Rejection of wartime values and support of democracy </li>...
Universal Expansion of Individual Rights <ul><li>Expansion of voting rights </li></ul><ul><li>End of family registration s...
Corporatism & Entrepreneurialism <ul><li>Development of Japanese management system </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of salaryman...
Summing Up <ul><li>How authoritarian was Japan before World War II? </li></ul><ul><li>What legacies of authoritarian Japan...
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3japan history

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3japan history

  1. 1. Historical Background Main Events and Behavioral Legacies
  2. 2. History Timeline
  3. 3. Focus on Key Concepts to explain Behavioral Legacies <ul><li>Group Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Expression </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Principles </li></ul>
  4. 4. Group Orientation <ul><li>Kinship </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Ie (household) system </li></ul><ul><li>Group decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai spirit (loyalty) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Individual Expression <ul><li>Arts </li></ul><ul><li>Political and economic ambition </li></ul><ul><li>Private property </li></ul><ul><li>Individual rights </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai spirit (self-discipline) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Universal Principles <ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul>
  7. 7. Historical Background I: A Merging of Cultures Japanese family based organization Chinese bureaucratic administration Time Period: 300-1456 AD Classical Period: 500-1192 Feudal Period: 1192-1456
  8. 8. Introduction: A Merging of Cultures <ul><li>To what extent did the Japanese adopt Chinese culture? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways were the cultures compatible or incompatible? </li></ul><ul><li>What behavioral legacies have they left for today? </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Main Events <ul><li>The establishment of Japanese kinship organization </li></ul><ul><li>The adoption of Chinese culture and Administration </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of the Samurai </li></ul>
  10. 10. Behavioral Legacies <ul><li>Merging of family and bureaucratic organization </li></ul><ul><li>Figureheads and consensus administration </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Expression </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation amongst competitors: Buddhism and Shinto </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai spirit: loyalty & self-discipline </li></ul>
  11. 11. The establishment of Japanese kinship organization <ul><li>Prehistoric Jomon and Yayoi cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of Uji (clan/family) based social and political organization </li></ul><ul><li>Yamato establishes first control over large area </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with Korea and China </li></ul>
  12. 13. The adoption of Chinese culture and Administration <ul><li>The Buddhist vector </li></ul><ul><li>Writing, music, architecture, technology </li></ul><ul><li>The Imperial system (with continuous succession) </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucratic administration (with kinship based selection) </li></ul><ul><li>Idealized cities and land control </li></ul>
  13. 14. The rise of the Samurai <ul><li>The breakdown of imperial administration and land control </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of the warrior bands </li></ul><ul><li>The Kamakura Shogunate (1192) </li></ul><ul><li>The Ashikaga Shogunate (1368) </li></ul><ul><li>The Warring States (1467-1573) </li></ul>
  14. 15. Genji Monogatari vs. Ran <ul><li>What are the values and interests of Prince Genji? Of the Women in his life? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the values and interests of of the samurai and the women in Ran? </li></ul>
  15. 16. Behavioral Legacies <ul><li>Merging of family and bureaucratic organization </li></ul><ul><li>Figureheads and consensus administration </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Expression </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation amongst competitors: Buddhism and Shinto </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai spirit: loyalty & self-discipline </li></ul>
  16. 17. Merging of family and bureaucratic organization <ul><li>Merging of informal and formal hierarchic organizations </li></ul><ul><li>A basis of parent-child (Oyabun-kobun) relations </li></ul><ul><li>Classical examples: Imperial family, Imperial administration, Shogunate </li></ul><ul><li>Present examples: corporations, political parties, arts, and sports. </li></ul><ul><li>Tension between promotion of relatives and opportunities for merit </li></ul>
