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Pathways to cleaner energy

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Comparison of different sources of energy and their applications. 2006

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Pathways to cleaner energy

  1. 1. © Chevron 2005 1Pathways to Cleaner EnergyEve S. SpruntChevronManager University Partnership Program
  2. 2. © Chevron 2005 2The New EnergyEquation• Rising Demand• Shrinking Capacity• Political Turmoil
  3. 3. © Chevron 2005 3Mike Lynch’s comparisonof oil price forecasts withactual oil prices
  4. 4. © Chevron 2005 4
  5. 5. © Chevron 2005 5ConventionalResourcesGas HydratesExtra Heavy OilBitumenOil ShaleStranded Natural GasGas ShaleWhere Will Future Energy Come From?
  6. 6. © Chevron 2005 6In Times of Emergency – we need energy
  7. 7. © Chevron 2005 7In Times of Emergency,Energy is the Currency of Survival
  8. 8. © Chevron 2005 8Everything Leaves a Footprint
  9. 9. © Chevron 2005 9• Global climate change• Easy oil growing scarce• Peak oil − Fact or myth?• Increasing barriers to accessing resources• Energy security: Mounting concernsIssues Overload:More Questions Than Answers
  10. 10. © Chevron 2005 10Emissions Progress1970 TodayOne 1970 car polluted as much as 33 of today’s cars=
  11. 11. © Chevron 2005 11HydrogenGasolineEnergy DensityHydrogen needs 3,500 timesthe volume of gasoline ** At room temperature-pressure
  12. 12. © Chevron 2005 12Hydrogen: Promises and Pitfalls• Scarce in elementalform in nature• Many possible ways togenerate hydrogen• Difficult to transportand store
  13. 13. © Chevron 2005 13BiomassOrganic WasteWoodGeothermalWaveWindHydroSolarNuclearNuclearNatural GasCoalCrude OilReformerGasifierGasifierGasifierGasifierGasifierElectric Power PlantGeneratorGeneratorGeneratorPhoto-voltaicElectric Power PlantElectrolyzerHydrogenHydrogen: Diverse Sources
  14. 14. © Chevron 2005 14Greenhouse Gas EmissionsCarbonDioxideEmissions*05.611.216.822.428.033.6DieselConventionalEnginesHybridHydrogen Versus the HybridsHydrogenFuel CellVehicles*kg/100 km CO2 equivalent; total fuel cycle basis†Hydrogen from natural gas 15% gasoline, 85% ethanol by volume. Net CO2 shown depends on feedstock and processing used.GasolineCNGHydrogen†HybridGasolineHybridDieselHybridHydrogen†Hybrid† withSequestrationHybrid†RenewableHydrogenBio-Ethanol(E85) Range
  15. 15. © Chevron 2005 15Geothermal4%Solar0.2%Wind3%Wood/Biomass3%MunicipalSolidWaste6%Hydro-electric84%U.S. Electricity in 20023,650 Billion kWhSource: EIA, 2004 Annual Energy Outlook
  16. 16. © Chevron 2005 16• Strengthens energydiversity• Yields ultra-low sulfurdiesel fuel• Preserves diesel’s greenhouse gas and km/LadvantagesGas-to-Liquids
  17. 17. © Chevron 2005 17Sequestration: High Potential forEnergy Security/Environmental Gains• Many countries have large coal reserves• CO2 Sequestration:A critical elementin clean-coalstrategy?
  18. 18. © Chevron 2005 18Solar Tradeoffs:Chevron’sBakersfield Story• 4,800 panels• 2.43 hectare of land• Provides lessthan 1% offield’s energy
  19. 19. © Chevron 2005 19Challenges• Provide energy for global economy• Reduce environmental impact• Increase energy security
  20. 20. © Chevron 2005 20Many Alternatives…
  21. 21. © Chevron 200505/31/05 Sigworth G050244-Scenarios.ppt21Just as the Stone age did not end because ofshortage of stones, the oil era will not end becausewe ran out of oil. It will end when a betteralternative emerges. Sheikh Yamani

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