  17. 18. Figureheads and consensus administration <ul><li>Leader in name only, most decisions made by next rank of advisors together </li></ul><ul><li>Classical examples: Imperial administration, Shogunates. </li></ul><ul><li>Present examples: emperor, companies, government administration, ministries. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisiveness and speed can be an issue </li></ul>
  18. 19. Classical Expression <ul><li>Poetry, calligraphy, painting, perfumes, flowers, music, theatre, gardens, architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Life, love and art of the courtly life (miyabi-refinement & mono no aware-sadness at things passing). </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai emulation, practice and sponsorship. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism: Monastic, Salvation, Zen(cultivated poverty of simplicity and rusticity). </li></ul>
  19. 21. Cooperation amongst competitors: Buddhism and Shinto <ul><li>Competing for followers </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism incorporated Shinto practices and offered new ones </li></ul><ul><li>Shinto adopted Buddhist use of arts and texts </li></ul><ul><li>Shared space and followers </li></ul><ul><li>Most Japanese remain both Shinto and Buddhist; people and groups can compete and cooperate at same time </li></ul>
  20. 23. Samurai spirit: loyalty & self-discipline <ul><li>Samurai expected to sacrifice himself for lord in battle and obedience </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty to lord based on return of favor in land, defense, gains from war. </li></ul><ul><li>The role of Zen: military training & arts </li></ul><ul><li>Developed into Bushido , administrative performance, corporate loyalty </li></ul>
  21. 24. Summing Up: A Merging of Cultures <ul><li>To what extent did the Japanese adopt Chinese culture? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways were the cultures compatible or incompatible? </li></ul><ul><li>What behavioral legacies have they left for today? </li></ul>
  22. 25. Historical Background II: Feudalism to Modernism Hierarchic organization of society 1603-1868 The spread of individualism and nationalism 1868-1900
  23. 26. Introduction <ul><li>How did Japanese society become structured in the Tokugawa period? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the conflicting bases of this structure? </li></ul><ul><li>How did that structure begin to change after the opening of Japan? </li></ul><ul><li>How was centralization reinforced after the opening of Japan? </li></ul>
  24. 27. Main Events <ul><li>Tokugawa Period </li></ul><ul><li>Unification and centralization </li></ul><ul><li>Social stratification </li></ul><ul><li>Meiji Restoration Period </li></ul><ul><li>“The opening of Japan” </li></ul><ul><li>The drive for Modernization </li></ul>
  25. 28. Behavioral Legacies <ul><li>The formalization of the Ie (household system) </li></ul><ul><li>The culture of the floating world </li></ul><ul><li>Private property and individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul>
  26. 29. Unification and Centralization <ul><li>Three Generals: Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu </li></ul><ul><li>Land survey and allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate attendance of lords (daimyo) </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of a system of cities </li></ul><ul><li>Closure of the country </li></ul>
  27. 30. Transportation, Alternate Residence and the Creation of a System of Cities
  28. 32. Social Stratification <ul><li>Samurai and Nobility ( Shi ) </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers ( No ) </li></ul><ul><li>Craftsmen ( Ko ) </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants ( Sho ) </li></ul><ul><li>(Floating world ( Ukiyo) people and Eta ) </li></ul>
  29. 33. “The Opening of Japan” <ul><li>The degradation of the Tokugawa system </li></ul><ul><li>The Black Ships </li></ul><ul><li>The Meiji restoration </li></ul><ul><li>The unequal treaties </li></ul>
  30. 35. The Drive for Modernization <ul><li>“Rich country, strong army” </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign delegations and expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Reform of government institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Business takes over industrialization </li></ul>
  31. 36. Behavioral Legacies <ul><li>Tokugawa </li></ul><ul><li>The formalization of the family system to the Ie (household system) </li></ul><ul><li>The culture of the floating world </li></ul><ul><li>Meiji Restoration </li></ul><ul><li>Private property and individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul>
  32. 37. Formalization of the Ie (household system) <ul><li>Samurai kinship became model for family and other organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Passing on of household heritage intact more important than individual </li></ul><ul><li>Main and branch households </li></ul><ul><li>Graves, Iemoto systems of arts, businesses </li></ul>
  33. 38. The culture of the floating world <ul><li>Expression in wood block printing, bunraku, kabuki, sumo, haiku, netsuke, gardens, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Merchant wealth, commoner creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai sensibilities, merchant emulation </li></ul>
  34. 44. Private property and individualism <ul><li>The end of formal feudal stratification </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of private property </li></ul><ul><li>Beginnings of constitutional rights </li></ul>
  35. 45. Nationalism <ul><li>From preservation of Shogun lineage to preservation of nation </li></ul><ul><li>The Emperor as god and national symbol </li></ul><ul><li>The military connection </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction against westernization </li></ul>
  36. 46. Summing Up <ul><li>How did Japanese society become structured in the Tokugawa period? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the conflicting bases of this structure? </li></ul><ul><li>How did that structure begin to change after the opening of Japan? </li></ul><ul><li>How was centralization reinforced after the opening of Japan? </li></ul>
  37. 47. Historical Background III: Authoritarianism to Democracy The military takes control 1900-1945 Democracy becomes rooted 1945-Now
  38. 48. Introduction <ul><li>How authoritarian was Japan before World War II? </li></ul><ul><li>What legacies of authoritarian Japan remain today? </li></ul><ul><li>How strongly is democracy rooted in Japan? </li></ul><ul><li>How did group orientation and individual expression develop in Japan’s post-war economy? </li></ul>
  39. 49. Main Events <ul><li>Fragile democracy crushed by militarism </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat in World War II </li></ul><ul><li>American Occupation and reforms </li></ul><ul><li>The political and economic miracles </li></ul>
  40. 50. Behavioral Legacies <ul><li>Entrenched authoritarianism and nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Entrenched opposition to authoritarianism and nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Universal expansion of individual rights </li></ul><ul><li>Corporatism and entrepreneurialism </li></ul>
  41. 51. Fragile Democracy Crushed by Militarism <ul><li>The constitution and its weakness </li></ul><ul><li>The growth of party politics </li></ul><ul><li>Japan’s imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>The army gets out of control </li></ul>
  42. 54. Defeat in World War II <ul><li>American reaction to Japan’s expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Pearl Harbour, Hong Kong, and Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>The Asia-Pacific War </li></ul><ul><li>The Atomic Bombs </li></ul>
  43. 56. American Occupation and Reforms <ul><li>Supreme Allied Command Pacific (SCAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Social, economic & political reforms </li></ul><ul><li>The peace constitution </li></ul><ul><li>The reverse course </li></ul>
  44. 57. The Political and Economic Miracles <ul><li>The solidification of democracy </li></ul><ul><li>The income doubling plan </li></ul><ul><li>Japan as Number One </li></ul><ul><li>The bursting of the bubble </li></ul>
  45. 58. Behavioral Legacies <ul><li>Entrenched authoritarianism and nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Entrenched opposition to authoritarianism and nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Universal expansion of individual rights </li></ul><ul><li>Corporatism and entrepreneurialism </li></ul>
  46. 59. Entrenched Authoritarianism & Nationalism <ul><li>American preservation of wartime bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Recapture of central power </li></ul><ul><li>A directed and protected economy </li></ul><ul><li>A few fanatics </li></ul>
  47. 60. Entrenched Opposition to Authoritarianism & Nationalism <ul><li>Rejection of wartime values and support of democracy </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of the socialists and communists </li></ul><ul><li>Support for peace constitution and fight against flag and anthem </li></ul>
  48. 61. Universal Expansion of Individual Rights <ul><li>Expansion of voting rights </li></ul><ul><li>End of family registration system </li></ul>
  49. 62. Corporatism & Entrepreneurialism <ul><li>Development of Japanese management system </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of salaryman middle class </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on small and medium sized firms </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial tradition </li></ul>
  50. 63. Summing Up <ul><li>How authoritarian was Japan before World War II? </li></ul><ul><li>What legacies of authoritarian Japan remain today? </li></ul><ul><li>How strongly is democracy rooted in Japan? </li></ul><ul><li>How did group orientation and individual expression develop in Japan’s post-war economy? </li></ul>

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